## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

### Filtern

#### Erscheinungsjahr

- 2017 (75) (entfernen)

#### Dokumenttyp

- Vortrag (31)
- Zeitschriftenartikel (19)
- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (18)
- Buchkapitel (3)
- Posterpräsentation (3)
- Dissertation (1)

#### Schlagworte

- Finite element method (7)
- Ground vibration (7)
- Axial force (5)
- Dynamic test (5)
- Truss structures (5)
- Inspection (4)
- Modal parameters (4)
- Model updating (4)
- Monitoring (4)
- Optimization technique (4)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (75) (entfernen)

Windeinwirkungen auf Freileitungen wurden in der Vergangenheit meist an exponierten Standorten bestimmt. In einem Langzeitversuch wurden seit 2012 an einer mit moderner Messtechnik ausgerüsteten 380-kV-Leitung der 50 Hertz Transmission GmbH, die im nicht besonders exponierten Gelände verläuft und somit den Leitungen im Netz entspricht, die Windgeschwindigkeiten entlang der Leiter und deren Auswirkungen auf die Stützpunkte gemessen. Die Messungen und die begleitenden Auswertungen bestätigen die heute verwendeten normativen Vorgaben für die Windwirkung auf die Leiter von Freileitungen, soweit dies in der relativ kurzen Zeit von fünf Jahren möglich ist.

Die Beanspruchung von Freileitungen erfolgt hauptsächlich durch Naturlasten. Dabei spielt für die bemessungsbestimmenden Lastfälle häufig der Wind eine entscheidende Rolle. Die Leiter, die mehrere hundert Meter weit spannen, tragen einen wesentlichen Anteil zur Gesamtbeanspruchung von Tragmasten bei, die wiederum Eigengewicht und Windlasten der Leiter zwischen zwei Abspannmasten abtragen. Wenn die Reaktion der Seile auf Starkwindereignisse abgeschätzt werden soll, müssen sowohl geometrische Nichtlinearitäten durch die großen Verformungen wie auch aerodynamische Nichtlinearitäten berücksichtigt werden. Insbesondere für die Anwendung und Berücksichtigung in Bemessungsvorschriften werden hierfür Vereinfachungen vorgenommen. In diesem Beitrag wird eine umfassende Untersuchung vorgestellt, über Naturmessungen, FEM-Simulationen kombiniert mit Windkanalversuchen und generierten Windzeitreihen. Ziel ist es, existierende Bemessungsvorschriften im Hinblick auf die Abschätzung der Beanspruchung aus Wind auf Leiter zu validieren. Hierbei sind insbesondere die Turbulenzannahmen und das dynamische Verhalten von weitgespannten Leitern wichtig, um die Extremschnittgrößen zu beschreiben. Mithilfe von so genannten Spannweitenfaktoren sollen die relevanten Parameter, wie Spannweite und Windturbulenz, bei der Beanspruchungsabschätzung berücksichtigt werden.

Vibration-based model updating and identification of multiple axial forces in truss structures
(2017)

Safety assessment of existing iron and steel truss structures requires the determination of the axial Forces and corresponding stresses in truss structural members. The results of the axial force determination can be integrated as part of a structural health Monitoring scheme for existing trusses. In this work, a methodology is proposed to identify multiple axial forces in members of a truss structure based on the modal parameters. Vibration test allows the identification of the natural frequencies and mode shapes, globally of the truss structure as well as locally of the individual bars. The method calibrates the numerical model of the truss structure using a genetic algorithm and strategic validation criteria. The validation criteria are based on the identified natural frequencies and global mode shapes of the truss structure as well as information of the axial forces in the individual bars of the truss, which are estimated from the natural frequencies and five amplitudes of the corresponding local mode shapes of the single bars based on an analytical-based algorithm. The calibration allows the identification of the axial forces in all bars of the truss structure. For mode pairing strategy, a technique makes use of the enhanced modal assurance criteria with the calculation of the modal strain energies.
Moreover, the modal strain energies are also used to select the relevant local mode shape of the individual bars. The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed methodology is verified by laboratory experiments on several truss structures. In situ tests on existing trusses are intended. The results from one of the laboratory tested structures, i.e. a two-bar system, are included in this paper.

