## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Referierte Publikation

- ja (79) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Damage detection (9)
- Structural health monitoring (6)
- Ground vibration (5)
- Automated operational modal analysis (4)
- Resonance (4)
- Subspace methods (4)
- Wind turbine (4)
- Axial force (3)
- Continuous dynamic monitoring (3)
- Cyclic loading (3)
- Dynamic test (3)
- Environmental/operational effects (3)
- Fatigue (3)
- Numerical model (3)
- Overhead transmission lines (3)
- Truss structures (3)
- Aberfan flowslide (2)
- Aerodynamic damping (2)
- Assessment criteria (2)
- Bridge (2)
- Bridge transition zone (2)
- Crash-material (2)
- Crashkörper (2)
- Damage localization (2)
- Energiedissipation (2)
- Energy dissipation (2)
- Explosionsbeanspruchung (2)
- Fassadenverankerung (2)
- Façade connector (2)
- Feature extraction (2)
- Finite element method (2)
- Finite-element boundary-element method (2)
- Force transfer (2)
- Imperfektion (2)
- Layered soil (2)
- Mitigation (2)
- Modal parameters (2)
- Model updating (2)
- Monitoring (2)
- Numerical modelling (2)
- Offshore wind energy (2)
- Operational modal analysis (2)
- Optimization technique (2)
- Railway (2)
- Railway track (2)
- SPH (2)
- Soil-building interaction (2)
- Sommerfeld effect (2)
- Statistical tests (2)
- Track-soil interaction (2)
- Train-track-bridge-interaction (2)
- Vehicle model (2)
- Vehicle-track interaction (2)
- Vibration (2)
- Accelerated ageing (1)
- Acoplamiento Método de los Elementos de Contorno-Método de los Elementos Finitos (1)
- Ambient excitation (1)
- Ambient vibration (1)
- Anwachsen (1)
- Automated Modal Analysis for Tracking Structural Change during Construction and Operation Phases (1)
- Automated system identification (1)
- Axle box measurements (1)
- Axle-load spectra (1)
- Base isolation (1)
- Baustoffe (1)
- Bayesian analysis (1)
- Bearing capacitiy (1)
- Bemessungskonzeptblast loads (1)
- Berechnungs- und Bemessungsverfahren - Analysis and calculation (1)
- Blast loads (1)
- Boundary Element Method-Finite Element Method coupling (1)
- Box-Behnken (1)
- Building materials (1)
- CPT (1)
- Cable dynamics (1)
- Cohesionless granular soil (1)
- Compaction grouting (1)
- Compression (1)
- Compressive strength (1)
- Conception and design (1)
- Concrete (1)
- Conductors (1)
- Constitutive modeling (1)
- Continuously inhomogeneous soils (1)
- Covariance analysis (1)
- Crack (1)
- Crashmaterial (1)
- Cyclic loads (1)
- DUCON® (1)
- Damage (1)
- Damage quantification (1)
- Decision matrix analysis (1)
- Design guideBauwerke - Buildings (1)
- Detection of structural change (1)
- Deterioration (1)
- Digital Image Correlation (DIC) (1)
- Discrete element method (1)
- Downburst (1)
- Driving Versuche - Experimental set-ups (1)
- Ductility (1)
- Dynamic load test (1)
- Dynamic pile testing (1)
- Dynamic soil-structure interaction (1)
- Dynamik (1)
- E-modulus (1)
- Einseitenschweißung (1)
- Elastic track elements (1)
- Elastische Gebäudelagerung (1)
- Emission (1)
- Entwurf und Konstruktion (1)
- Entwurf und Konstruktion - Conception and Design (1)
- Environmental and operational effects (1)
- Environmental/operational effect (1)
- Ermüdung (1)
- Erosion onset (1)
- Evolutionary computing (1)
- Experimental optical techniques RIM-PLIF (1)
- Experimental verification (1)
- Experimentelle Untersuchung (1)
- Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (1)
- FEBEM and simplified methods (1)
- FEM-Simulation (1)
- Fatigue cracks (1)
- Fault detection (1)
- Feldversuch (1)
- Fibre Bragg grating (1)
- Fibre optic strain sensor (1)
- Field measurements (1)
- Field test (1)
- Field tests (1)
- Flexible plate (1)
- Floor amplification (1)
- Fluidised geomaterials (1)
- Fly ash (1)
- Foundation reduction (1)
- Frequency-wavenumber method (1)
- Geometric trackbed irregularities (1)
- Grouted connection (1)
- Grouting (1)
- Hard object collisions (1)
- High temperature low sag conductors (1)
- Historische Brückenlager (1)
- Hypothesis testing (1)
- Hypothesis tests (1)
- Impact (1)
- In-situ measurements (1)
- Inclination (1)
- Increase (1)
- Inspection (1)
- Inspection planning (1)
- Interacción dinámica suelo-estructura (1)
- Inverse problem (1)
- Jet erosion (1)
- Jet hydrodynamics (1)
- Joint capacity (1)
- Laboratory tests (1)
- Landslide propagation modelling (1)
- Langzeitmessung (1)
- Layered soils (1)
- Lebensdauerabschätzung (1)
- Liquefaction analysis (1)
- Load vectors (1)
- Long-term loading (1)
- Mast- und Turmbau - Masts and towers (1)
- Material Point Method (MPM) (1)
- Material behavior (1)
- Materialkennlinie (1)
- Measurements (1)
- Metakaolin (1)
- Micro-reinforcement (1)
- Microsilica (1)
- Mix design (1)
- Mixed formulation (1)
- Mobile elements (1)
- Modal properties (1)
- Modal property (1)
- Mouthguard (1)
- Multi-beam model (1)
- Multi-beam-on-support model (1)
- Multimodal solution (1)
- Multiple linear (1)
- Multiple linear regression (1)
- Non-ballasted track (1)
- Non-synoptic wind event (1)
- Nonlinearities (1)
- Normal strength concrete (1)
- Novelty analysis (1)
- Numerical modeling (1)
- Numerical response (1)
- Offshore (1)
- Offshore foundation (1)
- Offshore foundations (1)
- Offshore pile foundation (1)
- Offshore steel structures (1)
- Offshore structures (1)
- Offshore wind turbines (1)
- Offshore-Gründung (1)
- Offshore-Windenergie (1)
- Offshore-Windenergieanlage (1)
- Overhead transmission line (1)
- Parametric excitation (1)
- Particle image velocimetry (1)
- Perzyna viscoplasticity (1)
- Pile bending stiffness (1)
- Pile foundation (1)
- Pile integrity test (1)
- Pile monitoring (1)
- Piles (1)
- Plate-soil interaction (1)
- Pore pressure accumulation (1)
- Prediction (1)
- Prestressed concrete bridge (1)
- Principal Component Analysis (1)
- Principal component regression (1)
- Protective component (1)
- Quasi-static and dynamic tests (1)
- Rail pad (1)
- Railway measurement campaign (1)
- Rammung (1)
- Ratcheting convective cell (1)
- Rechenmodelle (1)
- Reduction (1)
- Rehabilitation (1)
- Reibung (1)
- Reliability (1)
- Residual evaluation (1)
- Resonancia en edificaciones (1)
- Resonant response (1)
- Risk (1)
- Riveted viaducts (1)
- Sand (hydraulic) (1)
- Schadensdetektion (1)
- Schrauben (1)
- Schutzbauteil (1)
- Schweißnahtausbildung (1)
- Seismic crosshole (1)
- Seismic tomography (1)
- Shear keys (1)
- Shock absorbtion (1)
- Sleeper pad (1)
- Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (1)
- Soil liquefaction (1)
- Soil stiffness (1)
- Soil-pile interaction (1)
- Stahlhochbau - Steel buildings (1)
- Stahlpfahl, gerammt (1)
- Stahlwasserbau - Steel structures for hydraulic engineering (1)
- Static load test (1)
- Statistical pattern recognition (1)
- Steel pile, driven in (1)
- Stereo photogrammetry (1)
- Strain (1)
- Strain measurement (1)
- Strength (1)
- Structural modification (1)
- Structural reliability (1)
- Structural vibration monitoring (1)
- Structure (1)
- Structure integrated sensor (1)
- Subset simulation (1)
- Subspace-based detection (1)
- Subspace-based method (1)
- Subspace-basierte Verfahren (1)
- System identification (1)
- Temperature effect (1)
- Test site (1)
- Tower-nacelle system (1)
- Track (1)
- Track deformation (1)
- Track settlement (1)
- Track vibration (1)
- Track-soil and vehicle-track resonances (1)
- Tragfähigkeit (1)
- Train induced ground vibration (1)
- Train-track-interaction (1)
- Transition zone (1)
- UHPC (1)
- Uncertainty bounds (1)
- Uncertainty in reference (1)
- Under sleeper pads (1)
- Varying track stiffness (1)
- Vibration measurements (1)
- Vibration reduction (1)
- Vibration-based structural health monitoring system (1)
- Vibrations (1)
- Viscosity (1)
- Vorspannung (1)
- Wave excitation (1)
- Wavenumber method (1)
- Wind energy tower (1)
- Wind loading (1)
- Wind tunnel (1)
- Windenergieanlage (1)
- Workability (1)
- floor vibration (1)
- modal analysis (1)
- wave analysis (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (79) (entfernen)

