## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Schlagworte

- Fatigue (20)
- Ground vibration (17)
- Damage detection (11)
- Monitoring (11)
- Finite element method (10)
- Impact (8)
- Offshore wind turbines (8)
- Slab track (8)
- Structural health monitoring (8)
- Offshore (7)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (350) (entfernen)

The current practice of operating and maintaining deteriorating structural systems ensures acceptable levels of structural reliability, but it is not clear how efficient it is. Changing the current prescriptive approach to a risk-based approach has great potential to enable a more efficient management of such systems. Risk-based optimization of operation and maintenance strategies identifies the strategy that optimally balances the cost for controlling deterioration in a structural system with the achieved risk reduction. Inspections and monitoring are essential parts of operation and maintenance strategies. They are typically performed to reduce the uncertainty in the structural condition and inform decisions on future operation and maintenance actions. In risk-based optimization of operation and maintenance strategies, Bayesian updating is used to include information contained in inspection and monitoring data in the prediction of the structural reliability. All computations need to be repeated many times for different potential inspection and monitoring outcomes. This motivates the development of robust and efficient approaches to this computationally challenging task.
The reliability of deteriorating structural systems is time-variant because the loads on them and their capacities change with time. In most practical applications, the reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems can be approached by dividing their lifetime into discrete time intervals. The time-variant reliability problem can then be represented by a series of time-invariant reliability problems. Using this methodology as a starting point, this thesis proposes a novel approach to compute the time-variant reliability of deteriorating structural systems for which inspection and monitoring data are available. The problem is formulated in a nested way in which the prediction of the structural condition is separated from the computation of the structural reliability conditional on the structural condition. Information on the structural condition provided by inspections and monitoring is included in the reliability assessment through Bayesian updating of the system deterioration model employed to predict the structural condition. The updated system reliability is obtained by coupling the updated deterioration model with a probabilistic structural model utilized to calculate the failure probability conditional on the structural condition. This approach is the first main outcome of this thesis and termed nested reliability analysis (NRA) approach. It is demonstrated in two numerical examples considering inspected and monitored steel structures subject to high-cycle fatigue.
An alternative – recently developed – approach, which also follows the strategy of discretizing time, describes deteriorating structural systems with hierarchical dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN). DBN combined with approximate or exact inference algorithms also enable the computation of the time-variant reliability of deteriorating structural systems conditional on information provided by inspection and monitoring data. In this thesis – as a proof of concept – a software prototype is developed based on the DBN approach, which can be used to assess the reliability of a corroding concrete box girder for which half-cell potential measurements are available. This is the second main outcome of this thesis.
Both approaches presented in this thesis enable an integral reliability analysis of inspected and monitored structures that accounts for system effects arising from (a) the correlation among deterioration states of different structural elements, (b) the interaction between element deterioration and system failure, and (c) the indirect information gained on the condition of all unobserved structural elements from inspecting or monitoring the condition of some structural elements. Thus, both approaches enable a systemwide risk-based optimization of operation and maintenance strategies for deteriorating structural systems.
The NRA approach can be implemented relatively easily with subset simulation, which is a sequential Monte Carlo method suitable for estimating rare event probabilities. Subset simulation is robust and considerably more efficient than crude Monte Carlo simulation. It is, however, still sampling-based and its efficiency is thus a function of the number of inspection and monitoring outcomes, as well as the value of the simulated event probabilities. The current implementation of the NRA approach performs separate subset simulation runs to estimate the reliability at different points in time. The efficiency of the NRA approach with subset simulation can be significantly improved by exploiting the fact that failure events in different years are nested. The lifetime reliability of deteriorating structural systems can thus be computed in reverse chronological order in a single subset simulation run.
The implementation of the DBN approach is much more demanding than the implementation of the NRA approach but it has two main advantages. Firstly, the graphical format of the DBN facilitates the presentation of the model and the underlying assumptions to stakeholders who are not experts in reliability analysis. Secondly, it can be combined with exact inference algorithms. In this case, its efficiency neither depends on the number of inspection and monitoring outcomes, nor on the value of the event probabilities to be calculated. However, in contrast to the NRA approach with subset simulation, the DBN approach with exact inference imposes restrictions on the number of random variables and the dependence structure that can be implemented in the model.

