## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

### Filtern

#### Dokumenttyp

- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (10) (entfernen)

#### Sprache

- Englisch (10) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Damage detection (3)
- Damage localization (2)
- Residual evaluation (2)
- Statistical tests (2)
- Cable failure (1)
- Cable-stayed bridge (1)
- Compressive strength (1)
- DUCON® (1)
- Damage quantification (1)
- Ductility (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

The subject of damage localization is an important issue for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) particularly in mechanical or civil structures under ambient excitation. In this paper, the statistical subspacebased damage localization method has been applied on a benchmark application, namely a 1/200 scale model of the Saint-Nazaire Bridge, which is a cable-stayed bridge located on the Loire River near the river’s mouth. The employed damage localization method combines data-driven features with physical parameter information from a finite element model in statistical tests, avoiding typical ill-conditioning problems of FE model updating. Damage is introduced in the mockup for cable failures on some of the 72 cables. The purpose of the experiment is to assess the capability of damage assessment methods to find a cable failure.

The Stochastic Dynamic Damage Locating Vector (SDDLV) approach is a vibration-based damage localization method based on both a finite element model of a structure and modal parameters estimated
from output-only measurements in the damage and reference states. A statistical version of the Approach takes into account the inherent uncertainty due to noisy measurement data. In this paper, the effect of temperature fluctuations on the performance of the method is analyzed in a model-based approach using a finite element model with temperature dependent parameters. Robust damage localization is carried out by rejecting the temperature influence on the identified modal parameters in the damaged state. The algorithm is illustrated on a simulated structure.

Within the presented research project, experimental and numerical investigations were performed to develop a thin-shelled, modular, mobile element system made of a micro-reinforced ultra-high-performance ductile concrete (DUCON®). Material parameters were experimentally determined to adapt the material model within the numerical analysis applying the Drucker-Prager relationship. Afterwards, for validation of the numerical models, quasi-static and high-velocity impact tests were performed on plate-like structures. Finally, a suitable geometry of transportable barrier elements will be designed, which provides a maximum of resistance against impact by a minimum of weight and a maximum of mobility.

The local asymptotic approach is promising for vibration-based fault diagnosis when associated to a subspace-based residual function and efficient hypothesis testing tools. It has the ability of detecting small changes in some chosen system parameters. In the residual function,the left null space of the observability matrix associated to a reference model is confronted to the Hankel matrix of output covariances estimated from test data. When this left null space is not perfectly known from a model, it should be replaced by an estimate from data to avoid model errors in the residual computation. In this paper, the asymptotic distribution of the resulting data-driven residual is analyzed and its covariance is estimated, which includes also the covariance related to the reference null space estimate. The advantages of the data-driven residual are demonstrated in a numerical study, and the importance of including the covariance of the reference null space estimate is shown, which increases the detection Performance.

Right from the beginning of applying SHM to bridge structures it was obvious that environmental based perturbations on the measurement significantly influence the ability to identify structural damage.
Strategies are needed to classify such effects and consider them appropriately in SHM. Various methods have been developed and analyzed to separate environmental based effects from damage induced changes in the measures. Generally, two main approaches have emerged from research activity in this fields: (a) statistics based tools analyzing patterns in the data or in computed parameters and (b) methods, utilizing the structural model of the bridge taking into account environmental as well as damage based changes of stiffness values.
With the back-ground of increasing affordability of sensing and computing technology, effort should be made to increase sensitivity, reliability and robustness of procedures, separating environmental from damage caused changes in SHM measures. The contribution describes both general strategies and points out their Advantages and drawbacks. As basis, a review on relevant methods was conducted. The aim of the study is to classify approaches for separating damage describing information from environmental based perturbations in dependency of the SHM objective. And such, it is intended to describe a best practice in designing concepts for Monitoring infrastructure, naturally effected by environmental influences.

