## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Schlagworte

- Fatigue (10)
- Finite element method (8)
- Ground vibration (7)
- Slab track (7)
- Soil-structure interaction (6)
- Concrete (5)
- Grout (5)
- Interface (5)
- Track damage (5)
- Train-induced ground vibration (5)
- Vibration measurements (5)
- Boundary element method (4)
- Cracks (4)
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- Field tests (4)
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- Offshore wind turbines (4)
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- Repair (4)
- Temperature rejection (4)
- Train passage (4)
- Truss structures (4)
- Vehicle-track-soil interaction (4)
- Axial force (3)
- Compaction Grouting (3)
- Contact problem (3)
- Damage evolution (3)
- Damage localization (3)
- Dynamic test (3)
- Finite-element boundary-element method (3)
- Fire (3)
- High-cycle (3)
- Inspection (3)
- Inspection planning (3)
- LBM-DEM (3)
- Layered soils (3)
- Mitigation (3)
- Modal parameters (3)
- Model updating (3)
- Monitoring (3)
- Offshore Pile Foundation (3)
- Optimization technique (3)
- Physical phenomenology (3)
- SHM (3)
- Soil properties (3)
- Train passages (3)
- Tunnel (3)
- ground vibration (3)
- mitigation (3)
- railway track (3)
- Acoustic emission analysis (2)
- Acoustic emission testing (2)
- Amplitude-charge weight laws (2)
- Amplitude-distance laws (2)
- Analysis of variance (2)
- Ballast track (2)
- Ballast tracks (2)
- Box-Behnken (2)
- Cable failure (2)
- Cable-stayed bridge (2)
- Compressive cyclic loading (2)
- Compressive strength (2)
- Continuously inhomogeneous soils (2)
- DUCON® (2)
- Damage Evolution (2)
- Design methods (2)
- Digital image correlation (2)
- Displacements (2)
- Ductility (2)
- Dynamic testing (2)
- E-modulus (2)
- Energy (2)
- Erosion (2)
- Experimental testing (2)
- Explosion-induced ground vibrations (2)
- Failure (2)
- Finite element model updating (2)
- Generalized plasticity (2)
- Granular cohesion (2)
- Ground vibration measurements (2)
- Grouted Connection (2)
- Grouted connections (2)
- Grouting (2)
- HTLS (2)
- Hammer tests (2)
- High-Cycle (2)
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- Impact (2)
- Injection Sequence (2)
- Iron and steel truss structures (2)
- Jet erosion (2)
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- Offshore (2)
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- Offshore wind energy (2)
- Offshore wind energy converter (2)
- Pile bending stiffness (2)
- Pile foundation (2)
- Prediction of explosion induced ground and building vibration (2)
- Quasi-static and dynamic tests (2)
- Railway vibration (2)
- Rehabilitation (2)
- Reliability (2)
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- Risk (2)
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- Sand (2)
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- Suction bucket (2)
- Supplementary cementitious materials (2)
- Tensile Capacity (2)
- Tensile capacity (2)
- Track damage monitoring (2)
- Track vibration (2)
- Track-soil interaction (2)
- UHPC (2)
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- Uncertainty (2)
- Under-ballast plate (2)
- Value of information (2)
- Vehicle-track interaction (2)
- Vibration measurement (2)
- Wavenumber integrals (2)
- Wind energy tower (2)
- track-soil interaction (2)
- undersleeper (2)
- 1-D insertion loss (1)
- 3D imaging (1)
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- Aerodynamic damping (1)
- Ambient vibration (1)
- Amplitude-distance law (1)
- Analysis (1)
- Assessment (1)
- Authorities approval process (1)
- Axial and lateral design (1)
- Axial force identification (1)
- Axial pile capacity (1)
- Axle box measurements (1)
- Ballast (1)
- Base isolation (1)
- Beanspruchungszustand (1)
- Blasting charge (1)
- Bridge transition zone (1)
- Changing excitation (1)
- Clay fill (1)
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- Cohesive soils (1)
- Compaction grouting (1)
- Comparative study (1)
- Components of excitation (1)
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- Erosion onset (1)
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- Evaluation of crack fields (1)
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- FED (1)
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- Filter effect of the soil (1)
- Finite-Elemente-Modellkalibrierung (1)
- Fly ash (1)
- Fractional effective dose (1)
- Freileitung (1)
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- Geomechanics (1)
- Geomechanics of offshore foundations (1)
- Grout Injection (1)
- Grouted connection (1)
- High temperature low sag (1)
- High temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors (1)
- High temperature low sag conductors (1)
- Impact test (1)
- Inhomogeneous soils (1)
- Inspektion (1)
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- Interface model (1)
- Jet erosion test (1)
- Joint capacity (1)
- LBM-DEM numerical simulation (1)
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- Offshore wind farms (1)
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- Onset of jet erosion (1)
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- Overhead transmission line (1)
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- PLIF-RIM optical techniques (1)
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- Pile Capacity (1)
- Pile ageing (1)
- Piles (1)
- Prediction (1)
- RIM-PLIF techniques (1)
- Railway embankment (1)
- Railway induced ground vibration (1)
- Railway measurement campaign (1)
- Railway tracks (1)
- Regular inspection (1)
- Reinforced concrete (1)
- Reliability updating (1)
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- Road (1)
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- Scaled boundary finite element method (1)
- Scattered axle impulses (1)
- Schwingungsmessungen (1)
- Self-damping (1)
- Service life performance (1)
- Shear keys (1)
- Shearing (1)
- Shrinkage (1)
- Shrinkage Reducing Admixture (1)
- Smoke (1)
- Soft track elements (1)
- Soil erosion (1)
- Soil-building interaction (1)
- Soil-grout interface (1)
- Soil-pile interaction (1)
- State of stress (1)
- Static load test (1)
- Steel (1)
- Steel driven piles (1)
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- Stress state (1)
- Structural analyses (1)
- Structural health monitoring (SHM) (1)
- Structural performance (1)
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- Structural reliability and risks (1)
- Subspace methods (1)
- Subspace-methods (1)
- Substructures (1)
- Superplasticizer (1)
- Supplementary Cementitious Materials (1)
- System (1)
- TOP (1)
- Target stiffness (1)
- Temperature (1)
- Toxicity (1)
- Track beam (1)
- Track deterioration (1)
- Train configuration (1)
- Train excitation (1)
- Train speed (1)
- Train-track interaction (1)
- Tran speed (1)
- Turbulent Wind Excitation (1)
- Un- certainty (1)
- Uncertainty in reference (1)
- Vibration behaviour (1)
- Vibrations (1)
- Wave-Tower interaction (1)
- Wavenumber method (1)
- Westend bridge (1)
- Wheelset accelerations (1)
- Wiederkehrende Prüfung (1)
- Wind tunnel experiments (1)
- Windfarm wake analysis (1)
- fachwerkartige Stahltragwerken (1)
- floor vibration (1)
- modal analysis (1)
- sleeper pads (1)
- temperature (1)
- wave analysis (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (146) (entfernen)