This article deals with two topics of vehicle-track-soil interaction, the mitigation of railway induced ground vibration by soft track elements, and the identification of track damage. Theoretical results have been achieved by a combined finite-element boundary-element method (FEBEM). The theoretical results are confronted with measurements at four sites. Improved mitigation effects have been found for soft rail pads under heavy sleepers. The insertion loss, however, can be too optimistic if a strong vehicle track resonance occurs for the un-isolated reference track. Two measurement sites show this strong vehicle-track resonance at about 80 Hz, which has been approximated by using the results of a wide parameter study including the rail pad, ballast, and soil stiffness, as well as the ballast model and the soil layering. – The detection of slab track damage is mainly based on the differences of the receptance or compliance functions. Theoretical results have been confirmed by measurements at one site where a loss of contact between track plate and base layer was visible. Measurements at a second site with a hidden damage have been compared with the theoretical results of a loose sleeper. The differences between intact (or repaired) and damaged tracks are strong enough to encourage the further development of this method for the identification of track damages.

In the last three decades, the vibrations of many floors and bridges have been measured. The contribution shows some evaluation methods, experimental results and some modelling and theoretical results. Simple evaluation methods have been developed for single and coupled floors. Two coupled beams have been measured in good agreement with the theory. A more complex coupling model has been found for a large wooden floor in a castle consisting of six floor bays which correlates well with the measurements. Damaged and intact poles have been tested by their natural frequencies and damping values, and a fair correlation between the degree of damage and the shift of the frequency. Road bridges have been analysed in detail and some examples are presented. Railway bridges and trains are studied for resonant excitation. The risk of resonance can be estimated in frequency domain by using axle-sequence spectra of the train and the natural frequencies of the bridge. A measurement example shows the amplification, but even stronger the cancellation of the subsequent axle responses. Several high-speed trains and freight trains have been analysed for their potential resonance amplification.

The passage of the train is dominated by the impulses of the static axle loads. The response of the regular homogeneous and irregular soils has been calculated by the finite-element method in frequency domain. The superposition of the impulse responses yields the quasi-static component of the ground vibration which is restricted to very low frequencies and to the close near-field of the track. In case of an irregular soil or ballast of which the stiffness varies randomly in space, a mid-frequency ground vibration component is generated by the scattering of the axle impulses. Measurements will be shown which prove the existence of the mid-frequency ground vibration component and the unique explanation by the scattered axle impulses: many international measurements with a raised mid-frequency component, axle-box measurements with a too low mid-frequency dynamic load, amplitude-speed dependencies which are incompatible with irregularity-induced dynamic loads, and ground vibration reductions due to stiff track elements.

Planar tomography and numerical analysis for damage characterization of impact loaded RC plates
(2020)

The damage analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) is of high interest for reasons of effective maintenance and structural safe-ty of buildings. The damage structures of RC plates loaded by an impact were investigated, applying X-ray planar tomogra-phy and finite element method (FEM). Planar tomography allows getting three-dimensional information of the RC elements and the damage including crack, spalling and scabbing. The FEM model validated on the tomography data justifies the appli-cation for further predictions of the damage description. In this study, we investigated concrete plates of three different thick-ness subjected to impacts at different low- and medium-velocity, whereby the used impactor had a flat tip, which resulted in small penetrations on the front side and scabbing on the rear side. In order to quantify the damage, the damage volume and its distribution through the plate were computed and the correlations between degree of damage and impact velocity were found out.

