## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Referierte Publikation

- ja (74) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Damage detection (7)
- Ground vibration (5)
- Structural health monitoring (5)
- Resonance (4)
- Subspace methods (4)
- Automated operational modal analysis (3)
- Axial force (3)
- Continuous dynamic monitoring (3)
- Damage localization (3)
- Dynamic test (3)
- Numerical model (3)
- Truss structures (3)
- Wind turbine (3)
- Aberfan flowslide (2)
- Aerodynamic damping (2)
- Assessment criteria (2)
- Bayesian analysis (2)
- Bridge (2)
- Bridge transition zone (2)
- Crash-material (2)
- Crashkörper (2)
- Cyclic loading (2)
- Deterioration (2)
- Discrete element method (2)
- Energiedissipation (2)
- Energy dissipation (2)
- Environmental/operational effects (2)
- Explosionsbeanspruchung (2)
- Fassadenverankerung (2)
- Fatigue (2)
- Façade connector (2)
- Finite element method (2)
- Force transfer (2)
- Imperfektion (2)
- Inspection (2)
- Mitigation (2)
- Modal parameters (2)
- Model updating (2)
- Monitoring (2)
- Numerical modelling (2)
- Offshore wind energy (2)
- Operational modal analysis (2)
- Optimization technique (2)
- Overhead transmission lines (2)
- Railway (2)
- Railway track (2)
- Reliability (2)
- SPH (2)
- Soil-building interaction (2)
- Sommerfeld effect (2)
- Statistical tests (2)
- Track-soil interaction (2)
- Train-track-bridge-interaction (2)
- Vehicle model (2)
- Vehicle-track interaction (2)
- Vibration (2)
- Accelerated ageing (1)
- Acoplamiento Método de los Elementos de Contorno-Método de los Elementos Finitos (1)
- Ambient excitation (1)
- Ambient vibration (1)
- Anwachsen (1)
- Automated Modal Analysis for Tracking Structural Change during Construction and Operation Phases (1)
- Automated system identification (1)
- Axle box measurements (1)
- Axle-load spectra (1)
- Base isolation (1)
- Baustoffe (1)
- Bearing capacitiy (1)
- Bemessungskonzeptblast loads (1)
- Berechnungs- und Bemessungsverfahren - Analysis and calculation (1)
- Blast loads (1)
- Boundary Element Method-Finite Element Method coupling (1)
- Box-Behnken (1)
- Buckling soil-structure-interaction offshore piles track (1)
- Building materials (1)
- Cable dynamics (1)
- Cohesionless granular soil (1)
- Compaction grouting (1)
- Compression (1)
- Compressive strength (1)
- Conception and design (1)
- Conductors (1)
- Constitutive modeling (1)
- Continuous soil (1)
- Continuously inhomogeneous soils (1)
- Covariance analysis (1)
- Crack (1)
- Crashmaterial (1)
- DUCON® (1)
- Damage quantification (1)
- Decision matrix analysis (1)
- Design guideBauwerke - Buildings (1)
- Detection of structural change (1)
- Digital Image Correlation (DIC) (1)
- Downburst (1)
- Driving Versuche - Experimental set-ups (1)
- Ductility (1)
- Dynamic soil-structure interaction (1)
- Dynamik (1)
- E-modulus (1)
- Einseitenschweißung (1)
- Elastic track elements (1)
- Elastische Gebäudelagerung (1)
- Emission (1)
- Entwurf und Konstruktion (1)
- Entwurf und Konstruktion - Conception and Design (1)
- Environmental changes (1)
- Environmental/operational effect (1)
- Ermüdung (1)
- Erosion onset (1)
- Evolutionary computing (1)
- Experimental optical techniques RIM-PLIF (1)
- Experimental verification (1)
- FEBEM and simplified methods (1)
- FEM-Simulation (1)
- Fatigue cracks (1)
- Fault detection (1)
- Feature extraction (1)
- Features (1)
- Feldversuch (1)
- Field test (1)
- Field tests (1)
- Finite-element boundary-element method (1)
- Floor amplification (1)
- Fluidised geomaterials (1)
- Fly ash (1)
- Foundation reduction (1)
- GPA (1)
- Geology (1)
- Geometric trackbed irregularities (1)
- Grouted connection (1)
- Grouting (1)
- Hard object collisions (1)
- High temperature low sag conductors (1)
- Hypothesis testing (1)
- Hypothesis tests (1)
- Impact (1)
- In-situ measurements (1)
- Inclination (1)