Three measurement campaigns of train-induced ground vibrations are evaluated for the vehicle-track-soil interaction. Ground vibrations, track vibrations and vehicle vibrations have been measured for train passages and impulse excitation and compared with theoretical results.
The soil and the track-soil system are calculated by wavenumber integrals. The influence of the vehicle is introduced by a substructure method. By comparing theory and measurement the different components of excitation force and ground vibration can be analysed, the quasi-static excitation, track-alignment errors, the out-of-roundness of wheels, the wheel and rail roughness, and moreover, scattered axle impulses and ineffective high-frequency parts of the wheelset accelerations and forces.

We examine the behavior of reinforced concrete components subjected to impact induced loading conditions which might be caused by vessels collisions such as aircraft fuel tanks The concrete plates were impact damaged at TU Dresden and shipped to BAM At BAM laminar tomography as the imaging method is used to determine and quantify the damage state An automatic crack detection method based on template matching is applied to find the cracks and we aim to develop a new method using machine learning Algorithms In addition numerical models are developed to understand the experiment and to predict the damage structures based on failure mechanisms.

Driven steel piles are commonly used as deep foundations for a wide range of engineering structures, particularly in the offshore branch. They are also an interesting example among the broad spectrum of geotechnical applications where the fluid-solid interaction at the pore-scale can play a major role for the macromechanical behaviour of the whole system.
In the context of the geotechnical practice for offshore wind-farm structures, both the industrial design and the actual dimensions of the large piles used as foundations in the seabed are often driven by factors such as the soil resistance to driving (SRD), which are still not well understood and often estimated based on mere empirical correlations or overly simplified one-dimensional models. In particular, the role of the micromechanical effects during the installation process (e.g. local dilatancy or contractancy) and their consequences on the pore pressure levels at the pile-tip and on the effective resistance to driving, are generally either disregarded or at most assumed to be covered by the simplified engineering “black-box” solutions.
Here, we propose a general framework to address such local aspects of a geotechnical application involving fluid-saturated soils while retaining the focus on the micro-scale phenomena. We advocate for an approach that combines the relative simplicity of the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for the solid mechanics with the capabilities of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for the fluid dynamics. In this sense, we aim to compile some useful techniques and practical recommendations for an efficient GPU-based implementation of a micromechanical LBM-DEM simulation tool.

The aim of an ongoing research project is to develop a design approach for typical offshore driven piles (e.g. Jacket piles) based on the application of injections by compaction grouting directly at the pile shaft. The paper aims to present the results of laboratory and in-situ tests, which reveal the efficiency and the promising potential of the optimised foundation concept for a more economic dimensioning of pile foundations and to increase their bearing capacity in non-cohesive soil at any moment after installation.