Die Verdichtungsinjektion stellt ein Verfahren in der Geotechnik dar, bei dem der Baugrund durch Einpressen eines Mörtels mit hoher innerer Reibung verdichtet wird, ohne ihn aufzubrechen. Dieses Verfahren wird weithin verwendet zur Setzungskontrolle oder Erhöhung der Tragfähigkeit des Baugrunds unter neuen bzw. bestehenden Bauwerken.
Da die Injektion innerhalb des Bodens stattfindet, ist eine visuelle Beurteilung des Verdichtungserfolgs nicht möglich. Bisher beruht die Beurteilung bzw. Bewertung daher zumeist auf Erfahrungen. Ziel ist es somit mittels numerischer und experimenteller Untersuchungen eine Methode zu erschaffen, die es ermöglicht den Verdichtungserfolg nicht nur vorherzusagen sondern auch bezüglich der Materialparameter des Injektionsguts zu optimieren. Bezüglich der Numerik werden sowohl die grundsätzliche Eignung als auch die ersten notwendigen Anpassungen der impliziten "Material Point Method" zur Simulation einer Verdichtungsinjektion präsentiert. Für die experimentellen Untersuchungen wurde eigens ein Versuchsstand konstruiert, in dem es möglich ist, den Injektionsprozess an einer Glasscheibe zu beobachten und mittels digitaler Bildverarbeitung zu bewerten.

Offshore wind turbines enter unknown territory, especially where the foundations are concerned. This is because offshore wind power can only make use of the experience from the common offshore constructions used by the oil and gas industry to a limited extent. The offshore wind industry has tried to reduce foundation dimensions, especially the pile lengths, as much as possible compared with those of the oil and gas industry. This is because with the large number of wind turbines involved it can provide considerable economic advantages. On the other hand, the stability of the foundations is additionally at risk because due to the much larger number of cyclic loads they are subjected to it is very difficult to predict how they will behave. Since offshore wind farms are manufactured in series, every systematic fault in the foundation acts as a series fault for a large number of turbines. This calls for monitoring – and the right dimensions of pile foundation, the most common type of foundations used for wind turbines

Experiments have been performed at a test site with six different tracks with under-ballast plates. Hammer excitations of the soil and the tracks as well as train passages have been measured. The experimental observations are as follows. 1. The natural soil is stiff gravel whereas the railway dam consists of softer material. 2. The track compliance indicates a soft ballast if no train is present to provide a confining pressure. 3. The track response to the train passages can be split into a low-frequency region which is ruled by the static loads and a high-frequency region which is ruled by dynamic loads. 4. The track responses to hammer and track excitation indicate the presence of many voids between the sleepers and the ballast. 5. The ground vibrations are highly influenced by the soil. Due to the stiff soil at the site, the hammer and train induced spectra have a considerable high-frequency content. 6. A reduction of the ground vibration has been observed in a low-frequency range. The mitigation effects of an under-ballast plate are also investigated by calculations of a wavenumber domain model. The under-ballast plate has an effect at low frequencies where it distributes the static load over a longer track section. The impulse of the axle passage is longer and the frequencies are lower due to the plate stiffness. The axle impulses could yield a low-frequency ground vibration in an irregular soil with a randomly varying stiffness. This low-frequency part of the ground vibration (the scattered axle impulses) seem to be reduced by the under-ballast plate.

The damage detection and repair control have become important tasks for ballast and slab tracks. Measurements which compare the damaged and the repaired status of the same track section at different times, or which compare a damaged and an intact track section at the same time, have been successfully performed at some sites in Germany. The loss of contact between the sleeper and the track plate, between the track plate and the base plate, and between the base plate and the base layer have been analysed. The soil properties of each site have been measured and have been used to establish realistic track-soil models. Theoretical results of the wavenumber domain and the finite-element boundary element method have been compared with the experimental results. The observed experimental and theoretical results, changes in the time histories of displacements and velocities due to train passages and in the transfer functions (receptances) due to hammer impacts, are encouraging that these measurements can be used to detect track damage.

Suction Bucket Jackets (SBJ) are found as a suitable alternative to driven piles for the support of foundations for offshore wind energy converters. In the case of jackets or multipods, a predominant vertical load is to be expected. The effect of such a tensile loading is the generation of suction in the soil inside the bucket which leads to an increment of tensile capacity. This paper aims to study the bearing behaviour of a suction foundation by taking into account how the soil permeability and the loading rate influence the foundation behaviour. Moreover, after submitting the structure to a storm load, the bearing capacity is studied again, in order to see the effect of such a load on the bucket's bearing behaviour. This study is carried out by means of Finite Element numerical simulations based on the formulation of Biot's equations combined with a constitutive model that reproduces the key aspects of cyclic soil behaviour in the frame of Generalized Plasticity.