Within the presented research project, experimental and numerical investigations were performed to develop a thin-shelled, modular, mobile element system made of a micro-reinforced ultra-high-performance ductile concrete (DUCON®). Material parameters were experimentally determined to adapt the material model within the numerical analysis applying the Drucker-Prager relationship. Afterwards, for validation of the numerical models, quasi-static and high-velocity impact tests were performed on plate-like structures. Finally, a suitable geometry of transportable barrier elements will be designed, which provides a maximum of resistance against impact by a minimum of weight and a maximum of mobility.

A combined finite-element boundary-element method for the dynamic interaction of the soil with flexible structures such as single piles or complete wind energy towers has been developed. Flexible piles in different soils are analysed in frequency domain. The different parameters such as the stiffness of the soil, the bending stiffness and the radius of the hollow pile are analysed for their influence on the complex compliances. The results have been determined as specific power laws which are different for the different load cases (horizontal, rocking, coupling) and for the different soil models (Winkler, continuum with constant, root-parabolic and proportional-linear stiffness variation). The strongest influence of the soil stiffness can be found for the homogeneous soil and the horizontal component. Winkler soils have a weaker influence than the corresponding continuous soils. An offshore wind energy tower has been modeled and calculated for wind and wave loads.

Automated modal analysis for tracking structural change during construction and operation phases
(2019)

The automated modal analysis (AMA) technique has attracted significant interest over the last few years, because it can track variations in modal parameters and has the potential to detect structural changes. In this paper, an improved density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) is introduced to clean the abnormal poles in a stabilization diagram. Moreover, the optimal system model order is also discussed to obtain more stable poles. A numerical Simulation and a full-scale experiment of an arch bridge are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Subsequently, the continuous dynamic monitoring system of the bridge and the proposed algorithm are implemented to track the structural changes during the construction phase. Finally, the artificial neural network (ANN) is used to remove the temperature effect on modal frequencies so that a health index can be constructed under operational conditions.

This work describes a vibration-based structural health monitoring of a prestressed-concrete box girder bridge on the A100 Highway in Berlin by applying statistical pattern recognition technique to a huge amount of data continuously collected by an integrated monitoring system during the period from 2000 to 2013. Firstly, the general condition and potential damage of the bridge is described. Then, the dynamic properties are extracted from 20 velocity sensors. Environmental variability captured by five thermal transducers and traffic intensity approximately estimated by strain measurements are also reported. Nonlinear influences of temperature on natural frequencies are observed. Subsequently, the measurements during the first year are used to build a baseline health index. The multiple linear regression (MLR) method is used to characterize the nonlinear relationship between natural frequencies and temperatures. The Euclidean distance of the residual errors is calculated to build a statistical health index. Finally, the indices extracted from the following years gradually deviate; which may indicate structural deterioration due to loss of prestress in the prestressed tendons.

Identifying optimal inspection and repair strategies for offshore jacket structures is a challenging task. We pre-sent an approach, which is based on recent developments in the field of risk-based operation and maintenance planning at the structural system level. The approach utilizes heuristics to define inspection and repair strate-gies at the system level and to reduce the search space of possible strategies. For each defined strategy, the expected service life cost of inspection, repair and failure is evaluated based on simulated inspection and re-pair histories. Subset simulation is applied to compute the conditional repair and failure probabilities required for this analysis. It also forms the basis for simulating inspection and repair histories. The strategy that mini-mizes the expected service life cost is the optimal one in the set of pre-selected strategies. The underlying condition and performance model accounts for the stochastic dependence among the deterioration states of the different structural elements and the structural redundancy. The approach is demonstrated in a case study considering a jacket-type frame. In this study, we essentially vary the inspection interval, the minimum num-ber of inspected components and the target reliability, and identify the combination that minimizes the ex-pected total service life cost.

The local asymptotic approach is promising for vibration-based fault diagnosis when associated to a subspace-based residual function and efficient hypothesis testing tools. It has the ability of detecting small changes in some chosen system parameters. In the residual function,the left null space of the observability matrix associated to a reference model is confronted to the Hankel matrix of output covariances estimated from test data. When this left null space is not perfectly known from a model, it should be replaced by an estimate from data to avoid model errors in the residual computation. In this paper, the asymptotic distribution of the resulting data-driven residual is analyzed and its covariance is estimated, which includes also the covariance related to the reference null space estimate. The advantages of the data-driven residual are demonstrated in a numerical study, and the importance of including the covariance of the reference null space estimate is shown, which increases the detection Performance.

The authors are currently investigating the possibility to apply compaction grouting for offshore pile foundations (Jacket piles as well as monopiles) as a possible retrofitting technique for an optimised foundation concept. In this research project, we are developing a design approach aiming to predict the ideal amount and properties of a grout for a specific soil situation and desired improvement of pile bearing capacity after Installation and during service time. Both numerical and experimental tests have been carried out to investigate the injection process during which a highly viscous grout is injected into the soil under high pressure to displace and compact the surrounding soil without fracturing it. The implicit Material Point Method (MPM) based on a mixed formulation is the numerical technique chosen to deal with the expected large deformations and the arbitrary shape of the developing grout bulb. The usage of MPM prevents both the need of remeshing and the numerical instability induced by extensive mesh distortion. For validation with experimental results, we have constructed a testing chamber with one transparent sidewall. This chamber enables us to observe the injection process directly at the transparent vertical window and to measure the in-plane soil displacements and strains by means of the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique.
The results already reveal the interrelation of soil and grout properties for a successful usage of this common ground improvement technique.