The increasing use of renewable energies leads to a constant search for optimised foundation concepts aiming to reduce the costs for offshore wind turbines. In an ongoing research project, we are developing a design approach for typical offshore driven piles based on the application of injections by compaction grouting directly at the pile shaft. Compaction grouting as a ground improvement technique has been used widely as a countermeasure against liquefaction, settlement and low bearing capacity of soil under new or already existing structures. It is performed by forcing highly viscous grout into the soil to displace and compact the surrounding soil without fracturing or penetrating it. Regarding this injection method, this paper gives a brief overview about general aspects such as appropriate soil characteristics and grouting parameters, grouting equipment and fields of application particularly in the offshore sector. This indicates the ability of our optimisation concept to provide an economic alternative to larger pile dimensions and a retrofitting technique, which is available during the entire lifetime of the foundation and can be deployed only in case of necessity (e.g. excessive deformations or insufficient structural stiffness after an extreme load event).
Besides the material feasibility and the constructive realisation of this improvement measure, the development of a corresponding verification concept is crucial in order to ensure the safety and durability of the retrofitted offshore piles. Here we will examine various verification concepts with their respective limitations in the framework of the limit state design. Furthermore, we will present the experimental findings from field tests in sand indicating the advantages of several local injections by compaction grouting for the enhancement of the load bearing behaviour of pile foundations. The test results were also used to validate a numerical model, developed with the finite element program PLAXIS, aiming to predict the expected bearing capacity for different injection scenarios (e.g. grout volume, location of injection points) along a pile shaft.

Measured train passages and hammer impacts in combination with track-soil calculation have been successfully used for the detection of damaged slab tracks. This approach is now extended to intact slab and ballast tracks. The vibrations of many tracks have been measured at several levels from rail, sleeper, track plate, base plate, base layer to the subsoil by velocity or acceleration sensors. The time histories have to be integrated once or twice to get the displacements. The displacement signals include an arbitrary time-dependent shift which must be eliminated or respected in the interpretation. On the other hand, the calculation of slab and ballast tracks have been done in frequency-wavenumber domain. The displacements along the track and the frequency-dependent compliance transfer functions can be calculated. The latter can be compared with the results of the hammer impacts on the track. The deformation of the track can be transformed to time histories for a whole train and compared to the measured train passages. Many slab (and ballast) tracks have been measured at different sites. The displacements of the tracks are presented, and the following parameters have been analysed in the measurement results: slab track vs. ballast track, different types of slab tracks, damaged slab tracks, different trains, switches at different measuring points, an elastic layer, the mortar layer, different soils at different places. The soil should have the dominant influence on the track-plate displacements. Slab and ballast track yield also big differences in maximum displacement and width of deformation. Some of the preceding aspects will be analysed in comparison of measurement and theory.

The shaft bearing capacity often plays a dominant role for the overall structural behaviour of axially loaded piles in offshore deep foundations. Under cyclic loading, a narrow zone of soil at the pile-soil interface is subject to cyclic shearing solicitations. Thereby, the soil may densify and lead to a decrease of confining stress around the pile due to microphenomena such as particle crushing, migration and rearrangement. This reduction of radial stress has a direct impact on the shaft capacity, potentially leading in extreme cases to pile failure. An adequate interface model is needed in order to model this behaviour numerically. Different authors have proposed models that take typical Interface phenomena in account such as densification, grain breakage, normal pressure effect and roughness. However, as the models become more complex, a great number of material parameters need to be defined and calibrated. This paper proposes the adoption and transformation of an existing soil bulk model (Pastor- Zienkiewicz) into an interface model. To calibrate the new interface model, the results of an experimental campaign with the ring shear device under cyclic loading conditions are here presented. The constitutive model shows a good capability to reproduce typical features of sand behaviour such as cyclic compaction and dilatancy, which in saturated partially-drained conditions may lead to liquefaction and cyclic mobility phenomena.

The structural performance of many geotechnical systems (e.g. axially-loaded pile foundations), depends on the shearing resistance at the soil interface, which may govern the load bearing capacity of the foundation. Experimental investigations have shown that this interaction is mainly localised within a narrow shear band next to the structure. Under cyclic loading, a contraction of the soil at the interface may arise (net volume loss), possibly leading to a stress relaxation and thus to a reduction of the load bearing capacity (the so-called friction fatigue). Based on the constitutive similarities between soil continua and interfaces, we propose here the adaption of a Generalized Plasticity model for sandy soils for the numerical analysis of interface problems. In this contribution, the results of an experimental campaign for the parameter calibration of the constitutive model are presented. The tests have been conducted with a ring shear device involving different normal stresses, roughness of the steel plates as well as cyclic loading. The new modelling approach shows promising results and has the additional practical advantage that the interface zone and the soil continuum can both be described with the same constitutive model in general boundary value problems.