This paper deals with uncertainty considerations in damage diagnosis using the stochastic subspace-based damage detection technique. With this method, a model is estimated from data in a (healthy) reference state and confronted to measurement data from the possibly damaged state in a hypothesis test. Previously, only the uncertainty related to the measurement data was considered in this test, whereas the uncertainty in the estimation of the reference model has not been considered. We derive a new test framework, which takes into account both the uncertainties in the estimation of the reference model as well as the uncertainties related to the measurement data. Perturbation theory is applied to obtain the relevant covariances. In a numerical study the effect of the new computation is shown, when the reference model is estimated with different accuracies, and the performance of the hypothesis tests is evaluated for small damages. Using the derived covariance scheme increases the probability of detection when the reference model estimate is subject to high uncertainty, leading to a more reliable test.

The dynamics of un-isolated and isolated ballast tracks have been analysed by multi-beam models for the track and by a layered half-space model for the soil. The solution is calculated in frequency-wavenumber domain and transformed back to space domain by a wavenumber integral. This is a faster method compared to other detailed track-soil interaction methods and almost as fast as the widely used Winkler-soil method, especially if the compliances of the soil have been stored for repeated use. Frequency-dependent compliances and force transfer functions have been calculated for a variety of track and soil parameters. The ballast has a clear influence on the high-frequency behaviour whereas the soil is dominating the low-frequency behaviour of the track. A layering of the soil may cause a moderate track-soil resonance whereas more pronounced vehicle-track resonances occur with elastic track elements like rail pads, sleeper pads and ballast mats. Above these resonant frequencies, a reduction of the excitation forces follows as a consequence. The track deformation along the track has been analysed for the most interesting track systems. The track deformation is strongly influenced by the resonances due to layering or elastic elements. The attenuation of amplitudes and the velocity of the track-soil waves change considerably around the resonant frequencies. The track deformation due to complete trains have been calculated for different continuous and Winkler soils and compared with the measurement of a train passage showing a good agreement for the continuous soil and clear deviations for the Winkler soil model.

Offshore wind energy towers are dynamically loaded by waves and wind. Pile foundations provide stiffness and damping and should be properly calculated. A combined finite-element boundary-element method for the dynamic interaction of flexible structures and the soil has been developed. The flexible structures such as single piles or complete wind energy towers are modeled by the finite element method whereas the homogeneous or layered soil is modeled by the boundary element method which uses the Green’s functions for interior loads in the layered half-space to establish the dynamic stiffness matrix of the soil. Soils with a stiffness that is continuously increasing with depth can be modeled as multi-layer soils with step-wise increasing stiffness. The effects of different parameters such as the stiffness of the soil, the axial and bending stiffness of the pile, and the radius of the cylindrical contact area will be analysed for the different components of excitation (vertical, horizontal, rotation and coupling). The results can be determined as specific power laws which are different for the different load cases and for the different soil models (Winkler support, homogeneous continuum, continuum with increasing stiffness). The dynamic effect of radiation damping will be analysed by the frequency-dependent compliance functions. A clear layering of the soil can cause noticeable changes in the dynamic compliances as reductions of the stiffness and the damping in certain frequency ranges (below and around layer resonance frequencies). The distribution of the displacements along the pile help to explain the observed laws. An example of an offshore wind energy tower has been modeled and calculated for wind, wave and weight loads. The resonances of the tower are usually limited by the radiation damping which is strongest for a soft soil.

A complex measuring campaign has been performed including the simultaneous measurement of vehicle, track, and soil vibrations during train runs at 16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 100, 125, 140, 160 km/h, and impulse measurements of the passenger car, three track sections and the soil. A ballast track on the soil surface and on a concrete bridge have been investigated as well as a slab track in a tunnel. The evaluation and comparison of all these data shows a generally good agreement for all components if the strong low- and high-frequency cut-off characteristics of the layered and damped soil are incorporated. There is a strong causal correlation between the vehicle and the soil by the dynamic excitation forces and a weak relation between the track and the soil by the axle-sequence spectrum of the train. However, the similarity between the axle-impulse spectrum observed at the track and the spectra of the ground vibration lead to the special excitation component of “scattered axle impulses” which is pre-dominant at the far-field points of the soil.