The Westend Bridge is located on the A100 Highway in Berlin. An integrated continuous dynamic monitoring system, composed of 20 velocity sensors, 5 temperature sensors, 3 strain gauges, 1 crack sensor and 2 inclination sensors, was implemented by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing in 2000. The system runs continuously with occasional intermittence and led to a huge amount of data over a 14-year span. In this article, variations of the strain, crack and inclination measurements during the last 14 years are presented. It is noted that the observed crack and inclination of the bridge are strongly influenced by seasonal temperature variation. It further induces change in the relationship between the strains measured in both concrete and prestressed tendon. Application of k-means cluster Analysis technique in both the crack and strain measurements can partition them into different seasonal phases by identifying ‘turning points’ that indicate annual periodical bridge change. In the period of these two ‘turning points’, a strong linear relation of the strains in two materials is observed. In the rest of the year, a nonlinear relationship between the strains recorded in both the concrete and the prestressed tendon is noted. The possible reason is the additional thermal load due to the change in temperature difference between the bridge’s surface and soffit. Finally, a health index in a Framework of regression model and process control theory is proposed by investigating the linear relationship between the strains in concrete and prestressed tendon. The tendency of the health index in the 14 years may suggest the long-term bridge change during that time frame.

Repair is an indispensable part of the maintenance of structures over their lifetimes. Structural grouting is a widely used remediation technique for concrete components, trenches, mine subsidence, dam joints, restoration of masonry structures, and geological stabilizations. A structural grout system should be injectable in narrow spaces and hence include ingredients with finer particles. Ultrafine cements are ideal for these type of demanding grouts due to their superior properties compared to that of the less expensive, but coarser ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are often used to replace OPC clinker based binder in order to modify certain properties and to reduce costs. The most commonly used SCMs are fly ash (FA), and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). For various special applications microsilica (MS), and metakaolin (MK) are also used. Identifying the optimum replacement contents of OPC by SCMs are a challenge during the design of such grouts. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the effect of the selected SCMs (FA, MS and MK) on the slump flow, time of efflux, viscosity, shrinkage, and compressive and flexural strength of ultrafine cement based grouts with constant water-binder ratio and superplasticizer content. The test program was formulated using Box-Behnken design principles. Maximum percentages of replacement with ultrafine cement was 6% by volume of cement for MS and 16% for FA, and MK. The results suggest that most investigated grouts have the potential to be used for structural applications. The appropriate quadratic models are then formulated through statistical tools and presented as response surfaces. The trends indicate that fly ash improves the rheological properties, whereas microsilica and metakaolin positively affect shrinkage and mechanical properties to some extent. Based on the influence of SCMs and priorities among the properties, Decision Matrix Analysis (DMA) is carried out to select the most suitable ones among the SCMs. The analysis suggests that microsilica and fly ash are more suitable as SCMs than metakaolin without affecting the properties.

Die Grundidee einer Schwingungsminderung ist es eine tiefe Eigenfrequenz der Struktur zu erreichen, so dass höhere Frequenzen abgemindert werden. Das gilt für die Minderung an der Quelle, zum Beispiel einem Eisenbahngleis, und für die Minderung am Empfänger, dem Gebäude. Die Eigenfrequenz ermittelt man aus dem Verhältnis der Auflagersteifigkeit und der Masse. Wie ist die Masse bei einem Gebäude zu wählen? Und wie ist die Untergrundsteifigkeit zu berücksichtigen? Als Referenzsituation ohne Minderungsmaßnahme? Der Beitrag bringt Rechenergebnisse zu abgefederten Gebäuden mit einfachen und komplexen (FE-) Modellen, Mess- und Rechenergebnisse zur Schwingungsübertragung von unabgefederten Gebäuden. Es wird der Einfluss der Abstimmfrequenz, der Bodensteifigkeit und der „starren“ Gebäudemasse untersucht. Die komplexen Gebäudemodelle erlauben, neben der Berechnung einer elastischen Gebäudelagerung, auch die Variation von Gebäudeparametern zur Reduktion der Deckenschwingungen. Den Ergebnissen bei der Erschütterungs-übertragung in Gebäude werden zwei ähnliche Beispiele zur elastischen Maschinenlagerung und zur elastischen Gleislagerung gegenübergestellt.

Automatic vibration-based structural health monitoring has been recognized as a useful alternative or addition to visual inspections or local non-destructive testing performed manually. It is, in particular, suitable for mechanical and aeronautical structures as well as on civil structures, including cultural heritage sites. The main challenge is to provide a robust damage diagnosis from the recorded vibration measurements, for which statistical signal processing methods are required. In this chapter, a damage detection method is presented that compares vibration measurements from the current system to a reference state in a hypothesis test, where data9
related uncertainties are taken into account. The computation of the test statistic on new measurements is straightforward and does not require a separate modal identification. The performance of the method is firstly shown on a steel frame structure in a laboratory experiment. Secondly, the application on real measurements on S101 Bridge is shown during a progressive damage test, where damage was successfully detected for different damage scenarios.

Bei Monopfahlgründungen von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen wird die Verbindung zwischen Monopfahl und Übergangsstück als geschraubter Ringflansch ausgeführt. Die zunehmende Leistungsfähigkeit der Windenergieanlagen führt zu immer größeren Schnittgrößen in diesem Anschluss. In der Folge erhöhen sich nicht nur die Querschnittsabmessungen, sondern es kommen auch zunehmend größere Schrauben zum Einsatz. Da die einschlägigen Regelwerke zur Bemessung dieser Verbindungen nicht für Schrauben der Größen M64 oder M72 konzipiert wurden, stellt sich die Frage der Übertragbarkeit auf solche Anwendungsfälle.
Im Rahmen des Aufsatzes werden Einflüsse diskutiert, die eine Herabsetzung der Schraubentragfähigkeit verursachen könnten. Diese Einflüsse, vornehmlich geometrische Imperfektionen, werden systematisch untersucht und ergänzend in praxisrelevanten Beispielen bewertet. Die somit gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden für die abschließende Beurteilung der großen Schrauben in Ringflanschverbindungen herangezogen.

The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to analyze locally (at the element level) the contact behavior of a soil-pile contact problem. Therefore, a 2D shear test is modeled using the Finite Element Method. The formulation of a 4 nodded zero-thickness interface element of Beer is chosen with a linear interpolation function. Four constitutive contact models adapted for contact problems have been implemented. The Mohr-Coulomb and Clough and Duncan models were chosen initially, due to the ease of implementation and few number of parameters needed. After, more complicated models in the framework of elasto-plasticity such as: Lashkari and Mortara were implemented for the first time into the finite element code of the shear test problem. They include other phenomena such as: relative density of soil, the stress level and sand dilatancy. From the results the relation between shear displacement and shear stress has been deduced. Finally, a discussion of the advantages and the drawbacks during computation of each model is given at the end.