Methods have been presented for detailed studies of railway vibration and for the fast prediction of train-induced ground vibration. The ground vibration is generated by static or dynamic loads. The main purpose of this contribution was to show the influence of inhomogeneous soils on the different vibration components.
Layered soils, namely a soft layer on a stiffer half-space, yield a quite specific transmission behavior. The low-frequency and sometimes also high-frequency cut-off of the transfer function of the soil is demonstrated in theory and by experiments at many sites of which the soil model is approximated from dispersion and transfer function measurements. The layer frequency divides the frequency range in a low-frequency range, where the stiff half-space rules the low amplitudes, and a high amplitude high-frequency range which is mainly determined by the softer top layer. A thick soft layer yields a very low layer frequency, so that the higher soft soil amplitudes have a wider range down to low frequencies. A thin layer yields a high layer frequency, so that the high frequencies above this layer frequency are dominant. The higher the contrast between the stiff half-space and the soft layer is, the stronger the increase between the half-space and layer amplitudes, the more characteristic are the spectra of the soil transfer function. The range of measured soils has been from vS1 down to 125 m/s, vS2 up to 1000 m/s and the layer frequencies are within 10 Hz < f0 < 75 Hz. Moreover, during this measuring campaign in Switzerland, all 11 sites showed clearly the layer-on-half-space behaviour. The transfer functions of inhomogeneous soils have been used to predict the ground vibration due to dynamic axle loads which is usually thought to be the most important component.
The passage of static loads, in the contrary, results in very small vibration amplitudes for low train speeds, which can only be found at near distances and at low frequencies. They attenuate very rapidly with distance and lose very rapidly the higher frequency content. The passage of static axle loads can be included in the prediction of railway vibration just for completeness.
Special attention should be given to the case if the train runs with the Rayleigh-wave speed of the soil (Rayleigh train). The Rayleigh-train effect is strongest for a homogeneous half-space: At the near-field of the track the amplitudes are raised strongly compared to normal trains, and in addition, little attenuation with distance is observed. In case of a layered soil, the low-frequency cut-off reduces the frequency range and the amplitudes of the homogeneous quasi-static ground vibrations. Therefore, the Rayleigh-train effects are clearly reduced by a layered soil and they disappear if the layer frequency (for example for a thin layer) is higher than the frequency band of the axle impulse. The Rayleigh-train effect could completely disappear in a randomly inhomogeneous soil, but this has not been analysed so far.
The axle impulses from static loads can have an additional, quite different effect. They can be scattered by a randomly inhomogeneous soil so that a part (the scattered part) of the axle impulse can reach further distances from the track. This can establish a certain mid-frequency component of the ground vibration which becomes dominant in the far-field, and this important component exists for all train speeds. Experimental results from BAM and international measurements show the importance of the corresponding frequency range.
The mitigation of train induced ground vibration by elastic and stiff track elements has been analysed threefold. The vehicle-track interaction yields the reduction at high frequencies above the vehicle-track resonance. This is the standard effect. The filtering of trackbed errors by the bending stiffness of the track yields a certain mid-frequency effect. An even stronger mid-frequency effect is predicted for the mitigation of the scattered axle impulses by the bending stiffness and elastic elements of the track.

Abstract. Three measurement campaigns of train-induced ground vibrations are evaluated for the vehicle-track-soil interaction. Ground vibrations, track vibrations and vehicle vibrations have been measured for train passages and impulse excitation and compared with theoretical results.
The soil and the track-soil system are calculated by wavenumber integrals. The influence of the vehicle is introduced by a substructure method. By comparing theory and measurement the different components of excitation force and ground vibration can be analysed, the quasi-static excitation, track-alignment errors, the out-of-roundness of wheels, the wheel and rail roughness, and moreover, scattered axle impulses and ineffective high-frequency parts of the wheelset accelerations and forces.

Temperature variation can be a nuisance that perturbs vibration based structural health monitoring (SHM) approaches for civil engineering structures. In this paper, temperature affected vibration data is evaluated within a stochastic damage detection framework, which relies on a null space based residual. Besides two existing temperature rejection approaches – building a reference state from an averaging method or a piecewise method – a new approach is proposed, using model interpolation. In this approach, a General reference model is obtained from data in the reference state at several known reference temperatures.
Then, for a particular tested temperature, a local reference model is derived from the general reference model. Thus, a well fitting reference null space for the formulation of a residual is available when new data is tested for damage detection at an arbitrary temperature. Particular attention is paid to the computation of the residual covariance, taking into account the uncertainty related to the null space Matrix estimate. This improves the test performance, contrary to prior methods, for local and global damages, resulting in a higher probability of detection (PoD) for the new interpolation approach compared to previous approaches.

The subject of damage localization is an important issue for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) particularly in mechanical or civil structures under ambient excitation. In this paper, the statistical subspacebased damage localization method has been applied on a benchmark application, namely a 1/200 scale model of the Saint-Nazaire Bridge, which is a cable-stayed bridge located on the Loire River near the river’s mouth. The employed damage localization method combines data-driven features with physical parameter information from a finite element model in statistical tests, avoiding typical ill-conditioning problems of FE model updating. Damage is introduced in the mockup for cable failures on some of the 72 cables. The purpose of the experiment is to assess the capability of damage assessment methods to find a cable failure.

The Stochastic Dynamic Damage Locating Vector (SDDLV) approach is a vibration-based damage localization method based on both a finite element model of a structure and modal parameters estimated from output-only measurements in the damage and reference states. A statistical version of the Approach takes into account the inherent uncertainty due to noisy measurement data. In this paper, the effect of temperature fluctuations on the performance of the method is analyzed in a model-based approach using a finite element model with temperature dependent parameters. Robust damage localization is carried out by rejecting the temperature influence on the identified modal parameters in the damaged state. The algorithm is illustrated on a simulated structure.