- Increase (1)
- Inspection planning (1)
- Interacción dinámica suelo-estructura (1)
- Inverse problem (1)
- Jet erosion (1)
- Jet hydrodynamics (1)
- Jet impingement (1)
- Joint capacity (1)
- Laboratory tests (1)
- Laminar flow (1)
- Landslide propagation modelling (1)
- Langzeitmessung (1)
- Lattice Boltzmann method (1)
- Layered soil (1)
- Layered soils (1)
- Lebensdauerabschätzung (1)
- Liquefaction analysis (1)
- Load vector (1)
- Load vectors (1)
- Long-term loading (1)
- Mast- und Turmbau - Masts and towers (1)
- Material Point Method (MPM) (1)
- Material behavior (1)
- Materialkennlinie (1)
- Measurements (1)
- Metakaolin (1)
- Micro-reinforcement (1)
- Microsilica (1)
- Mix design (1)
- Mixed formulation (1)
- Mobile elements (1)
- Modal properties (1)
- Modal property (1)
- Mouthguard (1)
- Multi-beam model (1)
- Multi-beam-on-support model (1)
- Multimodal solution (1)
- Multiple linear (1)
- Non-ballasted track (1)
- Non-synoptic wind event (1)
- Nonlinearities (1)
- Normal strength concrete (1)
- Novelty analysis (1)
- Numerical modeling (1)
- Numerical response (1)
- Offshore (1)
- Offshore foundation (1)
- Offshore foundations (1)
- Offshore pile foundation (1)
- Offshore steel structures (1)
- Offshore wind turbines (1)
- Offshore-Gründung (1)
- Offshore-Windenergie (1)
- Offshore-Windenergieanlage (1)
- Overhead transmission line (1)
- Parametric excitation (1)
- Particle image velocimetry (1)
- Perzyna viscoplasticity (1)
- Piaui state (1)
- Pile bending stiffness (1)
- Pile foundation (1)
- Pile monitoring (1)
- Pore pressure accumulation (1)
- Prediction (1)
- Pressure (1)
- Prestressed concrete bridge (1)
- Principal Component Analysis (1)
- Protective component (1)
- Quasi-static and dynamic tests (1)
- Rail pad (1)
- Railway measurement campaign (1)
- Rammung (1)
- Ratcheting convective cell (1)
- Rechenmodelle (1)
- Recovery experiments (1)
- Reduction (1)
- Rehabilitation (1)
- Residual evaluation (1)
- Resonancia en edificaciones (1)
- Resonant response (1)
- Risk (1)
- Riveted viaducts (1)
- SHM (1)
- SHM environmental bridges (1)
- Sandstone (1)
- Santa-marta (1)
- Schadensdetektion (1)
- Schrauben (1)
- Schutzbauteil (1)
- Schweißnahtausbildung (1)
- Serra da cangalha (1)
- Shear keys (1)
- Shock absorbtion (1)
- Slab track (1)
- Sleeper pad (1)
- Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (1)
- Soil erosion (1)
- Soil forces (1)
- Soil stiffness (1)
- Soil-pile interaction (1)
- Stahlhochbau - Steel buildings (1)
- Stahlpfahl, gerammt (1)
- Stahlwasserbau - Steel structures for hydraulic engineering (1)
- Statistical evaluation (1)
- Statistical pattern recognition (1)
- Steel pile, driven in (1)
- Stereo photogrammetry (1)
- Strain (1)
- Strain measurement (1)
- Strength (1)
- Structural modification (1)
- Structural reliability (1)
- Structural systems (1)
- Structural vibration monitoring (1)
- Structure (1)
- Subset simulation (1)
- Subspace-based detection (1)
- Subspace-based method (1)
- Subspace-basierte Verfahren (1)
- System identification (1)
- Temperature effect (1)
- Temperature effect rejection (1)
- Temperature modeling (1)
- Tower-nacelle system (1)
- Track (1)
- Track deformation (1)
- Track displacements (1)
- Track filter (1)
- Track vibration (1)
- Track-soil and vehicle-track resonances (1)
- Tragfähigkeit (1)
- Train induced ground vibration (1)
- UHPC (1)
- Uncertainty bounds (1)
- Uncertainty in reference (1)
- Under sleeper pads (1)
- Varying track stiffness (1)
- Vehicle–track interaction (1)
- Vibration measurements (1)
- Vibrations (1)
- Viscosity (1)
- Vorspannung (1)
- Wavenumber domain (1)
- Wavenumber method (1)
- Wind energy tower (1)
- Wind tunnel (1)
- Windenergieanlage (1)
- Workability (1)
- floor vibration (1)
- modal analysis (1)
- temperature (1)
- wave analysis (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (74) (entfernen)