A novel method for risk-based optimization of inspection and repair strategies for deteriorating structural systems has recently been proposed. The method defines heuristics at the system level to reduce the number of possible strategies. For each defined strategy, it computes the updated system failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories, and evaluates the associated costs and risk. The expected total service life costs and risk for a strategy are finally determined using Monte Carlo simulation. The optimal strategy minimizes the expected total service life costs and risk. We intend to adopt this approach to optimize inspection, monitoring and repair activities for offshore wind park support structures. As a first step, we simulate – in analogy to an offshore wind park – the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type frames. The performance is quantified in terms of the group’s system failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories. The underlying system model accounts for the structural redundancy of the frames and the interdependence among their failure events due to similar loading conditions. The model also captures stochastic dependence among the deterioration states of the frames. As part of the simulation process the a-priori unknown outcome of any planned inspection is generated conditional on the outcome of all previous inspections.

An efficient approach to reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems is presented, which considers stochastic dependence among element deterioration. Information on a deteriorating structure obtained through inspection or monitoring is included in the reliability assessment through Bayesian updating of the system deterioration model. The updated system reliability is then obtained through coupling the updated deterioration model with a probabilistic structural model. The underlying high-dimensional structural reliability problems are solved using subset simulation, which is an efficient and robust sampling-based algorithm suitable for such analyses. The approach is demonstrated in two case studies considering a steel frame structure and a Daniels system subjected to high-cycle fatigue.

A great deal is possible, even on the seabed. Together, wind and waves shake the foundations of the offshore wind turbines. "ere is also the “normal” current and ebb and #ow of the tides that are so distinctive in the North Sea. Pore water pressure can also occur on the seabed, loosening it. Where monopiles are involved, the worst case is that the stability of the whole turbine can be altered – even if such a monopile rammed into the seabed has a diameter of up to eight metres. Over half the planned offshore wind turbines in the North and Baltic Seas are to have monopile foundations, and over 40 % are to have multi-pile foundations, designed for example as a tripod. "is is why pile foundations and their loads deserve special attention. For one thing above all is to be avoided in plant operations, and that is the risk of turbine tilt.

We focus here on the major and still relevant issue of soil erosion by fluid flows, and more specifically on the determination of both a critical threshold for erosion occurrence and a kinetics that specifies the rate of eroded matter entrainment. A state-of-the-art is first proposed with a critical view on the most commonly used methods and erosion models. It is then discussed an alternative strategy, promoting the use of model materials that allow systematic parametric investigations with the purpose of identifying more precisely the local mechanisms responsible for soil particle erosion and ultimately quantifying both critical onsets and kinetics, possibly through existing or novel empirical erosion laws. Finally, we present and discuss several examples following this methodology, implemented either by means of experiments or numerical simulations, and coupling erosion tests in several particular hydrodynamical configurations with wisely selected mechanical tests.

This paper deals with vibration-based damage localization and quantification from output-only measurements. We describe an approach which operates on a data-driven residual vector that is statistically evaluated using information from a finite element model, without updating the parameters of the model. First, the damaged elements are detected in statistical tests, and second, the damage is quantified only for the damaged elements. We propose a new residual vector in this context that is based on the transfer matrix difference between reference and damaged states, and compare it with a previously introduced subspace-based residual. We show localization and quantification on both residuals in simulations.

In this paper a shear test, which helps to study local behavior of the soil-pile interaction, is modelled numerically with the Finite Element Method as a 2D plane strain problem. A normal pressure on top and shear displacement on side were applied. So far, the material behavior was considered elastic for the sake of simplicity.
The effect of thickness on contact elements and the presence of in plane stress has been highlighted. The purpose of the paper is to find a suitable contact element which represents more close to reality a soil-pile interaction problem under cyclic axial loading. Moreover, an insight on the presence of in-plane stress shows that it needs to be considered cautiously.