Due to the wide range of applications, the easy production and the large field of use, reinforced concrete (RC) is a widespread building material. This variety of applications is reflected in a wide range of physical material properties. Not only therefor it still is a technical challenge to provide all necessary test conditions for experimentally reproducing dynamic effects under impact loading of RC structures. In this paper we present investigations on the thicknesses of RC plates under low and medium high velocity impact loading by a flat-tipped impactor. The planar tomography setup at BAM is used to visualize the impact damage and to characterize the damage features such as cracks, scabbing and spalling. Further, the comparison of tomography results with those of an applied numeric simulation analysis is used to verify the numeric models for future damage prognosis under impact loading. Using the results of both, the tomographic as well as the FE analysis, different damage features were investigated and compared regarding their validity. Crack damage plays a leading part and the significance of summarized crack values as well as their distribution is analyzed. The total damage value but also the determined damage distribution both provide an input for describing damage as a function of the impactor velocity and plate thickness.

Deep foundations for offshore wind turbines. Lecture 2: lateral behaviour and advanced topics
(2020)

This presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures. The second lecture continues with the case of lateraly loaded offshore piles, which bears most relevance for the case of the monopile foundations. Here again, a clear separation between physical reality and design methods is intended.
Finally, the last part of the second lecture introduces several advanced topics which lie outside the classical design approaches, namely the hydromechanical coupling effects (i.e. the excess pore-pressure generation around the monopiles), the cyclic pile fatigue and the so-called pile setup (i.e. the time effects on the axial pile capacity). The relevance of the latter two topics is illustrated with experimental results from a field testing campaign on real large-scale piles.

This presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures.
The first lecture presents a brief introduction to the context and peculiarities of such foundations, and then focuses on the particular case of axially loaded piles. This part is most relevant for the relatively slender piles of the multi-pile substructures (i.e. jackets and tripods). A clear distinction between physical phenomenology and practical design is drawn here.

Classic non-destructive fatigue crack detection methods reveal the state of the fatigue damage evolution at the moment of application, generally not under operational conditions. The here introduced crack luminescence method realizes a clear visibility of the occurred and growing crack in loaded components during operation. Different established experiments show that due to the sensitive coating a crack Formation can be detected even in early stage under the premise the crack reached the surface. The coating consists of two layers with different properties and functions. The bottom layer emits light as fluorescence under UV radiation. The top layer covers the fluorescing one and prevents the emitting of light in case of no damage at the surface. In case of surface crack occurrence, the luminescent light is clearly noticeable by visual observations and also by standard camera equipment which makes automated crack detection possible as well. It is expected that crack luminescence can increase structural safety as well as reduce costs and time for inspections and preventive maintenance.

Kontinuierliche sensorbasierte Bauwerksmessungen leisten einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Sicherheit von Verkehrsbauwerken. Hierzu werden im Vorhaben AISTEC Referenzbauwerke und Referenzverfahren untersucht mit Schwerpunkt auf den Einfluss klimatischer Bedingungen. Der Vortrag stellt den aktuellen Projektstand des FB 7.2 vor.

Die gesamte Prognose wurde rechnerisch erfasst. Die Rechenverfahren sind einfach und schnell. Die Emission und die Immission verwendet Übertragungsmatrizen. Die Transmissionsrechnung beruht auf der Dispersion der Rayleighwelle. Die Verknüpfung erfolgt über die Anregungskraft auf den Boden und über die Freifeldamplitude am Gebäude.
Es sind viele Eingabemöglichkeiten für Messdaten vorgesehen. Messungen können von einem Ort auf einen anderen Ort übertragen werden.

This paper proposes a novel method to estimate the lateral displacement of high-rise structures under wind loads. The coefficient β(x) is firstly derived, reflecting the relation between the structural lateral dynamic displacement and the inclination angle at the height x of a structure. If the angle is small, it is the ratio between the structural fundamental mode shape and its first-order derivative without influence of external loads. Several dynamic experiments of structures are performed based on a laser remote sensing vibrometer and an inclinometer, which shows that the fundamental mode is dominated in the structural displacement response under different types of excitations. Once the coefficient β(x) is curve-fitted by measuring both the structural lateral dynamic displacement and the inclination angle synchronously, the real-time structural lateral displacement under operational conditions is estimated by multiplying the coefficient β(x) with the inclination angle. The advantage of the proposed method is that the coefficient β(x) can be identified by lateral dynamic displacement measured in high resolution by the remote sensing vibrometer, which is useful to reconstruct the displacement accurately by the inclination angle under operational conditions