In granular soils, long-term cyclically loaded structures can lead to an accumulation of irreversible strain by forming closed convective cells in the upper layer of the bedding. The size of the convective cell, its formation and grain migration inside this closed volume have been studied with reference to different stiffness of the embedded structure and different maximum force amplitudes applied at the head of the structure.
This relation was experimentally investigated by applying a cyclic lateral force to a scaled flexible vertical element embedded in a dry granular soil. The model was monitored with a camera in order to derive the displacement field by means of the PIV technique. Furthermore, the ratcheting convective cell was also simulated with DEM with the aim of extracting some micromechanical information. The main results regarded the different development, shape and size of the convection cell and the surface settlements.

Im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts „FIT“ wurden Ermüdungsfestigkeitsuntersuchungen an geschweißten Konstruktionsdetails, die häufig in Gründungsstrukturen von OffshoreWindenergieanlagen (OWEA), aber auch im Stahlbrückenbau eingesetzt werden, durchgeführt. Der Schwerpunkt der Untersuchungen wurde auf einseitig geschweißte Kreishohlprofile (KHP) gelegt. Für einseitig stumpfgeschweißte Kreishohlprofile wurden die derzeitigen auf unzureichender Versuchsbasis erstellten Kerbfalleinstufungen geltender Regelwerke überprüft. Hierzu wurden umfangreiche experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Ermüdungsfestigkeit dieses Details durchgeführt. Die den Ermüdungswiderstand maßgeblich beeinflussenden Parameter, wie vorhandene geometrische Imperfektionen und Schweißnahtausbildung, wurden identifiziert, bewertet und deren Einfluss im Rahmen numerischer Berechnungen untersucht. Basierend auf diesen Ergebnissen wurde eine Kerbfallempfehlung erarbeitet, die eine zutreffende Lebensdauerabschätzung ermöglicht. Diese Kerbfallempfehlung soll als Grundlage für die zukünftige Aufnahme in Normen und Regelwerke dienen.

Die Forderung, für repräsentative Bauwerke wie Botschaften und Flughäfen auch außergewöhnliche Lasten aus Explosion zu berücksichtigen, wurde in jüngerer Vergangenheit zunehmend gestellt. Das aufgrund dieser Lasten zu erwartende Schadensausmaß kann durch den Einsatz von energiedissipierenden Schutzbauteilen in der Fassadenbefestigung begrenzt werden. Die Dissipation der Explosionsenergie in den Schutzbauteilen kann beispielsweise über ein Crashmaterial erfolgen. In diesem Aufsatz werden Untersuchungen an zementgebundenen Materialien, die diesem Zweck dienen sollen, vorgestellt. Der Einfluss unterschiedlicher Zusätze auf die für ein Crashmaterial maßgebenden Eigenschaften wird in einer Parameterstudie untersucht. Als besonders geeignet wird ein Material identifiziert, bei dem die Zugabe eines Gasbildners das Matrixgefüge im Hinblick auf das gewünschte Kraft-Verformungs-Verhalten positiv verändert. Dynamische Versuche mit diesem Material geben Aufschluss über dessen Komprimierungsverhalten bei hohen Stauchraten.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In the past few years public awareness of the need to protect structures against blast effects has risen. Energy dissipating protective components placed at the façade connectors allow protecting people in the building as well as the primary building structure from damage due to blast loads. One possibility to dissipate the blast energy is using protective components with crash material. This paper presents tests on cementitious crash materials studying the effect of different additives to the compression-behavior of the material. Additional experiments enable analyzing the material behavior under static and dynamic test conditions.