This paper describes the experimental calibration of an existing Wiegmann–Polonceau roof truss based on modal parameters. Dynamic tests allowed the determination of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the global truss and of individual truss members. The global and local modal configurations as well as coupled vibration of truss members are discussed. In addition, as truss members are axially loaded, the effect of stress stiffening on the modal parameters is considered. Moreover, several finite element models with different modelling assumptions for the details of the connections and member geometrical characteristics such as gusset plates and turnbuckles were developed. A suitable numerical model was chosen to represent the truss structural behavior. This paper focuses on the local measurement and analysis strategies applied to single truss members. The possibility of using a local analysis method, namely methods that consider individual members as part of a structure, is demonstrated to assess the behavior of the global truss structure. The comparison of the results after calibration reveals a very good correlation between the experimentally identified and numerically estimated modal parameters of the historic truss.

Current trend suggests that global energy consumption will increase in the future. This growing energy demand and advancement of technology lead to explore all potential offshore fossil and non-fossil energy sources, necessitating erection of exploration and production structures, rigs, platforms and towers, which are susceptible to adverse environmental conditions along with their maintenances. Cylindrical grouted joints provide suitable connections between steel substructure and foundation in these offshore platforms and wind structures especially monopiles for ease of installation. However, these are composite connections with exterior sleeve, interior pile and infill grout. The capacity of these connections is affected by number of factors. The literature over last four decades by numerous researchers has shown the development of these connections with increasingly higher capacities and influences on these capacities due to various factors. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the factors affecting the connection capacity along with technical challenges for the future. Critical aspects and shortcomings of the current connection systems and potential solutions may be sought after for these issues are also discussed.

Measurements of downburst wind loading acting on an overhead transmission line in Northern Germany
(2017)

Along an overhead transmission line in Northern Germany, a unique instrumentation of anemometers and force measurements is installed. Details of this test line with wind measurements along a horizontal axis are given. A recent event of a presumable downburst wind event is analyzed by means of available data and precedent works on thunderstorm analysis. The measured response of the conductors at the suspension tower is investigated and compared with time domain simulation of a finite element model.

Measurements on the vehicle-track interaction and the excitation of railway-induced ground vibration
(2017)

Two railway measurement campaigns have been performed in Germany and Switzerland which yield insight in the vehicle-track-soil interaction. The campaign in Germany has included simultaneous measurement of vehicle, track, and soil vibrations during train runs with 16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 100, 125, 140, 160 km/h, and impulse measurements of the passenger car, three track sections and the soil. Two ballast tracks, one on the soil surface and one on a concrete bridge, have been investigated as well as a slab track in a tunnel. Ten different sites in Switzerland have been measured for soil properties and train-induced ground vibrations, which allow to determine the excitation forces of the railway traffic. New axle-box measurements at some of the Swiss sites have been analysed to get further experimental evidence. All these measurements have been evaluated to characterize the excitation processes. Relations between vehicle vibration and ground vibration can be observed. The vehicle vibrations, namely the accelerations of the wheelsets, yield the dynamic forces due to the passage over the irregularities of the vehicle and the track. The ground vibrations are correlated to these dynamic forces to a certain extent. Some mid-frequency ground vibration amplitudes, however, are higher than expected from the dynamic excitation forces. The experimental observations can be explained by an irregular response to the passage of the static loads, that means the passage of the static loads over an irregular ballast or soil. This correct understanding of the excitation processes is important for the prediction as well as for the mitigation of railway induced ground vibrations.

This contribution presents some principles and some examples of the mitigation of railway-induced ground vibrations. The principles are different for the mitigation measures at the track, in the soil or at the building. Force transfer functions of isolated and un-isolated track-soil systems, reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes at walls and trenches in the soil, and the transfer of the (free-field) vibration amplitudes to the foundation amplitudes of the building are analysed. The mitigation effect can be calculated by exact or simplified formulas. Some examples with 3D (finite-element boundary-element), 2D (beam-on-support), and 1D track models, 2D and 1D soil models, detailed 3D building models and finite or infinite 1D wall-floor models are investigated to find out if simple models can be used for a satisfactory prediction of the mitigation effect. The 1D track examples show that the force transfer of the track without vehicle can be exactly calculated, whereas the total force transfer can be calculated approximately if appropriate wheelset masses per track length are used for the isolated and the un-isolated track. The mitigation effect of a filled trench is calculated by a 2D finite element model and the results compare with simple transmission formula if the stiffness per area rather than the wave impedances are used for the infill material. The base isolation of a building is analysed by a detailed 3D model and the results are similar to the analytic results of a single wall with floors on the soil. Other reduction measures as different floor and column dimensions are usually less effective so that the clearly best mitigation solution at a building is a partly or a complete base isolation.

This paper is concerned with the inverse identification of the stress state in axially loaded slender members of iron and steel truss structures using measured dynamic data. A methodology is proposed based on the finite element model updating coupled with nature-inspired optimization techniques, in particular the particle swarm optimization. The numerical model of truss structures is calibrated using natural frequencies and mode shapes from vibration tests, as well as additional information of the axial forces in selected truss members based on the experimentally identified modal parameters. The results of the identification are the axial forces or corresponding stresses in truss structures and the joint rigidity in relation to pinned and rigid conditions. Attention is given to several examined aspects, including the effects of the axial tensile and compressive forces on the dynamic responses of trusses, mode pairing criteria, as well as modeling assumptions of joints and the use of a joint rigidity parameter. Considering the pairing of modes, it is performed by adapting an enhanced modal assurance criterion that allows the selection of desired clusters of degrees-of-freedom. Thus, information extracted from the measurements related to specific modes is utilized in a more beneficial way. For modeling of joints, the numerical model of a truss structure includes rotational springs of variable stiffness to represent semi-rigid connections. Moreover, a fixity factor is introduced for practical estimation of the joint flexibility. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by case studies involving simulated and laboratory experimental data.

The implementation of continuous dynamic monitoring systems in two bridges, in Portugal, is enabled to detect the occurrence of very significant environmental and operational effects on the modal properties of these bridges, based on automated processing of massive amounts of monitoring data collected by a set of accelerometers and thermal sensors over several years.
In order to remove or mitigate such environmental/operational effects with the purpose of damage detection, two different statistical methods have been adopted. One of them is the multiple linear regression by performing nonlinear correlation analysis between measured modal properties and environmental/operational variables. Another one is principal component regression based on the identification of the linear subspace within the modal properties without using measured values of environmental and operational variables.
This paper presents a comparison of the performance of these two alternative approaches on the basis of continuous monitoring data acquired from two instrumented bridges and simulated damage scenarios. It is observed that different methods show similar capacity in removing environmental effects, and the multiple linear regression method is slightly more sensitive to structural damage.

In this in vitro study, the protective qualities of different mouthguard types were examined during small hard object collisions. The aim was to investigate inconclusive aspects of hard inserts, nylon nets, and air spaces as reinforcements in the anterior region and the protection qualities of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA).
Five different mouthguards with a labial thickness between 2 mm and 11 mm made of materials of varying stiffness were investigated. As a negative control, the same experiments were performed without a mouthguard. Different combinations of EVA and labial inserts ((polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified [PETG]), nylon mesh, air space) were tested. Using a stainless steel pendulum device, blows of different energy (0.07-2.85 joules) were applied to the center of the crown of a pivoted tooth in a custom-built jaw model. A laser Doppler vibrometer measured the tooth deflection, while an acceleration sensor attached to the pendulum measured the braking accelerations.
Tooth deflection was reduced up to 99.7% compared to no mouthguard, and the braking acceleration was reduced up to 72.2% by increasing the mouthguards' labial thickness in combination with labial inserts of different stiffness and a built-in air space between the front teeth and the mouthguard. The mouthguards made of soft materials (EVA with nylon mesh) showed slightly better protection qualities than the more rigid mouthguards of similar thickness (PETG; P<.05). However, with increasing impact energy, their protective capacities decreased to a greater extent than the stiffer mouthguards.
The combination of increased labial thickness and labial inserts of varying stiffness and eventually an air space offers the best protection capacities for hard, small object collisions.