The erosion of natural sediments by a superficial fluid flow is a generic situation in many usual geological or industrial contexts. However, there is still a lack of fundamental knowledge about erosional processes, especially concerning the role of internal cohesion and adhesive stresses on issues such as the critical flow conditions for the erosion onset or the kinetics of soil mass loss. This contribution investigates the influence of cohesion on the surface erosion by an impinging jet flow based on laboratory tests with artificially bonded granular materials. The model samples are made of spherical glass beads bonded either by solid bridges made of resin or by liquid bridges made of a highly viscous oil. To quantify the intergranular cohesion, the capillary forces of the liquid bridges are here estimated by measuring their main geometrical parameters with image-processing techniques and using well-known analytical expressions. For the solid bonds, the adhesive strength of the materials is estimated by direct measurement of the yield tensile forces and stresses at the particle and sample scales, respectively, with specific traction tests developed for this purpose. The proper erosion tests are then carried out in an optically adapted device that permits a direct visualization of the scouring process at the jet apex by means of the refractive index matching technique. On this basis, the article examines qualitatively the kinetics of the scour crater excavation for both scenarios, namely, for an intergranular cohesion induced by either liquid or solid bonds. From a quantitative perspective, the critical condition for the erosion onset is discussed specifically for the case of the solid bond cohesion. In this respect, we propose here a generalized form of the Shields criterion based on a common definition of a cohesion number from yield tensile values, derived at both micro- and macroscales. The article finally shows that the proposed form manages to reconcile the experimental data for cohesive and cohesionless materials, the latter in the form of the so-called Shields curve along with some previous results of the authors which have been appropriately revisited.

A strain-based automated operational modal analysis algorithm is proposed to track the long-term dynamic behavior of a horizontal wind turbine under operational conditions.
This algorithm is firstly validated by a scaled wind turbine model, and then it is applied to the dynamic strain responses recorded from a 5 MW wind turbine system. We observed variations in the fundamental frequency and 1f, 3f excitation frequencies due to the mass imbalance of the blades and aerodynamic excitation by the tower dam or tower wake. Inspection of the Campbell diagram revealed that the adverse resonance phenomenon and Sommerfeld effect causing excessive vibrations of the wind tower.

Eindimensionale Modelle des Gleises aus einem Schienenstützpunkt, zweidimensionale Modelle enthalten die Kraftverteilung der Schiene. Eindimensionale Modelle machen einen Fehler, weil sie eine zu große Fahrzeugmasse berücksichtigen. Man kann jedoch bei der Berechnung der Minderungswirkung von Gleiselementen eindimensionale Gleismodelle verwenden, um die Kraftübertragung des Gleises bzw. die Minderungswirkung des Gleises zu berechnen. Die Wechselwirkung mit dem Fahrzeug kann einfach mit der dynamischen Stützpunktsteifigkeit berechnet werden. Dabei muss die Stützpunktsteifigkeit mit einer charakteristischen Gleislänge multipliziert werden, die frequenz- und systemabhängig ist.

The train passages over intact or damaged slab tracks on different soils have been calculated by the finite-element boundary-element or the wavenumber-domain method. The influence of track and soil parameters on the distribution of the track displacements and the soil forces has been analysed. The measured and calculated displacement time histories of train passages could be used to identify track damages such as lose sleepers or a lose track plate. The time histories and spectra of the soil forces can explain the measured ground vibration reduction of slab tracks. The calculated displacement and force distributions of slab tracks on continuous soils do not fulfil the Winkler hypothesis and Winkler models should not be used for track analysis.