Energiedissipierende Fassadenverankerung mit Crashmaterial für explosionsbeanspruchte Gebäude
(2014)

Wenn repräsentative Bauwerke wie Botschaften und Flughäfen außergewöhnlichen Lasten aus Explosion ausgesetzt sind, dann kann das Ausmaß des zu erwartenden Schadens aus einer solchen Belastung durch den Einsatz von energiedissipierenden Schutzbauteilen in der Fassadenverankerung begrenzt werden. Bisher ist über das Tragverhalten solcher Schutzbauteile wenig bekannt. In diesem Aufsatz werden Konstruktion und Wirkungsweise einer Verankerung für vorgehängte Fassaden vorgestellt, die in der Lage sind, einen Teil der Stoßenergie über Verformung eines Crashmaterials zu dissipieren. Versuche an einer bauteilähnlichen Konstruktion liefern Informationen über das Tragverhalten der Fassadenverankerung, insbesondere bei dynamischen Belastungen. Aus den Ergebnissen wird ein Konzept für die Vordimensionierung der vorgestellten Schutzbauteile abgeleitet.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In the past few years public awareness of the need to protect structures against blast effects has risen. Blast wave energy is transmitted to the supporting structure by its façade connectors. Energy dissipating protective components placed at the connectors allow protecting people in the building as well as the primary building structure from damage. In this paper we present a protective component that dissipates blast energy by crash material. The report explores the system's fundamentals of operation from an experimental point of view. The results of dynamic tests are the basis of a design concept for the protective components.

The local asymptotic approach is promising for vibration-based fault diagnosis when associated to a subspace-based residual function and efficient hypothesis testing tools. It has the ability of detecting small changes in some chosen system parameters. In the residual function,the left null space of the observability matrix associated to a reference model is confronted to the Hankel matrix of output covariances estimated from test data. When this left null space is not perfectly known from a model, it should be replaced by an estimate from data to avoid model errors in the residual computation. In this paper, the asymptotic distribution of the resulting data-driven residual is analyzed and its covariance is estimated, which includes also the covariance related to the reference null space estimate. The advantages of the data-driven residual are demonstrated in a numerical study, and the importance of including the covariance of the reference null space estimate is shown, which increases the detection Performance.

Automated modal analysis for tracking structural change during construction and operation phases
(2019)

The automated modal analysis (AMA) technique has attracted significant interest over the last few years, because it can track variations in modal parameters and has the potential to detect structural changes. In this paper, an improved density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) is introduced to clean the abnormal poles in a stabilization diagram. Moreover, the optimal system model order is also discussed to obtain more stable poles. A numerical Simulation and a full-scale experiment of an arch bridge are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Subsequently, the continuous dynamic monitoring system of the bridge and the proposed algorithm are implemented to track the structural changes during the construction phase. Finally, the artificial neural network (ANN) is used to remove the temperature effect on modal frequencies so that a health index can be constructed under operational conditions.

Reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems requires the solution of time-variant reliability problems.
In the general case, both the capacity of and the loads on the structure vary with time. This analysis can be approached by approximation through a series of time-invariant reliability problems, which is a potentially effective strategy for cases where direct solutions of the time-variant reliability problem are challenging, e.g. for structural systems with many elements or arbitrary load processes. In this contribution, we thoroughly Review the formulation of the equivalent time-invariant reliability problems and extend this approximation to structures for which inspection and monitoring data is available. Thereafter, we present methods for efficiently evaluating the reliability over time. In particular, we propose the combination of sampling-based methods with a FORM (first-order reliability method) approximation of the series system reliability problem that arises in the computation of the lifetime reliability. The framework and algorithms are demonstrated on a set of numerical examples, which include the computation of the reliability conditional on inspection data.

Aerodynamic damping is a decisive parameter influencing the dynamic response of overhead transmission line conductors. Methods of how to account for the effects of aerodynamic damping differ significantly and so might do the results. In this work, the source of aerodynamic damping being the result of the relative velocity between the structure and wind flow will be revised. Based on wind tunnel tests and validated by simulations, the differences of linear movement compared to a pendulum movement of a sagging cable are shown. The reasons for that Deviation are the large deflections, resulting in a movement non-parallel to the acting wind flow. For analysis in frequency domain, it is not possible to incorporate aerodynamic damping implicitly by fluid structure interaction. If the dynamic movement can be linearized at a working point of the mean deflection, a modification to the linear approach is suggested. This approach is validated by simulation with a finite element model of an existing overhead transmission line, calibrated with full scale measurements. Aerodynamic damping is incorporated in time step analysis by Rayleigh damping and modal damping. The differences between both approaches are emphasized and modal damping is shown to be the most adequate.

