## 8.7 Thermografische Verfahren

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#### Dokumenttyp

- Zeitschriftenartikel (45) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Active thermography (10)
- NDT (10)
- Thermography (10)
- Aktive Thermografie (4)
- Flash thermography (4)
- GFRP (4)
- Non-destructive testing (4)
- Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung (4)
- CFRP (3)
- Flash excitation (3)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 8 Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung (45)
- 8.7 Thermografische Verfahren (45)
- 1 Analytische Chemie; Referenzmaterialien (2)
- 1.3 Strukturanalytik (2)
- 5 Werkstofftechnik (2)
- 5.2 Experimentelle und modellbasierte Werkstoffmechanik (2)
- 8.4 Akustische und elektromagnetische Verfahren (2)
- 4 Material und Umwelt (1)
- 4.2 Materialien und Luftschadstoffe (1)
- 5.1 Materialographie, Fraktographie und Alterung technischer Werkstoffe (1)

Pulse and flash thermography are experimental techniques which are widely used in the field of non-destructive testing for materials characterization and defect detection. We recently showed that it is possible to determine quantitatively the thickness of semitransparent polymeric solids by fitting of results of an analytical model to experimental flash thermography data, for both transmission and reflection configuration. However, depending on the chosen experimental configuration, different effective optical absorption coefficients had to be used in the model to properly fit the respective experimental data, although the material was always the same. Here, we show that this effect can be explained by the wavelength dependency of the absorption coefficient of the sample material if a polychromatic light source, such as a flash lamp, is used. We present an extension of the analytical model to describe the decay of the heating irradiance by two instead of only one effective absorption coefficient, greatly extending its applicability. We show that using this extended model, the experimental results from both measurement configurations and for different sample thicknesses can be fitted by a single set of parameters. Additionally, the deviations between experimental and modeled surface temperatures are reduced compared to a single optimized effective absorption coefficient.

Im Bauwesen werden Polymerbeschichtungen auf Beton häufig eingesetzt um zum einen, ein bestimmtes Aussehen zu schaffen und zum anderen, das Bauteil vor Alterung, Verschleiß und Schädigung zu schützen. Für praktisch alle Ziele ist die Wirkung von der eigens dafür definierten Schichtdicke der Polymerbeschichtung abhängig. Daher wird die Dicke der Beschichtung nach erfolgtem Schichtauftrag überprüft. Für den in diesem Zusammenhang anspruchsvollen mineralischen Untergrund Beton stehen bislang allerdings nur zerstörende Prüfverfahren zur Verfügung. Aus diesem Grund wurden im Rahmen des Projektes IRKUTSK ein auf aktiver Thermografie basierendes Verfahren sowie ein Gerät für den vor-Ort-Einsatz entwickelt, mit dessen Hilfe eine zerstörungsfreie Schichtdickenbestimmung möglich ist. Hier wird ein kurzer Einblick in das zur Schichtdickenbestimmung entwickelte Thermografieverfahren gegeben. Die Besonderheiten bei der quantitativen Auswertung, die durch die Teiltransparenz der Polymerbeschichtungen auftreten, werden erläutert. Die Funktion des Verfahrens für einlagige Systeme wird anhand von Labormessungen mit verschiedenen optischen Quellen zur thermischen Anregung illustriert.

Flash thermography is widely used in non-destructive testing and materials characterisation. The use of analytical modelling utilizing the Laplace transform allows one to calculate the temperature transients of flash-heated samples and therefore characterize them by fitting of the results of model calculations to experimental data. However, for samples with high thermal diffusivity or very thin samples, the temperature transient is strongly influenced by the temporal shape of the heating pulse, especially in reflection configuration. To incorporate this into the model, the temporal shape of the heating pulse and its Laplace transform have to be known. Here we present a close phenomenological approximation of the temporal shape of pulses of Xe-flash lamps. It is a non-stitched solution, has a simple Laplace transform and is suitable for different lamps and energy settings. As an example for a practical application of the pulse shape approximation, we use it to determine the thickness of polymer samples with thicknesses down to 80 µm by means of flash thermography, both in transmission and reflection configuration. Using a rectangular pulse shape or a delayed Dirac pulse shape, the thickness results are very sensitive to the start time of the fit and an additional calibration is needed.

Thickness determination of semitransparent solids using flash thermography and an analytical model
(2017)

As groundwork for thickness determination of polymeric surface protection systems for concrete, we present a method for measuring the thickness of isolated semitransparent solids using flash thermography both in transmission and reflection configuration. Since standard models do not capture semitransparency, an advanced analytical model by Salazar et al. is applied. Physical material parameters are deduced by fitting experimental data from samples of well-known thickness. Using those, the thickness of samples of the material can be obtained by fitting, as demonstrated for different semitransparent polymer materials.