This article deals with the relevance and practical feasibility of micromechanical simulations for their application to general geomechanical problems involving fluid-saturated granular assemblies, whether frictional or cohesive. A set of conceptual and numerical tools is here presented, advocating for a parallel computation using graphical processing units (GPUs) to treat large numbers of degrees of freedom with conventional Desktop computers. The fluid phase is here simulated with a particle-resolved approach in the frame of the Lattice Botzmann Method (LBM) while the granular solid phase is modelled as a collection of discrete particles from a Molecular Dynamics DEM perspective. The range of possible material behaviours for the solid granular phase is intended here to cover a broad spectrum from purely frictional to viscous cohesive materials with either brittle or transient debonding features. Specific details of the implementation and some validation cases are put forward.
Finally, some exemplary applications in the fields of soil erosion and geotechnical profile installation are provided along with a discussion on the parallel performance of the presented models. The results show that a micromechanical approach can be feasible and useful in practice, providing meaningful insights into complex engineering problems like the erosion kinetics of a soil under an impinging jet or the penetration resistance of a deep foundation in a layered soil profile.

Subspace-based damage detection handling temperature effects and uncertainty in the reference
(2019)

Temperature variation can be a nuisance that perturbs vibration based structural health monitoring (SHM)approaches for civil engineering structures. In this paper, temperature affected vibration data is evaluated within a stochastic damage detection framework, which relies on a null space based residual. Besides two existing temperature rejection approaches – building a reference state from an averaging method or a piecewise method – a new approach is proposed, using model interpolation. In this approach, a general reference model is obtained from data in the reference state at several known reference temperatures. Then, for a particular tested temperature, a local reference model is derived from the general reference model. Thus, a well fitting reference null space for the formulation of a residual is available when new data is tested for damage detection at an arbitrary temperature. Particular attention is paid to the computation of the residual covariance, taking into account the uncertainty related to the null space matrix estimate. This improves the test performance, contrary to prior methods, for local and global damages, resulting in a higher probability of detection (PoD) for the new interpolation approach compared to previous approaches.

Das weltweite Wachstum der Windindustrie birgt neue Herausforderungen im speziellen für Betonstrukturen als Teil von Türmen, Verbindungselementen und Fundamenten von Windkraftanlagen. Aus der hochzyklischen Belastung in diesen Strukturen folgt eine große Bedeutung für das Thema mechanische Ermüdung. Eine gründliche Abschätzung der Ermüdungsfestigkeit von Beton bedarf deshalb einer zuverlässigen und experimentellen Datenbasis sowie der Entwicklung von standardisierten Prüfmethoden. Dieses Poster präsentiert erste Ergebnisse eines laufenden Forschungsprojektes an der BAM, welches Teil des vom Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie finanzierten Verbundvorhabens WinConFat ist. Das Teilvorhaben untersucht den Einfluss der Probengröße und Schlankheit von verschiedenen Proben auf das Ermüdungsverhalten von ultrahochfestem. Neben der Ermüdungsfestigkeit wird der Ermüdungsprozess mit verschiedenen Methoden charakterisiert. Dehnungsmessungen werden verwendet um den lastabhängigen E-Modul zu berechnen. Darüber hinaus geben die Ultraschall- und Schallemissionsprüfung einen tieferen Einblick in den Schädigungsprozess. Die Ergebnisse werden zu der Verbesserung von Bemessungsvorschriften beitragen.

Cerro do Jarau is a conspicuous, circular morpho‐structural feature in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil), with a central elevated core in the otherwise flat “Pampas” terrain typical for the border regions between Brazil and Uruguay. The structure has a diameter of approximately 13.5 km. It is centered at 30o12′S and 56o32′W and was formed on basaltic flows of the Cretaceous Serra Geral Formation, which is part of the Paraná‐Etendeka Large Igneous Province (LIP), and in sandstones of the Botucatu and Guará formations. The structure was first spotted on aerial photographs in the 1960s. Ever since, its origin has been debated, sometimes in terms of an endogenous (igneous) origin, sometimes as the result of an exogenous (meteorite impact) event. In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted in order to investigate its nature and origin. Although the results have indicated a possible impact origin, no conclusive evidence could be produced. The interpretation of an impact origin was mostly based on the morphological characteristics of the structure; geophysical data; as well as the occurrence of different breccia types; extensive deformation/silicification of the rocks within the structure, in particular the sandstones; and also on the widespread occurrence of low‐pressure deformation features, including some planar fractures (PFs). A detailed optical microscopic analysis of samples collected during a number of field campaigns since 2007 resulted in the disclosure of a large number of quartz grains from sandstone and monomict arenite breccia from the central part of the structure with PFs and feather features (FFs), as well as a number of quartz grains exhibiting planar deformation features (PDFs). While most of these latter grains only carry a single set of PDFs, we have observed several with two sets, and one grain with three sets of PDFs. Consequently, we here propose Cerro do Jarau as the seventh confirmed impact structure in Brazil. Cerro do Jarau, together with Vargeão Dome (Santa Catalina state) and Vista Alegre (Paraná State), is one of very few impact structures on Earth formed in basaltic rocks.