Measurements of downburst wind loading acting on an overhead transmission line in Northern Germany
(2017)

Along an overhead transmission line in Northern Germany, a unique instrumentation of anemometers and force measurements is installed. Details of this test line with wind measurements along a horizontal axis are given. A recent event of a presumable downburst wind event is analyzed by means of available data and precedent works on thunderstorm analysis. The measured response of the conductors at the suspension tower is investigated and compared with time domain simulation of a finite element model.

Overhead transmission lines are very sensitive structures in regards to wind action. The cables, spanning over a few hundred meters contribute in particular to the overall action on the suspension towers. These slender structures incorporate both structural nonlinearities from the large deformation of the cables and aerodynamic nonlinearities which need to be accounted for when it is to estimate the system response to strong wind events. In this work, a finite element procedure is presented to model an existing power line section using nonlinear cable elements. The wind force is assumed quasi-steady with force coefficients determined in wind tunnel test on a conductor section. Further, aerodynamic damping is incorporated by considering the relative velocity between cable nodes and oncoming wind flow. The results are compared with on-site measurements of the cables support reaction. The results show a significant effect of damping since almost no resonant amplification is visible both in observation and simulation. In addition, wind tunnel tests approved aerodynamic damping to be large for the system of sagging cables, but nonlinear in its nature. It is concluded, that the dynamic response of overhead transmission line cables has to be modeled with care, considering all sources of nonlinearities. That is of particular interest in case of random excitation such as wind because the peak response depends on the probability distribution of the system's response.

Die Beanspruchung von Freileitungen erfolgt hauptsächlich durch Naturlasten. Dabei spielt für die bemessungsbestimmenden Lastfälle häufig der Wind eine entscheidende Rolle. Die Leiter, die mehrere hundert Meter weit spannen, tragen einen wesentlichen Anteil zur Gesamtbeanspruchung von Tragmasten bei, die wiederum Eigengewicht und Windlasten der Leiter zwischen zwei Abspannmasten abtragen. Wenn die Reaktion der Seile auf Starkwindereignisse abgeschätzt werden soll, müssen sowohl geometrische Nichtlinearitäten durch die großen Verformungen wie auch aerodynamische Nichtlinearitäten berücksichtigt werden. Insbesondere für die Anwendung und Berücksichtigung in Bemessungsvorschriften werden hierfür Vereinfachungen vorgenommen. In diesem Beitrag wird eine umfassende Untersuchung vorgestellt, über Naturmessungen, FEM-Simulationen kombiniert mit Windkanalversuchen und generierten Windzeitreihen. Ziel ist es, existierende Bemessungsvorschriften im Hinblick auf die Abschätzung der Beanspruchung aus Wind auf Leiter zu validieren. Hierbei sind insbesondere die Turbulenzannahmen und das dynamische Verhalten von weitgespannten Leitern wichtig, um die Extremschnittgrößen zu beschreiben. Mithilfe von so genannten Spannweitenfaktoren sollen die relevanten Parameter, wie Spannweite und Windturbulenz, bei der Beanspruchungsabschätzung berücksichtigt werden.

Overhead transmission line cables under wind gust loading - measurements and numerical simulations
(2014)

Overhead transmission lines with conductor cables spanning over a few hundred meters are highly
sensitive to the action of wind. Particularly wind acting on the cables signifies a major load on the
suspension towers. In order to identify critical loading parameters and the load-response
mechanism of those structures, measurements are carried out along a high voltage overhead
transmission line capturing the acting wind field as well as the structural response of the cables. A
finite element model of the structure is built and used to simulate the system's response. A method
is presented which allows generating a complete wind field for all the models nodes
incorporating measured wind velocities and estimated parameters of the acting wind. The full
scale measurements of both action and reaction will be compared to the numerical results.

Accelerated electrical and mechanical ageing tests of high temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors
(2017)

As part of the Best Paths project, work package 6 of the DEMO #4 combines the R&D tasks for repowering of transmission overhead line corridors. The aim of the presented research work is the electrical and mechanical investigation of high temperature low sag conductors (HTLS) and their respective accessories. In contrast to the conventional ACSR (aluminum conductor steel reinforced) conductors, new material combinations of HTLS technologies result in a better sagging behavior combined with an operation at higher temperatures. Because of missing operational experience, the ageing behavior of HTLS conductor technologies shall be analyzed regarding the operating parameters such as electrical, thermal and mechanical load.