Im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit steht die numerische Modellierung der Fahrzeug-Fahrweg-Wechselwirkung von Eisenbahnfahrwegen, die auch für Fahrwege mit einer Diskontinuität einsetzbar ist. Der Fokus wurde hier auf Fahrwege mit einem Brückenbauwerk gelegt, weil es an den Übergängen zu einer erhöhten Beanspruchung kommt.
Daher wurde für den Fahrweg mittels der Finiten Elemente Methode (FEM) ein dreidimensionales Modell mit einer Lösung im Zeitbereich entwickelt, das die wesentlichen Elemente des Schienenverkehrs, das Fahrzeug, den Fahrwegoberbau und den Untergrund, enthält. Aufgrund der unendlichen Ausdehnung des Untergrundes wurde für den Rand des endlichen FE-Gebiets, die sogenannte Scaled Boundary Finite Element Methode (SBFEM) verwendet, welche ein semi-analytisches Verfahren ist und die Abstrahlungsbedingung erfüllt. Da dieses Verfahren sowohl zeitlich als auch räumlich global ist, kann es mitunter für lange Simulationszeiten sehr aufwendig sein. Deshalb wurde es mittels der Methode der reduzierten Basisfunktionen und einer Linearisierung der Beschleunigungs-Einflussmatrix modifiziert, wodurch das Berechnungsverfahren effizienter gestaltet werden konnte. Anhand von zwei analytischen Lösungen aus der Bodendynamik konnte das modifizierte Verfahren der SBFEM validiert werden.
Für ein Gleis auf homogenem Untergrund wurden mit Hilfe des gekoppelten FE-SBFE-Modells verschiedene Ergebnisse am Oberbau, im Boden und für die Ausbreitung von Erschütterungen berechnet, die sehr gut mit Ergebnissen aus der Literatur übereinstimmen. Zudem konnte das numerische Modell mit einer Schwingungsmessung an einer Schwelle eines realen Fahrwegs validiert werden.
Unter Anwendung des gekoppelten FE-SBFE-Modells wurde ein Fahrweg mit Brückenbauwerk untersucht, wobei eine Beurteilung und Optimierung des Übergangsbereichs unter Verkehrslast hinsichtlich des Langzeitverhaltens im Vordergrund stand. Anhand von einfachen Bewertungskriterien, die als Indikatoren für das Langzeitverhalten dienen können, wurden verschiedene konstruktive Optimierungsmaßnahmen für den Brückenübergangsbereich diskutiert, wie zum Beispiel die Gestaltung eines Hinterfüllungsbereiches oder der Einsatz elastischer Elemente (Zwischenlagen, Besohlungen, Unterschottermatten) im Fahrweg.
Das entwickelte numerische Modell für die Fahrzeug-Fahrweg-Wechselwirkung lässt sich ohne großen Aufwand auf weitere Problemstellungen von Übergangsbereichen erweitern, um spezifische konstruktive Optimierungsmaßnahmen zu untersuchen.

Here we investigate the physical mechanisms behind the surface erosion of a cohesive granular soil induced by an impinging jet by means of numerical simulations coupling fluid and grains at the microscale. The 2D numerical model combines the Discrete Element and Lattice Boltzmann methods (DEM-LBM) and accounts for the granular cohesion with a contact model featuring a paraboloidal yield surface. Here we review first the hydrodynamical conditions imposed by the fluid jet on a solid granular packing, turning then the attention to the impact of cohesion on the erosion kinetics. Finally, the use of an additional subcritical debonding damage model based on the work of Silvani and co-workers provides a novel insight into the internal solicitation of the cohesive granular sample by the impinging jet.

This paper is concerned with the inverse identification of the stress state in axially loaded slender members of iron and steel truss structures using measured dynamic data. A methodology is proposed based on the finite element model updating coupled with nature-inspired optimization techniques, in particular the particle swarm optimization. The numerical model of truss structures is calibrated using natural frequencies and mode shapes from vibration tests, as well as additional information of the axial forces in selected truss members based on the experimentally identified modal parameters. The results of the identification are the axial forces or corresponding stresses in truss structures and the joint rigidity in relation to pinned and rigid conditions. Attention is given to several examined aspects, including the effects of the axial tensile and compressive forces on the dynamic responses of trusses, mode pairing criteria, as well as modeling assumptions of joints and the use of a joint rigidity parameter. Considering the pairing of modes, it is performed by adapting an enhanced modal assurance criterion that allows the selection of desired clusters of degrees-of-freedom. Thus, information extracted from the measurements related to specific modes is utilized in a more beneficial way. For modeling of joints, the numerical model of a truss structure includes rotational springs of variable stiffness to represent semi-rigid connections. Moreover, a fixity factor is introduced for practical estimation of the joint flexibility. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by case studies involving simulated and laboratory experimental data.

The inverse identification of the stress state in axially loaded slender members of iron and steel truss structures using measured dynamic data is discussed. A methodology is proposed based on the finite element model updating coupled with nature-inspired optimization techniques, in particular the particle swarm optimization. The numerical model of truss structures is calibrated using natural frequencies and mode shapes from vibration tests, as well as additional information of the axial forces in selected truss members based on the experimentally identified modal parameters. The results of the identification are the axial forces or corresponding stresses in truss structures and the joint rigidity in relation to pinned and rigid conditions.