Due to the many possible applications, the uncomplicated production and the high application range, reinforced concrete is a widely used building material. This large range of physical material properties still poses an engineering challenge in determining all necessary requirements for predicting dynamic effects under impact load.
Many aspects of impact have already been examined and some correlations have been studied intensively. Examples are the work of Lastunen and Booker, who studied the influence of projectile properties on the impact form. Li has also investigated the local effects of an impact. The field of detailed damage analysis has not been in focus so far.
This presentation shows some studies in medium-velocity impact with the focus on post-impact damage evaluation. The impactor is modified so that the test plates show low penetration on the top and scabbing on the bottom. With the unique tomography lab test stand at BAM the plate is scanned after the impact and the damage is analyzed. Cracks and scabbing are made visible with a reconstruction. The comparison of simulation and tomography allows to create prognosis models for damage characterization.

In case one wants to predict or design the bearing capacity of a foundation pile and there are no possibilities to perform an in-situ test, such as a Cone Penetration Test, the pile bearing capacity is in most cases estimated with analytical formulas. The most known and used method is the Meyerhof method published some decades ago. There are also other design methods such as derived from a certain failure mechanism around the pile tip, which is, in most cases, wedge failure mechanism. This failure mechanism was originally developed for a shallow (infinite) strip foundation, though. Therefore, it represents a plane failure mechanism.
Numerical simulations on loaded foundation piles performed with the Plaxis software Show however, that the failure mechanism of a foundation pile represents a far more complex threedimensional failure mechanism around the pile tip.
In addition, the existing analytical methods for foundation piles are based on the vertical stresses in the soil, as if the failure mechanism is the same as of a shallow foundation. Numerical simulations, performed in Plaxis show that, not the vertical, but the horizontal stresses, play an important role on the pile bearing capacity. Plaxis represents the stresses in the soil by using the procedure. So, different horizontal soil stresses are obtained for different values of the lateral earth pressure coefficient. The results show that the pile tip bearing capacity depends strongly on the horizontal stresses in the soil, but only for. The same results were observed by using a Material Point Method (MPM). Consequently, the analytical methods should estimate the pile bearing.

Reinforced concrete (RC) is used as structural material in most diverse civil engineering applications. For the variability of its physical properties it is still an engineering challenge to meet all necessary requirements for the prediction of dynamic effects under impact loading. In this paper, investigations are shown within the scope of quantifying and evaluating the damage caused by an impact. The experimental investigations are performed in the field of low- and medium-velocity impact. The chosen flat nose shape results in small penetrations on the top side and scabbing on the bottom side. The plate is scanned with an adapted planar tomographic examination after the impact, and the damage is analysed, afterwards. Cracks and spalling are made visible with a reconstruction. The numerical model validated on the tomographic results justifies the application for further predictions of the damage description.

Severe mechanical fatigue conditions for worldwide proliferating windfarms are a Major challenge for high-performance concrete in towers, connecting joints and foundations of wind turbines. High-performance concrete offers potential for the application in offshore windfarms, not only regarding its good mechanical, but also chemical resistivity due to low diffusivity in the highly densified microstructure. For a more reliable fatigue assessment, monitoring based on nondestructive testing can be a valuable complement to design rules. Both approaches demand reliable experimental data, information about scalability and the development of standardized testing methods. This article presents results of an ongoing research program of BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung), which is a part of a joint national project (WinConFat) funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. The subproject implemented by BAM examines the fatigue behavior in dependence of size and slenderness for varying concrete strength at different stress levels. Besides fatigue strength, nondestructive testing is carried out additionally.
Methods used are strain measurement and ultrasonic testing. The change of strain, stiffness and ultrasonic pulse velocity in the fatigue process is discussed. Results disclose a deeper insight into the damage process under cyclic loading of high-performance concrete and contribute to improve nondestructive monitoring.