Temperature variation can be a nuisance that perturbs vibration based structural health monitoring (SHM) approaches for civil engineering structures. In this paper, temperature affected vibration data is evaluated within a stochastic damage detection framework, which relies on a null space based residual. Besides two existing temperature rejection approaches – building a reference state from an averaging method or a piecewise method – a new approach is proposed, using model interpolation. In this approach, a general reference model is obtained from data in the reference state at several known reference temperatures. Then, for a particular tested temperature, a local reference model is derived from the general reference model. Thus, a well fitting reference null space for the formulation of a residual is available when new data is tested for damage detection at an arbitrary temperature. Particular attention is paid to the computation of the residual covariance, taking into account the uncertainty related to the null space matrix estimate. This improves the test performance, contrary to prior methods, for local and global damages, resulting in a higher probability of detection (PoD) for the new interpolation approach compared to previous approaches.

Two measurement campaigns of train-induced ground vibrations are evaluated for the vehicle-track-soil interaction. Ground vibrations, track vibrations and vehicle vibrations have been measured for train passages and impulse excitation and compared with theoretical results. The soil and the track-soil system are calculated by wavenumber integrals. The influence of the vehicle is introduced by a substructure method. By comparing theory and measurement the different components of excitation force and ground vibration can be analysed, the quasi-static excitation, track-alignment errors, the out-of-roundness of wheels, the wheel and rail roughness, and moreover, scattered axle impulses and ineffective high-frequency parts of the wheelset accelerations and forces.

Three measurement campaigns of train-induced ground vibrations are evaluated for the vehicle-track-soil interaction. Ground vibrations, track vibrations and vehicle vibrations have been measured for train passages and impulse excitation and compared with theoretical results. The soil and the track-soil system are calculated by wavenumber integrals. The influence of the vehicle is introduced by a substructure method. By comparing theory and measurement the different components of excitation force and ground vibration can be analysed, the quasi-static excitation, track-alignment errors, the out-of-roundness of wheels, the wheel and rail roughness, and moreover, scattered axle impulses and ineffective high-frequency parts of the wheelset accelerations and Forces.

Superplasticizer and Shrinkage Reducing Admixture Dosages for Microfine Cement in Grout Systems
(2019)

Grouts have numerous applications including crack repair as maintenance in construction industries. Microfine cements are intensively used for high strength mortar and grout products. They are ideal for injection grouting in structural repair. Such grouts should have suitable rheological properties to be injectable, especially those used in repair and rehabilitation. The use of superplasticizers (SP) in these products is thus becoming increasingly crucial to achieve favorable workability and viscosity properties. A difficulty in such grouts is the plastic shrinkage due to finer particles used. It is thus necessary to determine optimum SP and shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) dosages for a microfine cement based grout. In this study, a saturation dosage was decided from two Polycarboxylate ether (PCE) based SPs in relation to neat cement using slump flow and rheological parameters. A range of grout mixtures was formulated containing micro silica (MS) and fly ash (FA), and tested for suitable rheological and mechanical parameters. Based on the results, a grout mixture with MS and FA was selected to determine optimum SRA content. According to the results, a SP dosage of 3% by weight of neat cement is sufficient to achieve saturation. The grout material including MS and FA can produce comparable properties to neat cement grout. MS is found to improve compressive strength within the range considered, whereas a higher FA content provides favourable rheological properties. Finally, a SRA dosage of 4%, which could reduce the shrinkage by about 43% after 28d days, is determined for the grout system.

Grouts are particularly favoured in rehabilitation of structures due to penetrability and convenience of application. Grouts for repair applications typically require high-performance properties such as rapid strength development and superior shrinkage characteristics. Sometimes industrial by-products referred as supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) are used with neat cement due to their capabilities to provide binding properties at delayed stage. Micro silica, fly ash and metakaolin are such SCMs, those can modify and improve properties of cement products. This study aims at investigating long-term mass loss and linear shrinkage along with long-term compressive and flexural strength for grouts produced from ultrafine cement and SCMs. A series of mixtures were formulated to observe the effect of SCMs on these grout properties. Properties were determined after 365 days of curing at 23 °C and 55% relative humidity. The effect of SCMs on the properties are characterised by statistical models. Response surfaces were constructed to quantify these properties in relation to SCMs replacement. The results suggested that shrinkage was reduced by metakaolin, while micro silica and fly ash had positive effects on compressive and flexural strength, respectively.

This presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures.
The first lecture presents a brief introduction to the context and peculiarities of such foundations, and then focuses on the particular case of axially loaded piles. This part is most relevant for the relatively slender piles of the multi-pile substructures (i.e. jackets and tripods). A clear distinction between physical phenomenology and practical design is drawn here.
The second lecture continues with the case of lateraly loaded offshore piles, which bears most relevance for the case of the monopile foundations. Here again, a clear separation between physical reality and design methods is intended.
Finally, the last part of the second lecture introduces several advanced topics which lie outside the classical design approaches, namely the hydromechanical coupling effects (i.e. the excess pore-pressure generation around the monopiles), the cyclic pile fatigue and the so-called pile Setup (i.e. the time effects on the axial pile capacity). The relevance of the latter two topics is illustrated with experimental results from a field testing campaign on real large-scale piles.