Based on the state-of-the-art research and advances in dynamic testing methods in the past decades, the research project aims to develop a non-destructive methodology to determine the axial forces and real stress state in existing truss structures making use of the vibration signatures of the natural frequencies and mode shapes. Furthermore, it aims to estimate the joint rigidity of trusses as well as to design structural health monitoring schemes for the safety of existing truss-type structures.

The choice of a pure cohesive or a pure frictional viscoplastic model to represent the rheological behaviour of a flowslide is of paramount importance in order to obtain accurate results for real cases. The principal Goal of the present work is to clarify the influence of the type of viscous model—pure cohesive versus pure frictional—with the numerical reproduction of two different real flowslides that occurred in 1966: the Aberfan flowslide and the Gypsum tailings impoundment flowslide. In the present work, a depth-integrated model based on the v-pw Biot–Zienkiewicz formulation, enhanced with a diffusion-like equation to account for the pore pressure Evolution within the soil mass, is applied to both 1966 cases. For the Aberfan flowslide, a frictional viscous model based on Perzyna viscoplasticity is considered, while a pure cohesive viscous model (Bingham model) is considered for the case of the Gypsum flowslide. The numerical approach followed is the SPH method, which has been enriched by adding a 1D finite difference grid to each SPH node in order to improve the description of the pore water evolution in the propagating mixture. The results obtained by the performed simulations are in agreement with the documentation obtained through the UK National Archive (Aberfan flowslide) and the International Commission of large Dams (Gypsum flowslide).

Compaction grouting involves the injection under high pressure of a highly viscous grout into the soil to displace and compact the surrounding soil without fracturing it. This ground improvement technique has been used widely for settlement control, increasing liquefaction resistance or bearing capacity of soil under new or existing structures. The work presented here aims to show some numerical and experimental investigations being carried out to understand the compaction mechanism and the soil-grout interaction, which is crucial for a successful usage of this technique.
To investigate compaction grouting in the laboratory under various stress conditions, a large-scale testing chamber has been developed. The grout was injected directly at the transparent vertical window of the chamber in order to investigate the possibility to monitor the injection process with a camera to measure the in-plane soil displacements and strains by means of the PIV technique. The other aim of this study is to develop a numerical model, which should be able to deal with large displacements and deformations and to simulate the change in shape of the distinct soil-grout interface solely as a result of the interaction between the injected grout and the surrounding soil. Based on these considerations, as a numerical technique, we employ the implicit Material Point Method based on a mixed formulation, which is implemented in the open source Kratos Multiphysics framework. In contrast to standard FE formulations, the usage of the MPM avoids both the numerical instability caused by extensive mesh distortion and the high computational costs of remeshing. The main results focus on the different evolution of the grout bulb inside the soil under various stress states.

This contribution presents some principles and some examples of the mitigation of railway-induced ground vibrations. The principles are different for the mitigation measures at the track, in the soil or at the building. Force transfer functions of isolated and un-isolated track-soil systems, reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes at walls and trenches in the soil, and the transfer of the (free-field) vibration amplitudes to the foundation amplitudes of the building are analysed. The mitigation effect can be calculated by exact or simplified formulas. Some examples with 3D (finite-element boundary-element), 2D (beam-on-support), and 1D track models, 2D and 1D soil models, detailed 3D building models and finite or infinite 1D wall-floor models are investigated to find out if simple models can be used for a satisfactory prediction of the mitigation effect. The 1D track examples show that the force transfer of the track without vehicle can be exactly calculated, whereas the total force transfer can be calculated approximately if appropriate wheelset masses per track length are used for the isolated and the un-isolated track. The mitigation effect of a filled trench is calculated by a 2D finite element model and the results compare with simple transmission formula if the stiffness per area rather than the wave impedances are used for the infill material. The base isolation of a building is analysed by a detailed 3D model and the results are similar to the analytic results of a single wall with floors on the soil. Other reduction measures as different floor and column dimensions are usually less effective so that the clearly best mitigation solution at a building is a partly or a complete base isolation.