We investigate a single-pixel camera (SPC) that relies on non-mechanical scanning with a terahertz (THz) spatial light modulator (SLM) and Compressed Sensing (CS) for image generation. The camera is based on a 350 GHz multiplier source and a Golay cell detector. The SLM consists of a Germanium disc, which is illuminated by a halogen lamp. The light of the lamp is transmitted through a thin-film transistor (TFT) liquid crystal display (LCD). This enables the generation of light patterns on the Germanium disc, which in turn produce reflecting patterns for THz radiation. Using up to 1000 different patterns the pseudo-inverse reconstruction algorithm and the CS algorithm CoSaMP are evaluated with respect to image quality. It is shown that CS allows a reduction of the necessary measurements by a factor of three without compromising the image quality.

Spatial light modulators (SLM) can be used for many applications, including imaging and beam steering. With the emergence of THz SLMs being able to control thousands of pixels, the aforementioned applications become feasible for the THz region. The degree of control that can be exerted with a SLM and in turn its usefulness directly depends on the light pattern it creates. The resulting light patterns can be quite different from the intended light patterns, due to systematic and random non-uniformities, especially for large THz wavelengths. Here we present results on the performance of a Germanium based THz SLM. These results enable the efficient application of Compressed Sensing techniques in THz SLM imaging settings.

Iterative numerical 2D-modelling for quantification of material defects by pulsed thermography
(2019)

This paper presents a method to quantify the geometry of defects such as flat bottom holes (FBH) and notches in opaque materials by a pulse thermography (PT) experiment and a numerical model. The aim was to precisely describe PT experiments in reflection configuration with a simple and fast numerical model in order to use this model and a fit algorithm to quantify defects within the material. The algorithm minimizes the difference between the time sequence of a line shaped region of interest (ROI) on the surface (above the defect) from the PT experiment and the numerical data. Therefore, the experimental data can be reconstructed with the numerical model. In this way, the defect depth of a notch or FBH and its width or diameter was determined simultaneously. A laser was used for heating which was widened to a top hat spatial profile to ensure homogeneous illumination (rectangular impulse profile in time). The numerical simulation considers heating conditions and takes thermal losses due to convection and radiation into account. We quantified the geometry of FBH and notches in steel and polyvinyl chloride plasticized (PVC-U) materials with an accuracy of < 5 %.

Pulse thermography (PT) has proven to be a valuable non-destructive testing method to identify and quantify defects in fiber-reinforced polymers. To perform a quantitative defect characterization, the heat diffusion within the material as well as the material parameters must be known. The heterogeneous material structure of glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRP) as well as the semitransparency of the material for optical excitation sources of PT is still challenging. For homogeneous semitransparent materials, 1D analytical models describing the temperature distribution are available.
Here, we present an analytical approach to model PT for laterally inhomogeneous semitransparent materials.We show the validity of the model by considering different configurations of the optical heating source, the IR camera, and the differently coated GFRP sample. The model considers the lateral inhomogeneity of the semitransparency by an additional absorption coefficient. It includes additional effects such as thermal losses at the samples surfaces, multilayer systems with thermal contact resistance, and a finite duration of the heating pulse. By using a sufficient complexity of the analytical model, similar values of the material parameters were found for all six investigated configurations by numerical fitting.

Photothermal radiometry with an infrared camera allows the contactless temperature measurement of multiple surface pixels simultaneously. A short light pulse heats the sample. The heat propagates through the sample by diffusion and the corresponding temperature evolution is measured at the sample’s surface by an infrared camera. The main drawback in radiometric imaging is the loss of the spatial resolution with increasing depth due to heat diffusion, which results in blurred images for deeper lying structures. We circumvent this information loss due to the diffusion process by using blind structured illumination, combined with a non-linear joint sparsity reconstruction algorithm. The structured illumination is realized by parallel laser lines from a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array controlled by a random binary pattern generator. By using 150 different patterns of structured illumination and our iterative joint sparsity algorithm, it was possible to resolve 1 mm thick lines at a distance down to 0.5 mm, which results in a resolution enhancement of approximately a factor of four compared to the resolution of 5.9 mm for homogenous illuminated thermographic reconstruction.

Recurrent non-destructive testing inspections are necessary to prevent damages in wind turbine rotor blades, but so far, there is no established method that detects defects in blades from greater distances – although this becomes increasingly important in the context of hardly accessible offshore wind parks.
Thermography is a promising method for detecting subsurface defects, but various challenges arise when this method is applied on-site to turbine blades in operation. Disturbing influences from the environment easily lead to a misinterpretation of thermograms (i.e. thermographic images), such as thermal signatures caused by reflections, dirt and other superficial inhomogeneities.
This study explores several problems and effects that arise, when (rotating) blades are monitored with thermography.
It will then be demonstrated that a meaningful defect inspection in this scenario is essentially restricted to a procedure following three steps: Firstly, calculating the so-called difference thermograms of all blade pairs for eliminating disturbing reflections. Secondly, identifying potentially relevant signals, which are associated neither with structural features nor with dynamical effects, and the identification of these signals’ allocations (through comparison of all difference thermograms with each other). And thirdly, comparing these signals with (processed) photos for excluding incorrect indications by surface effects. Unlike common thermographic analysis methods, which typically only include an aspect of this procedure, the composition presented in this contribution constitutes an advanced technique for minimizing disturbing influences in thermograms.
The proposed thermographic technique enables the detection of potential subsurface defects within rotating rotor blades from greater distances – such as from the ground, air crafts or vessels.