The governing load bearing mechanism of multi-pile foundations is often the shaft friction. Under cyclic loading the soil particles next to the foundation rearrange and tend to compact leading to a decrease of the surrounding normal stress. The reduction of the normal stress leads to a lower threshold for shear stress (friction fatigue), which results in a degraded shaft bearing capacity. The common interface models used for numerical simulations (e.g. Mohr-Coulomb) are not able to capture such behavior. This work aims to develop an interface material model that incorporates such features of the contact behavior at the soil-structure interface.

The response of many geotechnical systems, whose structural behavior depends on shearing effect, is closely related to soil structure interaction phenomenon. Experimentally it is found that the localisation of these effect happens at a narrow soil layer next to the structure. Numerically, this behavior can be modelled through interface elements and adequate constitutive models. In this work, a constitutive model in the framework of Generalized Plasticity for sandy soils has been chosen to be adapted for the interface zone.
From the direct shear experiments a sandy soil at loose and dense states under different normal pressures is considered. The adapted constitutive model is able to reproduce contraction and dilatation of the soil according to its relative density and it shows a good agreement with the experimental data.

The response of many geotechnical systems, whose structural behavior depends on granular friction and a shearing effect with the ground, is characterized by a complex soil-structure interaction at their interfaces. Experimentally it is found that this interaction is highly non-linear, state-dependent and localized within a narrow layer of soil next to the structure, whereby cyclic loads can play a key role. Numerically, this behavior is often modelled with overly simplified models of interface elements that neglect cyclic effects within the soil. This work introduces a new perspective with an adequate constitutive model in the framework of Generalized Plasticity for sandy soils for an improved consideration of the interface mechanics.

Within the presented research project, experimental and numerical investigations were performed to develop a thin-shelled, modular, mobile element system made of a micro-reinforced ultra-high-performance ductile concrete (DUCON®). Material parameters were experimentally determined to adapt the material model within the numerical analysis applying the Drucker-Prager relationship. Afterwards, for validation of the numerical models, quasi-static and high-velocity impact tests were performed on plate-like structures. Finally, a suitable geometry of transportable barrier elements will be designed, which provides a maximum of resistance against impact by a minimum of weight and a maximum of mobility.

Grouting is a universal repair and strengthening technique, which is constantly used for structural remediation of concrete components, trenches, mine subsidence, dam joints, restoration of masonry structures, and geological stabilizations. Having an extremely small particle size of only few microns, ultrafine cements are ideal for grouting applications due to their superior permeability and compressive strength properties of the hardened cement paste compared to that of the less-expensive, but coarser ordinary Portland cements. Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are often used to replace ultrafine cement in order to modify certain properties and to reduce costs. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the effect of three supplementary materials: microsilica (MS), fly ash (FA), and metakaolin (MK) on the workability, and mechanical properties of an ultrafine cement based grout with a constant water-binder ratio and constant superplasticizer content. Maximum percentages of replacement with ultrafine cement were 6% by volume of cement for MS and 16% for FA, and MK. In general, results suggest that the workability is improved by addition of FA, whereas is reduced, when modified with MS and MK. The compressive strength of grout after cement replacement remains comparable to that of pure cement grout. However, there is a tendency of the MS to positively affect the compressive strength opposite to FA, whereas flexural strength is positively affected by FA. Based on the results, it is evident that grouts with Hägerman cone flow more than 500 mm and compressive strength of more than 90 MPa after 28 days can be produced.

Surface erosion of a cohesive granular soil by a fluid flow is investigated numerically by coupling the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for the fluid phase and the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for describing the motion of the solid particles. In addition, inter-particles cohesion is insured by a contact model featuring a paraboloidal yield surface. The use of a fully resolved LBM-DEM coupling technique is currently limited due to the computational cost when simulating a large number of particles. This issue can be overcome using the graphics processing unit (GPU) thanks to ist massively parallel hardware architecture. Here, we first present a 2D GPU implementation of LBM-DEM coupling for a granular assembly. The GPU implementations are approximatively 30 times faster than a single core CPU version. Then, we apply the parallelization technique to practical erosional cases, namely the jet erosion test (JET) and the shear-driven erosion by a Couette flow. These numerical tests aim to relate micro parameters of a cohesive material (eg. cohesion) to macro parameters (eg. soil erodibility, mechanical strengths). Preliminary results show that micromechanical features indeed provide a novel insight of soil erosion phenomena.

The local asymptotic approach is promising for vibration-based fault diagnosis when associated to a subspace-based residual function and efficient hypothesis testing tools. It has the ability of detecting small changes in some chosen system parameters. In the residual function, the left null space of the observability matrix associated to a reference model is confronted to the Hankel matrix of output covariances estimated from test data. When this left null space is not perfectly known from a model, it should be replaced by an estimate from data to avoid model errors in the residual computation. In this paper, the asymptotic distribution of the resulting data-driven residual is analyzed and its covariance is estimated, which includes also the covariance related to the reference null space estimate. The importance of including the covariance of the reference null space estimate is shown in a numerical study.