Measurements on the vehicle-track interaction and the excitation of railway-induced ground vibration
(2017)

Two railway measurement campaigns have been performed in Germany and Switzerland which yield insight in the vehicle-track-soil interaction. The campaign in Germany has included simultaneous measurement of vehicle, track, and soil vibrations during train runs with 16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 100, 125, 140, 160 km/h, and impulse measurements of the passenger car, three track sections and the soil. Two ballast tracks, one on the soil surface and one on a concrete bridge, have been investigated as well as a slab track in a tunnel. Ten different sites in Switzerland have been measured for soil properties and train-induced ground vibrations, which allow to determine the excitation forces of the railway traffic. New axle-box measurements at some of the Swiss sites have been analysed to get further experimental evidence. All these measurements have been evaluated to characterize the excitation processes. Relations between vehicle vibration and ground vibration can be observed. The vehicle vibrations, namely the accelerations of the wheelsets, yield the dynamic forces due to the passage over the irregularities of the vehicle and the track. The ground vibrations are correlated to these dynamic forces to a certain extent. Some mid-frequency ground vibration amplitudes, however, are higher than expected from the dynamic excitation forces. The experimental observations can be explained by an irregular response to the passage of the static loads, that means the passage of the static loads over an irregular ballast or soil. This correct understanding of the excitation processes is important for the prediction as well as for the mitigation of railway induced ground vibrations.

Measurements on the vehicle-track interaction and the excitation of railway-induced ground vibration
(2017)

Measurements of downburst wind loading acting on an overhead transmission line in northern Germany
(2017)

Along an overhead transmission line in Northern Germany, a unique instrumentation of anemometers and force measurements is installed. Details of this test line with wind measurements along a horizontal axis are given. A recent event of a presumable downburst wind event is analyzed by means of available data and precedent works on thunderstorm analysis. The measured response of the conductors at the suspension tower is investigated and compared with time domain simulation of a finite element model.

Measurements of downburst wind loading acting on an overhead transmission line in Northern Germany
(2017)

Vorschlag zur möglichen Lebensdauerverlängerung einzelner Bauteile einer im Betrieb befindlichen Offshore-Windenergieanlage durch Beschreibung der Versagenswahrscheinlichkeiten
Beschreibung der Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit durch geeignete Schädigungsmodelle
Aktualisierung der Versagenswahrscheinlichkeiten aufgrund von Inspektionsergebnissen und möglichen Reparaturen auf Basis der Bayes‘schen Entscheidungstheorie
Quantifizierte Bewertung von Inspektionsmethoden und Reparaturmaßnamen im Hinblick auf die Zuverlässigkeit der Bauteile
Grundlage für Entscheidungen für Inspektionen und Reparaturen

Das Ermüdungsverhalten einzelner Schweißverbindungen in Offshore-Strukturen ist stark korreliert. Diese Korrelation entsteht zum einen durch die Verwendung gleicher Prozesse und Materialien bei der Herstellung der Verbindungen, zum anderen sind die ermüdungswirksamen Lasten an verschiedene Hospots im Tragwerk ebenfalls von einander abhängig. Hieraus ergeben sich Systemeffekte, die es ermöglichen, durch stichprobenartige Inspektion des Zustandes einzelner Hotspots auf den Zustand der verbleibenden Hotspots im Tragwerk zu schließen. Auf dieser Grundlage können Inspektions- und Reparaturstrategien für ermüdungsbeanspruchte Offshore-Strukturen mit Hilfe von riskobasierten Methoden optimiert werden. In diesem Vortrag wird weiterführend ein Konzept zur Einbindung von globalen Monitoringergebnissen in die risikobasierte Inspektionsplanung vorgestellt.

To cope with future requirements, the transfer capacities of distribution systems as well as of transmission systems in Europe need to be increased. Therefore repowering of existing overhead lines with high temperature low sag con-ductors (HTLS) can be one interesting possibility. Because of limited experiences with that technology, current re-search of TU Dresden, the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH investigates the ageing behaviour of several differ-ent HTLS technologies in a consortium with other Euro-pean partners. In this context, accelerated ageing tests of conductors and its corresponding fittings with combined mechanical and electrical loads are done. To evaluate the changes due to ageing, several mechanical tests of the con-ductors are carried out and the contact behaviour of the fittings is analysed.

In granular soils, long-term cyclically loaded structures can lead to an accumulation of irreversible strain by forming closed convective cells in the upper layer of the bedding. The size of the convective cell, its formation and grain migration inside this closed volume have been studied with reference to different stiffness of the embedded structure and different maximum force amplitudes applied at the head of the structure.
This relation was experimentally investigated by applying a cyclic lateral force to a scaled flexible vertical element embedded in a dry granular soil. The model was monitored with a camera in order to derive the displacement field by means of the PIV technique. Furthermore, the ratcheting convective cell was also simulated with DEM with the aim of extracting some micromechanical information. The main results regarded the different development, shape and size of the convection cell and the surface settlements.