Repair is an indispensable part of the maintenance of structures over their lifetimes. Structural grouting is a widely used remediation technique for concrete components, trenches, mine subsidence, dam joints, restoration of masonry structures, and geological stabilizations. A structural grout system should be injectable in narrow spaces and hence include ingredients with finer particles. Ultrafine cements are ideal for these type of demanding grouts due to their superior properties compared to that of the less expensive, but coarser ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are often used to replace OPC clinker based binder in order to modify certain properties and to reduce costs. The most commonly used SCMs are fly ash (FA), and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). For various special applications microsilica (MS), and metakaolin (MK) are also used. Identifying the optimum replacement contents of OPC by SCMs are a challenge during the design of such grouts. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the effect of the selected SCMs (FA, MS and MK) on the slump flow, time of efflux, viscosity, shrinkage, and compressive and flexural strength of ultrafine cement based grouts with constant water-binder ratio and superplasticizer content. The test program was formulated using Box-Behnken design principles. Maximum percentages of replacement with ultrafine cement was 6% by volume of cement for MS and 16% for FA, and MK. The results suggest that most investigated grouts have the potential to be used for structural applications. The appropriate quadratic models are then formulated through statistical tools and presented as response surfaces. The trends indicate that fly ash improves the rheological properties, whereas microsilica and metakaolin positively affect shrinkage and mechanical properties to some extent. Based on the influence of SCMs and priorities among the properties, Decision Matrix Analysis (DMA) is carried out to select the most suitable ones among the SCMs. The analysis suggests that microsilica and fly ash are more suitable as SCMs than metakaolin without affecting the properties.

Current trend suggests that global energy consumption will increase in the future. This growing energy demand and advancement of technology lead to explore all potential offshore fossil and non-fossil energy sources, necessitating erection of exploration and production structures, rigs, platforms and towers, which are susceptible to adverse environmental conditions along with their maintenances. Cylindrical grouted joints provide suitable connections between steel substructure and foundation in these offshore platforms and wind structures especially monopiles for ease of installation. However, these are composite connections with exterior sleeve, interior pile and infill grout. The capacity of these connections is affected by number of factors. The literature over last four decades by numerous researchers has shown the development of these connections with increasingly higher capacities and influences on these capacities due to various factors. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the factors affecting the connection capacity along with technical challenges for the future. Critical aspects and shortcomings of the current connection systems and potential solutions may be sought after for these issues are also discussed.

Bei Monopfahlgründungen von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen wird die Verbindung zwischen Monopfahl und Übergangsstück als geschraubter Ringflansch ausgeführt. Die zunehmende Leistungsfähigkeit der Windenergieanlagen führt zu immer größeren Schnittgrößen in diesem Anschluss. In der Folge erhöhen sich nicht nur die Querschnittsabmessungen, sondern es kommen auch zunehmend größere Schrauben zum Einsatz. Da die einschlägigen Regelwerke zur Bemessung dieser Verbindungen nicht für Schrauben der Größen M64 oder M72 konzipiert wurden, stellt sich die Frage der Übertragbarkeit auf solche Anwendungsfälle.
Im Rahmen des Aufsatzes werden Einflüsse diskutiert, die eine Herabsetzung der Schraubentragfähigkeit verursachen könnten. Diese Einflüsse, vornehmlich geometrische Imperfektionen, werden systematisch untersucht und ergänzend in praxisrelevanten Beispielen bewertet. Die somit gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden für die abschließende Beurteilung der großen Schrauben in Ringflanschverbindungen herangezogen.

An efficient approach to reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems is presented, which considers stochastic dependence among element deterioration. Information on a deteriorating structure obtained through inspection or monitoring is included in the reliability assessment through Bayesian updating of the system deterioration model. The updated system reliability is then obtained through coupling the updated deterioration model with a probabilistic structural model. The underlying high-dimensional structural reliability problems are solved using subset simulation, which is an efficient and robust sampling-based algorithm suitable for such analyses. The approach is demonstrated in two case studies considering a steel frame structure and a Daniels system subjected to high-cycle fatigue.

A software prototype is developed for assessing and updating the reliability of single-cell prestressed concrete box girders subjected to chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion. The underlying system model consists of two integrated sub-models: a condition model for predicting the deterioration state of the box girder and a structural model for evaluating the overall system reliability. The condition model is based on a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model which considers the spatial variation of the corrosion process. Inspection data are included in the calculation of the system reliability through Bayesian updating on the basis of the DBN model. To demonstrate the effect of partial inspections, the software prototype is applied to a case study of a typical highway bridge with six spans. The case study illustrates that it is possible to infer the condition of uninspected parts of the structure due to the spatial correlation of the corrosion process.