This paper deals with uncertainty considerations in damage diagnosis using the stochastic subspace-based damage detection technique. With this method, a model is estimated from data in a (healthy) reference state and confronted to measurement data from the possibly damaged state in a hypothesis test. Previously, only the uncertainty related to the measurement data was considered in this test, whereas the uncertainty in the estimation of the reference model has not been considered. We derive a new test framework, which takes into account both the uncertainties in the estimation of the reference model as well as the uncertainties related to the measurement data. Perturbation theory is applied to obtain the relevant covariances. In a numerical study the effect of the new computation is shown, when the reference model is estimated with different accuracies, and the performance of the hypothesis tests is evaluated for small damages. Using the derived covariance scheme increases the probability of detection when the reference model estimate is subject to high uncertainty, leading to a more reliable test.

This paper deals with vibration-based damage localization and quantification from output-only measurements. We describe an approach which operates on a data-driven residual vector that is statistically evaluated using information from a finite element model, without updating the parameters of the model. First, the damaged elements are detected in statistical tests, and second, the damage is quantified only for the damaged elements. We propose a new residual vector in this context that is based on the transfer matrix difference between reference and damaged states, and compare it with a previously introduced subspace-based residual. We show localization and quantification on both residuals in simulations.

Fault detection and isolation can be handled by many different approaches. This paper builds upon a hypothesis test that checks whether the mean of a Gaussian random vector has become non-zero in the faulty state, based on a chi2 test. For fault isolation, it has to be decided which components in the parameter set of the Gaussian vector have changed, which is done by variants of the chi2 hypothesis test using the so-called sensitivity and minmax approaches. While only the sensitivity of the tested parameter component is taken into account in the sensitivity approach, the sensitivities of all parameters are used in the minmax approach, leading to better statistical properties at the expense of an increased computational burden. The computation of the respective test variable in the minmax test is cumbersome and may be ill-conditioned especially for large parameter sets, asking hence for a careful numerical evaluation. Furthermore, the fault isolation procedure requires the repetitive calculation of the test variable for each of the parameter components that are tested for a change, which may be a significant computational burden. In this paper, dealing with the minmax problem, we propose a new efficient computation for the test variables, which is based on a simultaneous QR decomposition for all parameters. Based on this scheme, we propose an efficient test computation for a large parameter set, leading to a decrease in the numerical complexity by one order of magnitude in the total number of parameters. Finally, we show how the minmax test is useful for structural damage localization, where an asymptotically Gaussian residual vector is computed from output-only vibration data of a mechanical or a civil structure.

Altematively to common modal analysis as tool for detectmg changes between a reference and an actual (possibly damaged) structural state, the subspace-based damage detection method has been developed in recent years and successfully adopted to test application data sets. Characteristic for that method is that instead of analyzing modal parameters, a Statistical test with respect to changes of a dynamic signature of structural response is introduced. Therefor, a Gaussian residual vector is extracted from the subspace of an output only Vibration data covariance matrix within the reference state. The paper describes the application of this damage detection method within a laboratory fatigue test on a Steel frame structure. Aim of the investigation was to analyze the usability and efficiency of the detection method for realistic damage on carrying structures of wind energy turbines. In a second Step, a numerical model of the lab test structure is developed and validated. Thus, a comparable numerical Simulation of the fatigue damage detection was feasible and the accuracy of the Simulation procedure could be verified. The present study describes the first Step in a two-step approach for quantifying and optimizing fundamental characteristics of SHM Systems for offshore wind turbine structures concerning a required number of sensors and their optimal location.

Subspace-based detection of fatigue damage on jacket support structures of offshore wind turbines
(2014)

The paper describes the application of the Stochastic Subspace-based Damage Detection (SSDD) method on model structures for an utilization of this approach on offshore wind turbine structures. Aim of the study was therefore to analyze the usability and efficiency of the detection method as well as to determine an optimized set of parameter for realistic damage on support structures of wind energy turbines. Based on results of an experimental fatigue test on a Steel frame laboratory structure a strategy for a numerical verification of the experimentally evolved damage detection was developed, utilizing a time integration approach to simulate the dynamic response. In a second Step the identified modeling and computing methodology is used to numerically investigate the ability to detect damage in real size structural components of offshore wind turbines.