Precise identification of the axial forces and corresponding stresses plays a crucial role for the preservation of existing truss structures. The assessment measures require non–destructiveness, minimum intervention and practical applicability. The work aims to develop a non–destructive methodology to identify the axial forces and stress states in iron and steel truss structures based on vibration measurements and the finite element model updating coupled with optimization techniques.

At present, Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs) operating in onshore and offshore wind farms are primary sources of renewable energy around the world. Cylindrical grouted sleeve connections are usually adopted in these WTG structures to connect the upper structure and foundation for ease of installation. These structures including grouted connections experience considerable adverse loading during their lifetimes. Settlements were reported inside similar connections used in energy structures especially oil and gas platforms, which were installed in last three decades. Thus, repair and rehabilitation of such connections in existing wind structures should also be planned ahead to keep them operating in the future. The nature of failure and crack generation in grouted connections are crucial prior to adopt a strengthening strategy. This pilot study is carried out to actualize the failure mechanism in the grouted connection, when subjected to axial loading. A novel reusable scaled cylindrical grouted connection with shear keys was designed and tested for its load bearing behaviour. The mechanical test was accompanied by classical measuring techniques (e.g. displacement transducer) as well as non-destructive measuring techniques (e.g. digital image correlation (DIC), acoustic emission analysis (AE)). The failure mechanism incorporating slippage of the shear keys and cracking of the grout was investigated. The capacity and applicability of such test mould were also discussed. The knowledge is expected to pave way towards repair of deteriorated grouted connections with similar geometry and failure pattern.

In dieser Blockveranstaltung lernen die Studierenden die Grundlagen der stahlbaulichen Bemessung zum Thema Stabilität. Inhalt ist eine kurze Einführung in die Problematik des Stabilitätsversagens. Danach wird eingegangen auf die Grundlagen des Bemessungsverfahrens nach EC 3, gefolgt von einer Nachweisführung anhand eines Beispiels.

Gerammte Stahlrohrpfähle sind das wesentlichste Gründungselement für Offshore-Konstruktionen. Typischerweise kommen diese als Monopiles oder als Mehrpfahlgründungen für Jacket-Konstruktionen zum Einsatz. Für die verhältnismäßig leichten Windenergieanlagen auf See wird bei Mehrpfahlgründungen regelmäßig die Zugtragfähigkeit maßgebend in der Bemessung. Zusätzlich sind Effekte aus wiederholten zyklischen Belastungen zu beachten, die sich auch auf die Zugtragfähigkeit auswirken können. Auch hier ergibt sich eine Besonderheit dadurch, dass im extremwertverteilten Lastspektrum wenige große (Wechsel-)Last-Amplituden entscheidend sind.
Die gründungstechnischen Herausforderungen bei der Planung solcher Windparks auf See wurden von einer Reihe von Untersuchungen begleitet. Eine Versuchsserie zur Zugtragfähigkeit von großmaßstäblichen Pfählen wurde auf dem Testgelände der BAM nahe Horstwalde bei Berlin durchgeführt. Hierfür wurde ein Testfeld mit 10 Pfählen angelegt. Die Pfähle wurden monoton auf Zug und zyklisch belastet. Vergleichend wurden dynamische Pfahlprobebelastungen durchgeführt. Zwei der Pfähle wurden mit Dehnungssensoren instrumentiert und es konnte die Pfahl-Boden-Interaktion abschnittsweise ermittelt werden.

Die Motivation für den hier vorgestellten Forschungsvorhaben liegt in den offenen Fragen bezüglich der Pfahlgründungen für Offshore Windenergieanlagen, die aktuell in zunehmender Zahl in den deutschen Gewässern installiert werden. Aus den unterschiedlichen Gründungsvarianten, die für den Offshore-Bereich normalerweise in Betracht kommen, zeichnen sich die Multi-Pfahl Varianten (also die Tripod- und Jacket-Gründungen) für eine vorwiegende axiale Komponente unter zyklischer Belastung aus. So werden die zyklische Momente aus Wind- und Wellenbelastung als zyklischen Kräftepaare an gegenüberliegenden Pfählen übertragen. Bei extremen Sturmereignissen können die Pfähle sogar aus den Druckbereich gezogen werden, was oft Bemessungsrelevant ist und technisch ein Neuland darstellt. Grundlegende Fragen zum Tragverhalten unter Zuglasten, wie z.B. die Minderung der Mantelreibung auf Zug oder die Möglichkeit einer zyklischen Degradation, bleiben noch offen und werden oft lediglich anhand von Annahmen berücksichtigt, wenn überhaupt.