Identifying optimal inspection and repair strategies for offshore jacket structures is a challenging task. We pre-sent an approach, which is based on recent developments in the field of risk-based operation and maintenance planning at the structural system level. The approach utilizes heuristics to define inspection and repair strate-gies at the system level and to reduce the search space of possible strategies. For each defined strategy, the expected service life cost of inspection, repair and failure is evaluated based on simulated inspection and re-pair histories. Subset simulation is applied to compute the conditional repair and failure probabilities required for this analysis. It also forms the basis for simulating inspection and repair histories. The strategy that mini-mizes the expected service life cost is the optimal one in the set of pre-selected strategies. The underlying condition and performance model accounts for the stochastic dependence among the deterioration states of the different structural elements and the structural redundancy. The approach is demonstrated in a case study considering a jacket-type frame. In this study, we essentially vary the inspection interval, the minimum num-ber of inspected components and the target reliability, and identify the combination that minimizes the ex-pected total service life cost.

Cerro do Jarau is a conspicuous, circular morpho‐structural feature in Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil), with a central elevated core in the otherwise flat “Pampas” terrain typical for the border regions between Brazil and Uruguay. The structure has a diameter of approximately 13.5 km. It is centered at 30o12′S and 56o32′W and was formed on basaltic flows of the Cretaceous Serra Geral Formation, which is part of the Paraná‐Etendeka Large Igneous Province (LIP), and in sandstones of the Botucatu and Guará formations. The structure was first spotted on aerial photographs in the 1960s. Ever since, its origin has been debated, sometimes in terms of an endogenous (igneous) origin, sometimes as the result of an exogenous (meteorite impact) event. In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted in order to investigate its nature and origin. Although the results have indicated a possible impact origin, no conclusive evidence could be produced. The interpretation of an impact origin was mostly based on the morphological characteristics of the structure; geophysical data; as well as the occurrence of different breccia types; extensive deformation/silicification of the rocks within the structure, in particular the sandstones; and also on the widespread occurrence of low‐pressure deformation features, including some planar fractures (PFs). A detailed optical microscopic analysis of samples collected during a number of field campaigns since 2007 resulted in the disclosure of a large number of quartz grains from sandstone and monomict arenite breccia from the central part of the structure with PFs and feather features (FFs), as well as a number of quartz grains exhibiting planar deformation features (PDFs). While most of these latter grains only carry a single set of PDFs, we have observed several with two sets, and one grain with three sets of PDFs. Consequently, we here propose Cerro do Jarau as the seventh confirmed impact structure in Brazil. Cerro do Jarau, together with Vargeão Dome (Santa Catalina state) and Vista Alegre (Paraná State), is one of very few impact structures on Earth formed in basaltic rocks.

The stochastic dynamic damage locating vector approach is a vibration-based damage localization method based on a finite element model of a structure and output-only measurements in both reference and damaged states. A stress field is computed for loads in the null space of a surrogate of the change in the transfer matrix at the sensor positions for some values in the Laplace domain. Then, the damage location is related to positions where the stress is close to zero. Robustness of the localization information can be achieved by aggregating results at different values in the Laplace domain. So far, this approach, and in particular the aggregation, is deterministic and does not take the uncertainty in the stress estimates into account. In this paper, the damage localization method is extended with a statistical framework. The uncertainty in the output-only measurements is propagated to the stress estimates at different values of the Laplace variable, and these estimates are aggregated based on statistical principles. The performance of the new statistical approach is demonstrated both in a numerical application and a lab experiment, showing a significant improvement of the robustness of the method due to the statistical evaluation of the localization information.

Vibration-based model updating and identification of multiple axial forces in truss structures
(2017)

Safety assessment of existing iron and steel truss structures requires the determination of the axial Forces and corresponding stresses in truss structural members. The results of the axial force determination can be integrated as part of a structural health Monitoring scheme for existing trusses. In this work, a methodology is proposed to identify multiple axial forces in members of a truss structure based on the modal parameters. Vibration test allows the identification of the natural frequencies and mode shapes, globally of the truss structure as well as locally of the individual bars. The method calibrates the numerical model of the truss structure using a genetic algorithm and strategic validation criteria. The validation criteria are based on the identified natural frequencies and global mode shapes of the truss structure as well as information of the axial forces in the individual bars of the truss, which are estimated from the natural frequencies and five amplitudes of the corresponding local mode shapes of the single bars based on an analytical-based algorithm. The calibration allows the identification of the axial forces in all bars of the truss structure. For mode pairing strategy, a technique makes use of the enhanced modal assurance criteria with the calculation of the modal strain energies.
Moreover, the modal strain energies are also used to select the relevant local mode shape of the individual bars. The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed methodology is verified by laboratory experiments on several truss structures. In situ tests on existing trusses are intended. The results from one of the laboratory tested structures, i.e. a two-bar system, are included in this paper.