Identifying optimal inspection and repair strategies for offshore jacket structures is a challenging task. We pre-sent an approach, which is based on recent developments in the field of risk-based operation and maintenance planning at the structural system level. The approach utilizes heuristics to define inspection and repair strate-gies at the system level and to reduce the search space of possible strategies. For each defined strategy, the expected service life cost of inspection, repair and failure is evaluated based on simulated inspection and re-pair histories. Subset simulation is applied to compute the conditional repair and failure probabilities required for this analysis. It also forms the basis for simulating inspection and repair histories. The strategy that mini-mizes the expected service life cost is the optimal one in the set of pre-selected strategies. The underlying condition and performance model accounts for the stochastic dependence among the deterioration states of the different structural elements and the structural redundancy. The approach is demonstrated in a case study considering a jacket-type frame. In this study, we essentially vary the inspection interval, the minimum num-ber of inspected components and the target reliability, and identify the combination that minimizes the ex-pected total service life cost.

Measurements of ground and track vibrations have been performed at a high-speed line in northern Germany. Impacts on the track and the ground, and passages of different trains with different speeds on different tracks have been measured. Transfer functions of the soil are presented and approximated by theoretical soil models. By using these transfer functions, the measured ground vibration between 2 to 64 m distance from the track can be transformed into a load spectrum which can be used for predictions at other sites. The method is compared to the soil-dependent method of an emission spectrum at a certain distance (8 m for example). The influence of train type, speed and track type is discussed on the base of the different emission quantities and the original measurements. The strong influence of the track, ballast track and slab track, is analysed by a theoretical model in wavenumber domain. The response of the track to the passage of the static load is reduced by the stiffness of the slab, the deformation of the track as well as the impulse acting on the soil. Usually, the impulse on the soil should result in a slow quasi-static movement of the soil, slower at further distances. In a heterogeneous soil, however, the impulses from the static loads scatter and keep parts of the higher impulse frequency band. In this case the reduced impulse spectra of the slab track will yield reduced ground vibration in a certain frequency band. Additional (BAM and international) measurements will be used to discuss this and possible other explanations for the different ground vibration differences.

The worldwide spread of windfarms brings new challenges, especially for concrete structures as a part of towers, connecting joints and foundations of wind turbines. High-cyclic loadings in such structures lead to a high relevance of the subject of fatigue. A proper assessment of the fatigue strength of concrete demands therefore a basis of reliable experimental data and the development of standardized testing methods. This article presents first results of an ongoing research program of BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung) which is a part of a joint project (WinConFat) funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. The subproject investigates the effects of size and slenderness of the specimens on the fatigue behaviour of high strength concrete at different stress levels. Not only the fatigue strength, but also the fatigue process itself is monitored by means of several measurement methods. Strain measurements are used to calculate the load dependent elastic modulus in the fatigue hysteresis as indicators for fatigue development. Furthermore, the application of non-destructive methods like acoustic emission analysis and ultrasonic measurement in laboratory tests gives a deeper insight into damage processes under cyclic loading. The results shall be used to improve design rules for concrete members under fatigue load and to develop or improve non-destructive techniques for in-service structural health monitoring.

Use of DEM-LBM modeling to prove the relevance of free jet model for soil erosion by impinging jet
(2018)

The aim of this study is to provide a micromechanical insight into the mechanisms taking place during the erosion of a cohesive granular material driven by a fluid flow, the objectives are summarized as follows:
Perform numerical erosion tests.
Parallelization of the code (Gpu).
Extensive parametric analysis => rely micro parameters (eg. Cohesion) to macro parameters (eg. Soil erodibility, mechanical strengths).

The erosion phenomena is the main cause of the most serious incidents observed on earthen hydraulic structures such as dams and dikes. Thus, there is a real need to explore in depth and understand the mechanisms at work in such complex erosional processes for preventing similar risks.
The aim of this study is to provide a micromechanical insight into the mechanisms taking place during the erosion of a cohesive granular material driven by a fluid flow, the objectives are summarized as follows:
Perform numerical erosion tests.
Parallelization of the code (Gpu).
Extensive parametric analysis => rely micro parameters (eg. Cohesion) to macro parameters (eg. Soil erodibility, mechanical strengths).