The surface erosion of soil samples caused by an impinging jet can be analyzed using the jet erosion test (JET), a standard experimental test to characterize the erosion resistance of soils. This paper specifically addresses the flow characteristics of a laminar impinging jet over the irregular surface of granular beds to discuss the pertinence and relevance of commonly used empirical estimations based on a selfsimilar model of a free jet. The JET is here investigated at the microscale with a coupled fluid-particle flow numerical odel featuring the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for the fluid phase combined with the discrete element method (DEM) for the mechanical behavior of the solid particles. The hydrodynamics of a laminar plane free jet are confronted with the results from a parametric study of jet impingement, both on solid smooth and fixed granular surfaces, that take into account variations in particle size, distance from jet origin, and jet Reynolds number. The flow characteristics at the bed surface are here quantified, including the maximal values in tangential velocity and wall shear stress, which can be regarded as the major cause of particle detachments under hydrodynamic solicitation. It is shown that the maximal velocity at the impinged surface can be described by the free jet self-similar model, provided that a simple empirical coefficient is introduced. Further, an expression is proposed for the maximal shear stress in laminar conditions, including a Blasius-like friction coefficient that is inversely proportional to the square root of the jet Reynolds number. To conclude, finally, the JET erosion of different cohesionless granular samples is analyzed, confirming that the threshold condition at the onset of granular motion is consistent with the Shields diagram and in close agreement with previous experimental results.

Die Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung hat in den letzten 30 Jahren an vielen Orten Bahnerschütterungen gemessen. Dabei wurden immer auch Versuche zur Bestimmung der Bodeneigen-schaften durchgeführt, meist mit Hammeranregung, gelegentlich auch mit Schwingeranregung. Es werden verschiedene Auswertemethoden wie Seismogramm-Montage, Spektrale Analyse (SASW), Multistation Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), f,v-Analyse (Dispersion aus zweifacher Fourier-Analyse), Spatial AutoCorrelation (SPAC, hier auch für deterministische Quellen) vorgestellt. Durch Approximation der frequenzabhängigen Wellengeschwindigkeiten (Dispersion) oder der gemessenen Übertragungsfunktionen erhält man ein passendes Bodenmodell. Zu diesem Bodenmodell kann man dann die Übertragungsfunktionen für Hammer- und Zuganregung berechnen. Mit allgemeinen oder spezifischen Achslastspektren werden dann die Bahnerschütterungen prognostiziert und mit den Messergebnissen verglichen. Bei etlichen Messorten, insbesondere in der Schweiz, wurden deutliche Merkmale einer Bodenschichtung beobachtet. Es ergibt sich eine deutliche Reduktion der tiefen Frequenzanteile durch den steifen unterliegenden Halbraum. Die weiche Deckschicht bestimmt das hochfrequente Verhalten. Hier bewirkt die Materialdämpfung des Bodens oft einen starken Amplitudenabfall, sowohl mit der Entfernung als auch mit der Frequenz. Für den verbleibenden mittelfrequenten Anteil wurde an mehreren Messorten die Amplituden-Fahrgeschwindigkeits-Gesetzmäßigkeiten untersucht. Es gibt konstante bis stark ansteigende Amplituden, und es zeigt sich auch hier, dass der geschichtete Boden von entscheidender Bedeutung ist.

Mitigation measures of railway induced vibration have been demonstrated at the emission, transmission and immission part. It must be carefully observed that the correct masses and stiffnesses are used.
Typical mistakes have been shown,
- 1D models for vehicle-track interaction,
- impedance instead of stiffness for the infill material of a trench,
- rigid buildings or neglecting the soil-building interaction.
The dominant mid-frequency part of the ground vibration is due to the irregular soil.