The choice of a pure cohesive or a pure frictional viscoplastic model to represent the rheological behaviour of a flowslide is of paramount importance in order to obtain accurate results for real cases. The principal Goal of the present work is to clarify the influence of the type of viscous model—pure cohesive versus pure frictional—with the numerical reproduction of two different real flowslides that occurred in 1966: the Aberfan flowslide and the Gypsum tailings impoundment flowslide. In the present work, a depth-integrated model based on the v-pw Biot–Zienkiewicz formulation, enhanced with a diffusion-like equation to account for the pore pressure Evolution within the soil mass, is applied to both 1966 cases. For the Aberfan flowslide, a frictional viscous model based on Perzyna viscoplasticity is considered, while a pure cohesive viscous model (Bingham model) is considered for the case of the Gypsum flowslide. The numerical approach followed is the SPH method, which has been enriched by adding a 1D finite difference grid to each SPH node in order to improve the description of the pore water evolution in the propagating mixture. The results obtained by the performed simulations are in agreement with the documentation obtained through the UK National Archive (Aberfan flowslide) and the International Commission of large Dams (Gypsum flowslide).

Aerodynamic damping is a decisive parameter influencing the dynamic response of overhead transmission line conductors. Methods of how to account for the effects of aerodynamic damping differ significantly and so might do the results. In this work, the source of aerodynamic damping being the result of the relative velocity between the structure and wind flow will be revised. Based on wind tunnel tests and validated by simulations, the differences of linear movement compared to a pendulum movement of a sagging cable are shown. The reasons for that Deviation are the large deflections, resulting in a movement non-parallel to the acting wind flow. For analysis in frequency domain, it is not possible to incorporate aerodynamic damping implicitly by fluid structure interaction. If the dynamic movement can be linearized at a working point of the mean deflection, a modification to the linear approach is suggested. This approach is validated by simulation with a finite element model of an existing overhead transmission line, calibrated with full scale measurements. Aerodynamic damping is incorporated in time step analysis by Rayleigh damping and modal damping. The differences between both approaches are emphasized and modal damping is shown to be the most adequate.

A complex measuring campaign has been performed including the simultaneous measurement of vehicle, track, and soil vibrations during train runs at 16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 100, 125, 140, 160 km/h, and impulse measurements of the passenger car, three track sections and the soil. A ballast track on the soil surface and on a concrete bridge have been investigated as well as a slab track in a tunnel. The evaluation and comparison of all these data shows a generally good agreement for all components if the strong low- and high-frequency cut-off characteristics of the layered and damped soil are incorporated. There is a strong causal correlation between the vehicle and the soil by the dynamic excitation forces and a weak relation between the track and the soil by the axle-sequence spectrum of the train. However, the similarity between the axle-impulse spectrum observed at the track and the spectra of the ground vibration lead to the special excitation component of “scattered axle impulses” which is pre-dominant at the far-field points of the soil.

Accelerated electrical and mechanical ageing tests of high temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors
(2017)

As part of the Best Paths project, work package 6 of the DEMO #4 combines the R&D tasks for repowering of transmission overhead line corridors. The aim of the presented research work is the electrical and mechanical investigation of high temperature low sag conductors (HTLS) and their respective accessories. In contrast to the conventional ACSR (aluminum conductor steel reinforced) conductors, new material combinations of HTLS technologies result in a better sagging behavior combined with an operation at higher temperatures. Because of missing operational experience, the ageing behavior of HTLS conductor technologies shall be analyzed regarding the operating parameters such as electrical, thermal and mechanical load.

This paper deals with vibration-based damage localization and quantification from output-only measurements. We describe an approach which operates on a data-driven residual vector that is statistically evaluated using information from a finite element model, without updating the parameters of the model. First, the damaged elements are detected in statistical tests, and second, the damage is quantified only for the damaged elements. We propose a new residual vector in this context that is based on the transfer matrix difference between reference and damaged states, and compare it with a previously introduced subspace-based residual. We show localization and quantification on both residuals in simulations.

Vibration-based model updating and identification of multiple axial forces in truss structures
(2017)

Safety assessment of existing iron and steel truss structures requires the determination of the axial Forces and corresponding stresses in truss structural members. The results of the axial force determination can be integrated as part of a structural health Monitoring scheme for existing trusses. In this work, a methodology is proposed to identify multiple axial forces in members of a truss structure based on the modal parameters. Vibration test allows the identification of the natural frequencies and mode shapes, globally of the truss structure as well as locally of the individual bars. The method calibrates the numerical model of the truss structure using a genetic algorithm and strategic validation criteria. The validation criteria are based on the identified natural frequencies and global mode shapes of the truss structure as well as information of the axial forces in the individual bars of the truss, which are estimated from the natural frequencies and five amplitudes of the corresponding local mode shapes of the single bars based on an analytical-based algorithm. The calibration allows the identification of the axial forces in all bars of the truss structure. For mode pairing strategy, a technique makes use of the enhanced modal assurance criteria with the calculation of the modal strain energies.
Moreover, the modal strain energies are also used to select the relevant local mode shape of the individual bars. The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed methodology is verified by laboratory experiments on several truss structures. In situ tests on existing trusses are intended. The results from one of the laboratory tested structures, i.e. a two-bar system, are included in this paper.

Among different devices developed quite recently to quantify the resistance to erosion of natural soil within the broader context of dyke safety, the most commonly used is probably the jet erosion test in which a scouring crater is induced by impingement of an immersed water jet. A comprehensive experimental investigation on the jet erosion in the specific situation of a cohesionless granular material is presented here. The tests were performed by combining special optical techniques allowing for an accurate measurement of the scouring onset and evolution inside an artificially translucent granular sample. The impinging jet hydrodynamics are also analyzed, empirically validating the use of a self-similar theoretical framework for the laminar round jet. The critical conditions at the onset of erosion appear to be best described by a dimensionless Shields number based on the inertial drag force created by the fluid flow on the eroded particles rather than on the pressure gradients around them. To conclude, a tentative empirical model for the maximal flow velocity initiating erosion at the bottom of the scoured crater is put forward and discussed in the light of some preliminary results.

In granular soils, long-term cyclically loaded structures can lead to an accumulation of irreversible strain by forming closed convective cells in the upper layer of the bedding. The size of the convective cell, its formation and grain migration inside this closed volume have been studied with reference to different stiffness of the embedded structure and different maximum force amplitudes applied at the head of the structure.
This relation was experimentally investigated by applying a cyclic lateral force to a scaled flexible vertical element embedded in a dry granular soil. The model was monitored with a camera in order to derive the displacement field by means of the PIV technique. Furthermore, the ratcheting convective cell was also simulated with DEM with the aim of extracting some micromechanical information. The main results regarded the different development, shape and size of the convection cell and the surface settlements.