This talk provides a brief introduction on general engineering aspects of offshore wind energy production. Some geomechanical issues for the foundation of OWTs into the seabed are introduced, while the results from experimental investigations and coupled computational analysis are discussed.
In the second part of the seminar, the hydromechanical Wave–Tower interaction is firstly discussed. Then, some general aspects of the windfarm aerodynamics are introduced. On the one hand, some modelling possibilities for the wake analysis of single turbines and turbine groups are discussed. And on the other hand the relevance of such analyses for a proper windfarm layout optimization is pointed out.
Concerning the geomechanical issues the talk shows that: i) The pile’s bearing capacity can degrade under cyclic loading (waves, wind, …). ii) The time effects can be relevant: Capacity improvement can be substantial, but also fragile. iii) There are cyclic PWP effects: Cyclic interaction with pore water may lead to soil softening and an uncoupled analysis (current design practice) is potentially unsafe.
And concerning the hydromechanical and aerodynamical design considerations, this seminar shows that: i) Numerical analysis of turbine’s interaction with wind/waves is useful and affordable. ii) Simplified models can provide insight into windfarm aerodynamics. iii) Turbulent wake analysis is very relevant for the windfarm layout.

This presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided in two lectures.
The first lecture presents a brief introduction to the context and peculiarities of such foundations, and then focuses on the particular case of axially loaded piles. This part is most relevant for the relatively slender piles of the multi-pile substructures (i.e. jackets and tripods). A clear distinction between physical phenomenology and practical design is drawn here.
The second lecture continues with the case of lateraly loaded offshore piles, which bears most relevance for the case of the monopile foundations. Here again, a clear separation between physical reality and design methods is intended.
Finally, the last part of the second lecture introduces several advanced topics which lie outside the classical design approaches, namely the cyclic pile fatigue and the so-called pile setup (i.e. the time effects on the axial pile capacity). The relevance of these two topics is illustrated with experimental results from a field testing campaign on real large-scale piles.

Superplasticizer and shrinkage reducing admixture dosages for microfine cement in grout systems
(2018)

Right from the beginning of applying SHM to bridge structures it was obvious that environmental based perturbations on the measurement significantly influence the ability to identify structural damage.
Strategies are needed to classify such effects and consider them appropriately in SHM. Various methods have been developed and analyzed to separate environmental based effects from damage induced changes in the measures. Generally, two main approaches have emerged from research activity in this fields: (a) statistics based tools analyzing patterns in the data or in computed parameters and (b) methods, utilizing the structural model of the bridge taking into account environmental as well as damage based changes of stiffness values.
With the back-ground of increasing affordability of sensing and computing technology, effort should be made to increase sensitivity, reliability and robustness of procedures, separating environmental from damage caused changes in SHM measures. The contribution describes both general strategies and points out their Advantages and drawbacks. As basis, a review on relevant methods was conducted. The aim of the study is to classify approaches for separating damage describing information from environmental based perturbations in dependency of the SHM objective. And such, it is intended to describe a best practice in designing concepts for Monitoring infrastructure, naturally effected by environmental influences.

In recent years, several high temperature low sag conductors (HTLS) have been developed and are now commercially available. Very few utilities have long-term experience with all the technologies. Moreover, most of the operational experience is at low temperatures. An independent testing program at maximum operational temperatures comparing most of the available technologies would provide useful guidance to utilities considering using such conductors.
This paper describes the approach and results of an international research project assessing the long-term reliability of a wide range of commercially available high temperature conductor systems. Each system was exposed to 4,400 hours of simultaneous mechanical and electrical stresses. A set of standard mechanical and electrical tests were carried out to determine any changes. A conventional ACSR conductor was also tested and provided a validation that the testing program was realistic.
The majority of the conductor systems performed satisfactorily. However the ACSS system joint resistance and the grease on the TACSR performed poorly.

The response of many geotechnical systems, whose structural behavior depends on shearing effect, is closely related to soil structure interaction phenomenon. Experimentally it is found that the localisation of these effect happens at a narrow soil layer next to the structure. Numerically, this behavior can be modelled through inter-face elements and adequate constitutive models. In this work, a constitutive model in the framework of Gen-eralized Plasticity for sandy soils has been chosen to be adapted for the interface zone. From the direct shear experiments a sandy soil at loose and dense states under different normal pressures is considered. The adapted constitutive model is able to reproduce contraction and dilatation of the soil according to its relative density and it shows a good agreement with the experimental data.

Explosion-induced ground vibrations have been measured at several places. Results about the wave propagation are shown in this contribution. The particle velocities of the soil have been measured at up to 1000 m distance from the explosion and are presented as time records (seismograms) and one-third octave band spectra (transfer functions). The results are compared with the results of hammer impacts. The seismograms clearly show different wave types, compressional waves of the air, the water and the soil, and the Rayleigh wave. The hammer impacts yield good results up to 100 m and incorporate higher frequencies at about 50 Hz, whereas the explosion results in a ground vibration with frequencies around 10 Hz and a longer range of influence. Explosion and hammer excitations are evaluated for the wave velocities of the soil by using the wavenumber and the spatial auto-correlation method. The attenuation of the ground vibration amplitudes A with distance r can well be presented by a power law A ~ r -q. This type of amplitude-distance law and the corresponding power q > 1 are substantiated in the contribution. The influence of the charge weight W is evaluated as an additional power law A ~ W -p for each measuring site. The power is found quite similarly around q 0.6 as all sites have a medium soft soil such as sand and clay. The obtained amplitude-charge-distance law can be used to predict the explosion-induced ground and building vibrations at other sites.