The present contribution evaluates four measuring series made by the Federal Institute of Material Research and Testing for the relations between train speed and ground vibration amplitudes. This experimental evaluation is supported by the simulation of the train passages at the different sites by using appropriate excitation mechanisms and forces as well as layered soil models which have been derived from impact measurements at each site.

This presentation provides an overview on general issues related to erosive failures in civil constructions like hydraulic infrastructures and offshore foundations. A brief introduction to the related research activities of BAM in the field of offshore wind energy is first provided, and the general possibilities for micromechanical modelling approaches are outlined. Finally, the ongoing DFG-ANR research project COMET is introduced.

The identification of the dynamic behavior of structures, like bridges and towers, is relevant to address multiple issues. In many cases the dynamic parameters should be acquired only once or at a frequency that doesn’t justify the installation of distinct vibration sensors for a long-term monitoring. To identify modal frequencies of a structure, a drone based mobile sensing platform has been implemented. This sensing platform measures the relative displacement be-tween the structure and the drone, which also shows a strong dynamic behavior under wind tur-bulences. By regarding the dynamic model of the drone and additional measurements at the dis-tance sensor the absolute movement of the structure can be estimated based on the measured relative distance. This time domain data is a suitable input for various operational modal analysis algorithms. The system has been used to identify the dynamic properties of test and real structure, like a 1.5 MW wind turbine tower.

Environmental based perturbations influence significantly the ability to identify structural dam-age in Structural Health Monitoring. Strategies are needed to classify such effects and consider them appropri-ately in SHM. It has to be considered if seasonal effects just mask the structural response or if temperature itself correlates to a weakening of the structure. Various methods have been developed and analyzed to separate environmental based effects from damage induced changes in the measures. Generally, two main approaches have emerged from research activity in this fields: (a) statistics-based tools analyzing patterns in the data or in computed parameters and (b) methods, utilizing the structural model of the bridge considering environmental as well as damage-based changes of stiffness values. With the background of increasing affordability of sensing and computing technology, effort should be made to increase sensitivity, reliability and robustness of proce-dures, separating environmental from damage caused changes in SHM measures. The contribution describes an attempt to evaluate both general strategies, their advantages and drawbacks. In addition, two vibration moni-toring procedures are introduced, allowing for temperature-based perturbations of the monitoring data.

The stability and geometric nonlinearities of slender structures are a major topic in structural design. While this topic is most relevant in the field of Structural Engineering, e.g. for steel or concrete structures, only few applications take the role of soil-structure-interaction explicitly into account. The focus of this paper is placed on the impact of soil support and its modelling for the buckling analysis based on examples both for pile foundations and for railway track stability. The general interaction between steel design and the geotechnical input will be addressed. The paper discusses and summarizes a range of subtopics based on experience and current research at the author’s institute.

Reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems requires the solution of time-variant reliability problems.
In the general case, both the capacity of and the loads on the structure vary with time. This analysis can be approached by approximation through a series of time-invariant reliability problems, which is a potentially effective strategy for cases where direct solutions of the time-variant reliability problem are challenging, e.g. for structural systems with many elements or arbitrary load processes. In this contribution, we thoroughly Review the formulation of the equivalent time-invariant reliability problems and extend this approximation to structures for which inspection and monitoring data is available. Thereafter, we present methods for efficiently evaluating the reliability over time. In particular, we propose the combination of sampling-based methods with a FORM (first-order reliability method) approximation of the series system reliability problem that arises in the computation of the lifetime reliability. The framework and algorithms are demonstrated on a set of numerical examples, which include the computation of the reliability conditional on inspection data.

Fatigue in Concrete
(2019)

The current knowledge about fatigue behavior of concrete is still incomplete. This concerns especially the progress of fatigue which precedes the fatigue failure. An overview on the fatigue behaviour in concrete is given. Therefore, the process of fatigue itself under cyclic compressive loading was investigated in a systematic and comprehensive way. The aim of this investigation was to obtain a deeper insight and to provide a better understanding of the damage process occurring within the material during fatigue loading.