Train passages induce forces on the track, train-induced vibrations propagate through the soil and excite neighbouring buildings. The emission, which is the first part of the prediction of vibrations near railway lines, is presented by focusing on the dynamic axle loads. The calculation of the axle loads is based on the vehicle-track-soil interaction. This interaction calculus utilises the dynamic stiffness of the vehicle (the inertia of the wheelset) and the dynamic stiffness of the track-soil system. Based on various time consuming finite-element boundary-element calculations, an approximate track-soil model has been established. The vehicle-track-soil analysis yields several transfer functions between the various geometric or stiffness irregularities and the axle loads of the train. Geometric irregularities of the vehicle (the wheels) and the track (rail surface and track alignment) are the simplest components. Geometric irregularities of the subsoil (trackbed irregularities) have to be transferred to effective irregularities at rail level. The bending stiffness of the track is filtering out the short-wavelength contribution. Stiffness irregularities occur due to random variations in the ballast or the subsoil, which must also be transferred to effective track irregularities, and due to the discrete rail support on sleepers. All necessary transfer functions for the prediction of axle-load spectra are presented as general formula and as specific graphs for differing vehicle and track parameters. The prediction method is applied to a ballast track and a slab track and compared with corresponding axle-box measurements. Moreover, ground vibration measurements at numerous sites are exploited for the axle-load spectra and the validation of the prediction method. All theoretical and experimental results confirm that the dynamic axle-load spectra have an approximate value of 1 kN per third of octave and increase with train speed, track stiffness and around the vehicle-track resonance.

This paper deals with the system identification of a mechanical structure supported by nonlinear springs subjected to an external load. If all mechanical parameters of the system were known, the displacement of the system subjected to this load could be easily calculated. However, the monitoring applications often deal with the inverse problem. The loads and displacements of the system are known and certain mechanical Parameters of the system are sought. The solution of such inverse problems can be difficult, especially when they have a nonlinear and multimodal character, which often makes them appear intractable at first sight. However, evolutionary computing can be applied to solve this inverse, nonlinear and multimodal problem. Sometimes a prior knowledge exists on certain system properties, which is difficult to implement into analytical or numerical solvers. This knowledge can play a decisive role in identifying the System properties and it can be easily included as a boundary condition when applying evolutionary algorithms.
This article discusses how and under what conditions the unknown spring resistances can be identified. The practical application of this procedure is exemplified here with the mechanical system of a pile foundation.

The dynamics of un-isolated and isolated ballast tracks have been analysed by multi-beam models for the track and by a layered half-space model for the soil. The solution is calculated in frequency-wavenumber domain and transformed back to space domain by a wavenumber integral. This is a faster method compared to other detailed track-soil interaction methods and almost as fast as the widely used Winkler-soil method, especially if the compliances of the soil have been stored for repeated use. Frequency-dependent compliances and force transfer functions have been calculated for a variety of track and soil parameters. The ballast has a clear influence on the high-frequency behaviour whereas the soil is dominating the low-frequency behaviour of the track. A layering of the soil may cause a moderate track-soil resonance whereas more pronounced vehicle-track resonances occur with elastic track elements like rail pads, sleeper pads and ballast mats. Above these resonant frequencies, a reduction of the excitation forces follows as a consequence. The track deformation along the track has been analysed for the most interesting track systems. The track deformation is strongly influenced by the resonances due to layering or elastic elements. The attenuation of amplitudes and the velocity of the track-soil waves change considerably around the resonant frequencies. The track deformation due to complete trains have been calculated for different continuous and Winkler soils and compared with the measurement of a train passage showing a good agreement for the continuous soil and clear deviations for the Winkler soil model.

Die Beanspruchung von Freileitungen erfolgt hauptsächlich durch Naturlasten. Dabei spielt für die bemessungsbestimmenden Lastfälle häufig der Wind eine entscheidende Rolle. Die Leiter, die mehrere hundert Meter weit spannen, tragen einen wesentlichen Anteil zur Gesamtbeanspruchung von Tragmasten bei, die wiederum Eigengewicht und Windlasten der Leiter zwischen zwei Abspannmasten abtragen. Wenn die Reaktion der Seile auf Starkwindereignisse abgeschätzt werden soll, müssen sowohl geometrische Nichtlinearitäten durch die großen Verformungen wie auch aerodynamische Nichtlinearitäten berücksichtigt werden. Insbesondere für die Anwendung und Berücksichtigung in Bemessungsvorschriften werden hierfür Vereinfachungen vorgenommen. In diesem Beitrag wird eine umfassende Untersuchung vorgestellt, über Naturmessungen, FEM-Simulationen kombiniert mit Windkanalversuchen und generierten Windzeitreihen. Ziel ist es, existierende Bemessungsvorschriften im Hinblick auf die Abschätzung der Beanspruchung aus Wind auf Leiter zu validieren. Hierbei sind insbesondere die Turbulenzannahmen und das dynamische Verhalten von weitgespannten Leitern wichtig, um die Extremschnittgrößen zu beschreiben. Mithilfe von so genannten Spannweitenfaktoren sollen die relevanten Parameter, wie Spannweite und Windturbulenz, bei der Beanspruchungsabschätzung berücksichtigt werden.

This paper addresses operational modal analysis (OMA) and continuous dynamic monitoring (CDM) of two bridges. One of them is installed with Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) while another one is a normal bridge. Two ambient vibration tests were performed on these two bridges respectively. It is observed that not only installation of TMDs but also environmental factors influence the variations of structural frequencies, which may mask the subtle change induced by small structural changes. As a result, continuous dynamic monitoring systems were implemented on these two bridges, in order to evaluate efficiency of the TMD system, remove the environmental effects and build reliable damage indices that are only sensitive to structural changes. The results of CDM of these two bridges during several years are presented. Software systems developed for OMA and CDM are also introduced.

An efficient approach to reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems is presented, which considers stochastic dependence among element deterioration. Information on a deteriorating structure obtained through inspection or monitoring is included in the reliability assessment through Bayesian updating of the system deterioration model. The updated system reliability is then obtained through coupling the updated deterioration model with a probabilistic structural model. The underlying high-dimensional structural reliability problems are solved using subset simulation, which is an efficient and robust sampling-based algorithm suitable for such analyses. The approach is demonstrated in two case studies considering a steel frame structure and a Daniels system subjected to high-cycle fatigue.

Im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts „FIT“ wurden Ermüdungsfestigkeitsuntersuchungen an geschweißten Konstruktionsdetails, die häufig in Gründungsstrukturen von OffshoreWindenergieanlagen (OWEA), aber auch im Stahlbrückenbau eingesetzt werden, durchgeführt. Der Schwerpunkt der Untersuchungen wurde auf einseitig geschweißte Kreishohlprofile (KHP) gelegt. Für einseitig stumpfgeschweißte Kreishohlprofile wurden die derzeitigen auf unzureichender Versuchsbasis erstellten Kerbfalleinstufungen geltender Regelwerke überprüft. Hierzu wurden umfangreiche experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Ermüdungsfestigkeit dieses Details durchgeführt. Die den Ermüdungswiderstand maßgeblich beeinflussenden Parameter, wie vorhandene geometrische Imperfektionen und Schweißnahtausbildung, wurden identifiziert, bewertet und deren Einfluss im Rahmen numerischer Berechnungen untersucht. Basierend auf diesen Ergebnissen wurde eine Kerbfallempfehlung erarbeitet, die eine zutreffende Lebensdauerabschätzung ermöglicht. Diese Kerbfallempfehlung soll als Grundlage für die zukünftige Aufnahme in Normen und Regelwerke dienen.

Long wooden floor beams above a ball room in an old historical palace have been analysed experimentally. The eleven beams are weakly coupled by three layers of floor boards. It has been investigated if the state (the stiffness) of the wooden beams can be determined by vibration measurements of global or preferably local modes. Hammer, heel-drop and ambient excitations have been used. The vibration modes of the structure show dominating local deformations if an impact excitation is applied. This is understood as the positive superposition of several modes which yield the maximum at the excitation point but a cancellation at more distant points. Natural modes have been estimated from these vibration modes by standard and special methods which were necessary for the high damping of the wooden floor. It has been found that all floor beams contribute to each natural mode even for a weak coupling of the beams. In addition to the modal discussion, the impact tests have also been analysed for the wave propagation and amplitude attenuation with distance. The coupling of floor beams has been studied theoretically by an analytic multiple-beam model where the coupling by translational or rotational springs and by a common support motion has been assumed.

Landslides can cause major economic damage and a large number of casualities as it is possible to see from past events occurred all over the world. Being able to predict these kind of hazards would then suppose the achievement of great benefits. Here a model that combines a depth integrated description of the soil-pore fluid mixture together with a set of 1D models dealing with pore pressure evolution within the soil mass is presented. The mathematical model is based on the Biot-Zienkiewicz equations, from where a depth averaged model is derived. Concerning the material behaviour, the approach used is the one suggested by the Perzyna viscoplasticity, which has been extensively used in the past to model solid behaviour prior to failure. In this framework, a simple shear rheological model is derived, providing the basal friction needed in depth integrated models. The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been the numerical technique chosen to spatially discretised the depth integrated equations of the mathematical model. The purpose of this work is to apply the SPH depth integrated numerical model, together with the sub-model that predicts the evolution of the pore water pressure inside the landslide, to simulate the propagation phase of the Aberfan flowslide occurred in 1966.

Constitutive modeling of creep-fatigue interaction for normal strength concrete under compression
(2015)

Conventional approaches to model fatigue failure are based on a characterization of the lifetime as a function of the loading amplitude. The Wöhler diagram in combination with a linear damage accumulation assumption predicts the lifetime for different loading regimes. Using this phenomenological approach, the evolution of damage and inelastic strains and a redistribution of stresses cannot be modeled. The gradual degration of the material is assumed to not alter the stress state. Using the Palmgren–Miner rule for damage accumulation, order effects resulting from the non-linear response are generally neglected.
In this work, a constitutive model for concrete using continuum damage mechanics is developed. The model includes rate-dependent effects and realistically reproduces gradual performance degradation of normal strength concrete under compressive static, creep and cyclic loading in a unified framework. The damage evolution is driven by inelastic deformations and captures strain rate effects observed experimentally. Implementation details are discussed. Finally, the model is validated by comparing simulation and experimental data for creep, fatigue and triaxial compression.

Ground vibrations due to different technical sources are analysed in theory and experiment for the dispersion of Rayleigh waves and the admittance spectra. Both tasks are theoretically based on the same concept: The admittance function in frequencywavenumber domain yields the dispersion as its maxima, and the admittance function in space domain is obtained by integrating it over the wavenumbers. On the experimental side, many signal processing methods have been applied to many sites and have been developed by the authors in the last 35 years, i.e., time-domain methods, including the cross-correlation method, and frequency-domain methods such as the spectral analysis of surface waves with two or multiple sensors, the wavenumber-transform method, and the spatial autocorrelation method. All methods are presented by their basic formula and by at least one example site. Different sensor arrays and deterministic and stochastic sources have been tested for the spatial autocorrelation method and the wavenumber-transform method at several sites. In addition, all frequency-domain methods are presented for a specific layered site comparing their quality. The evaluated dispersion curves are very similar, but a somewhat higher frequency range has been found for the fastest method, i.e., the multi-sensor spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves method. The theoretical solutions have been used for the inversion of the measured dispersion to the soil profile of the specific layered soil. The theoretical soil model has subsequently been used to predict the ground vibration spectra of hammer and railway excitation that exhibit a good agreement with the corresponding measurements. Thus, the contribution shows the benefit of active and passive seismic methods for the prediction of railway vibration, including a new version of the spatial autocorrelation method for technical vibrations. On the other hand, technical and namely railway vibrations are considered a seismic source for the exploration of near surface soils.

The reduction of train-induced ground vibration by elastic elements such as rail pads and sleeper pads has been analyzed by a combined finite-element boundary-element method. The dynamic compliance of the track, the transfer function of the total force on the ground and the ground vibration ratios have been calculated for a variety of isolated and un-isolated track systems. It has been found that the soil force transfer, which describes the excitation force of the soil, is an appropriate quantity to predict the reduction of the ground vibration and the effectiveness of isolated tracks. All force transfer functions of isolated tracks display a vehicletrack resonance where the wheelset on the compliant track is excited by wheel and track irregularities. At higher frequencies, considerable reductions of the amplitudes are observed as the benefit of the resilient element. The influence of the stiffness of the rail or sleeper pads, the ballast and the soil, and the mass of the sleeper and the wheelset on the resonance frequency and the reduction has been investigated. Sleeper pads are advantageous due to the higher mass that is elastically supported compared to the rail-pad track system. The combination of elastic rail and sleeper pads has been found to be disadvantageous, as the second resonance occurs in the frequency range of intended reduction.

Train-induced ground vibration can be excited by wheel and track irregularities and by two kinds of irregularities of the soil, by geometric irregularities or by the spatially varying soil stiffness. For both types of irregularities, the effective track irregularity on top of the track is calculated in wavenumber domain and with wavenumber integrals. For a general multi-beam track model, the wavenumber integrals are solved numerically. The irregularities of the soil are filtered by the track when transferred from the bottom to the top of the track. The high-wavenumber irregularities are strongly reduced due to the bending stiffness of the track and the compliance of the support. In addition, soft track elements reduce directly the stiffness variation of the support. Therefore, the mitigation effect of elastic track elements for these excitation components seems to be important. For under-sleeper pads and slab tracks, calculation and measurements are presented including additional excitation components and the dynamic vehicle–track interaction, and the relevance of the excitation mechanisms is discussed based on the dynamic forces which are acting on the ground. Due to the restricted amplitudes, the parametric excitation by the stiffness variation seems to be less important than the geometric irregularities. The calculations yield the correct trends of the measurements and many details of the measured ballast, slab, and under-sleeper-pad tracks.

In the context of national innovative project IMO-WIND, an integrated long term monitoring System was installed on a prototype of an offshore wind turbine System of 5 megawatt dass. The Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) was responsible for development of the SHM System. It consists of a signal acquisition System and a Signal processing and management System.
The signal acquisition System is composed of 14 acceleration sensors, 110 strain gauges and 4 inclination sensors, installed at the tripod foundation and the tower. It began to work in August 2007. In order to investigate the structural dynamic properties, extract efficient damage index and manage huge amounts of Vibration Signals and analysis results, an automated signal processing and management Software System is developed in LabVIEW® environment. It includes functions such as automated Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) on the basis of Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) method and poly-reference Least-Squares Complex Frequency Domain (p-LSCF) approach, investigation of environmental/operational effects on structural dynamic properties under operational conditions, features extraction using Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) as well as data/result management and visualization.
Besides, this paper also presents variations of structural modal parameters of a wind turbine system under complex environmental/operational conditions. Comparison of modal parameters automatically extracted by SSI method and poly-reference p-LSCF approach indicates that the latter method provides more stable modal identification results ffom the viewpoint of long term OMA. Subsequently, the influences of temperature, wind velocity, rotation speed and nacelle direction on modal parameters are generally discussed. Finally, variations of indentified modal parameters during two years are presented.

The implementation of a continuous dynamic monitoring System in Pedro e Ines footbridge at Coimbra, Portugal, operating since June 2007, enabled to detect different environmental/operational effects on the modal properties, based on appropriate processing of monitoring data collected by a set of accelerometers and thermal sensors.
In order to remove or mitigate such environmental/operational effects with the purpose of damage detection, two different Statistical methods have been adopted, One of them consists in the multiple linear regression (MLR) by performing correlation analysis between measured modal properties and environmental/operational variables. Another is based on the identification of the linear subspace within the modal properties by applying principal component regression (PCR) without using measured values of environmental and operational variables.
This paper presents a comparison ofthe performance of these two alternative approaches on the basis of continuous monitoring data acquired front the instrumented Pedro e Ines footbridge.

This paper presents the development of a continuous dynamic monitoring System and its applications to different structures, with the purpose of understanding structural real behaviours under operational conditions and detecting early structural modifications. The first part of paper introduces a complete continuous dynamic System, consists of signal acquisition and communication, automated signal processing and management, investigation of the interaction between structures and its environmental/operational conditions, feature extraction and detection of structural modification.
The rest of paper describes the applications of continuous dynamic monitoring System to different structures such as a wind turbine System and a highway bridge.

A prototype of wind turbines in 5 megawatt dass was built and tested at the first German offshore wind energy test fteld in the North Sea. In order to investigate dynamic behaviors under a complex state of loads, a continuous dynamic monitoring System was implemented by Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing (BAM). It recorded structural responses and environmental/operational variables from November 2007 to October 2009.
This paper presents significant resonance phenomenon due to the interaction in the tower-nacelle System under operational conditions. Modal parameters are automatically estimated by the poly reference Least Square Complex Frequency domain (p-LSCF) method. Campbell plot demonstrates that a three-blade passage frequency and its multiples f3n match with the natural frequencies of the wind turbine System in several modal Orders. The damping estimates decrease and the Vibration amplitude increase significantly. A control System is necessary to minimize the excessive vibrations.

The second part of these companion papers mainly researches environmental/operational influences on structural dynamic properties under normal operational conditions during two years, in order to extract a statistical based damage-sensitive indicator for health monitoring of a wind turbine system.
The correlation analyses between experimental identified frequencies, damping values as well as mode shapes and environmental/operational factors such as rotation speed of blades, wind speed, pitch angle, temperature and nacelle direction are presented. It is observed that the frequency estimates are influenced by the nacelle position, the activation of rotor, the rotation speed of blades and the wind speed as well as the temperature. Regarding to the damping estimates, they are mainly associated with variation of the aerodynamic damping due to the increasing wind speed. Besides, the resonance phenomenon is also observed in higher modes. The harmonic frequencies due to blades passing by tower are found and the corresponding damping value decreases. Moreover, the mode shapes in some modes are strongly affected by the position of the nacelle.
Subsequently, two types of simulated damage including the reduction of stiffness in both the rotor blade and the tubular tower are successfully detected by applying the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based methods to these temperature-sensitive frequency estimates. Comparison of change of the extracted health features indicates that they are more sensitive with the tower damage.

Vibration-based structural health monitoring of a wind turbine system. Part I: Resonance phenomenon
(2015)

This paper is focused on a resonance phenomenon of a wind turbine system in 5 MW class, on the basis of dynamic signals acquired continuously from the tubular tower under normal operational conditions during two years.
Firstly, technique specifications of the wind turbine system are introduced and a finite element model is developed to characterize the structural dynamic properties. The following part describes the continuous dynamic monitoring system integrated with an automated operational modal analysis procedure using the poly-reference Least Squares Complex Frequency domain (p-LSCF) method. Subsequently, variations and mutual relationships of environmental/operational factors such as vibration amplitude, temperature, wind speed, rotation speed of blades, pitch angle and nacelle direction are also presented. Finally, significant resonance is observed due to the fundamental frequency of the tower matching with the harmonic frequency induced by the rotation of three blades. As the rotation speed of rotor approaches to 8 rpm, the vibration amplitude of the tower increases significantly and the corresponding damping value decreases. With the further rising wind velocity, the rotation speed of blades stops increasing and the input energy just contribute to accumulate the vibration amplitude of tower. Such observation indicates the Sommerfeld effect that aggravates the resonance phenomenon. A vibration control device is necessary to minimize the excessive structural responses.
A companion paper will further discuss the environmental/operational effects on dynamic properties of the wind turbine system under the operational conditions.

A software prototype is developed for assessing and updating the reliability of single-cell prestressed concrete box girders subjected to chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. The underlying system model consists of two integrated sub-models: a condition model for predicting the deterioration state of the box girder and a structural model for evaluating the overall system reliability. The condition model is based on a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model which considers the spatial variation of the corrosion process. Inspection data are included in the calculation of the system reliability through Bayesian updating on the basis of the DBN model. To demonstrate the effect of partial inspections, the software prototype is applied to a case study of a typical highway bridge with six spans. The case study illustrates that it is possible to infer the condition of uninspected parts of the structure due to the spatial correlation of the corrosion process.

En este artículo se presentan 2 metodologías basadas en las formulaciones del Método de los Elementos de Contorno y del Método de los Elementos Finitos para estudiar el efecto de la interacción suelo-estructura en el comportamiento dinámico de edificaciones. Se ha estudiado la respuesta de un edificio de 3 plantas producida por un campo de ondas incidente con los 2 métodos propuestos. Los resultados obtenidos presentan un buen grado de acuerdo entre ellos. A partir de estos resultados se ha validado un modelo aproximado para estudiar este tipo de problemas y se han examinado diferentes tipologías de edificaciones. Las conclusiones alcanzadas muestran que la respuesta global de las estructuras se debe a la deformación de los forjados y depende de su superficie, de las condiciones de apoyo y del acoplamiento con los forjados de la misma planta. Del mismo modo, se ha observado un acoplamiento del comportamiento de pilares y forjados cuando las rigideces de ambos son similares.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This paper presents 2 methodologies based on the Boundary Element Method and the Finite Element Method to study soil-structure interaction effect on building behaviour. A 3-story building response induced by an incident wave field is studied using both methods. The results obtained show a good agreement. Then, a simplified model is validated from these methods and several buildings are analysed. Conclusions show that structural responses are due to floor deformation, and depend on their area, support conditions and coupling. A coupling between floors and columns when both elements have similar stiffness is also observed.