This paper is concerned with the inverse identification of the stress state in axially loaded slender members of iron and steel truss structures using measured dynamic data. A methodology is proposed based on the finite element model updating coupled with nature-inspired optimization techniques, in particular the particle swarm optimization. The numerical model of truss structures is calibrated using natural frequencies and mode shapes from vibration tests, as well as additional information of the axial forces in selected truss members based on the experimentally identified modal parameters. The results of the identification are the axial forces or corresponding stresses in truss structures and the joint rigidity in relation to pinned and rigid conditions. Attention is given to several examined aspects, including the effects of the axial tensile and compressive forces on the dynamic responses of trusses, mode pairing criteria, as well as modeling assumptions of joints and the use of a joint rigidity parameter. Considering the pairing of modes, it is performed by adapting an enhanced modal assurance criterion that allows the selection of desired clusters of degrees-of-freedom. Thus, information extracted from the measurements related to specific modes is utilized in a more beneficial way. For modeling of joints, the numerical model of a truss structure includes rotational springs of variable stiffness to represent semi-rigid connections. Moreover, a fixity factor is introduced for practical estimation of the joint flexibility. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by case studies involving simulated and laboratory experimental data.

This paper describes the experimental calibration of an existing Wiegmann–Polonceau roof truss based on modal parameters. Dynamic tests allowed the determination of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the global truss and of individual truss members. The global and local modal configurations as well as coupled vibration of truss members are discussed. In addition, as truss members are axially loaded, the effect of stress stiffening on the modal parameters is considered. Moreover, several finite element models with different modelling assumptions for the details of the connections and member geometrical characteristics such as gusset plates and turnbuckles were developed. A suitable numerical model was chosen to represent the truss structural behavior. This paper focuses on the local measurement and analysis strategies applied to single truss members. The possibility of using a local analysis method, namely methods that consider individual members as part of a structure, is demonstrated to assess the behavior of the global truss structure. The comparison of the results after calibration reveals a very good correlation between the experimentally identified and numerically estimated modal parameters of the historic truss.

The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to analyze locally (at the element level) the contact behavior of a soil-pile contact problem. Therefore, a 2D shear test is modeled using the Finite Element Method. The formulation of a 4 nodded zero-thickness interface element of Beer is chosen with a linear interpolation function. Four constitutive contact models adapted for contact problems have been implemented. The Mohr-Coulomb and Clough and Duncan models were chosen initially, due to the ease of implementation and few number of parameters needed. After, more complicated models in the framework of elasto-plasticity such as: Lashkari and Mortara were implemented for the first time into the finite element code of the shear test problem. They include other phenomena such as: relative density of soil, the stress level and sand dilatancy. From the results the relation between shear displacement and shear stress has been deduced. Finally, a discussion of the advantages and the drawbacks during computation of each model is given at the end.

Within the presented research project, experimental and numerical investigations were performed to develop a thin-shelled, modular, mobile element system made of a micro-reinforced ultra-high-performance ductile concrete (DUCON®). Material parameters were experimentally determined to adapt the material model within the numerical analysis applying the Drucker-Prager relationship. Afterwards, for validation of the numerical models, quasi-static and high-velocity impact tests were performed on plate-like structures. Finally, a suitable geometry of transportable barrier elements will be designed, which provides a maximum of resistance against impact by a minimum of weight and a maximum of mobility.

Constitutive modeling of creep-fatigue interaction for normal strength concrete under compression
(2015)

Conventional approaches to model fatigue failure are based on a characterization of the lifetime as a function of the loading amplitude. The Wöhler diagram in combination with a linear damage accumulation assumption predicts the lifetime for different loading regimes. Using this phenomenological approach, the evolution of damage and inelastic strains and a redistribution of stresses cannot be modeled. The gradual degration of the material is assumed to not alter the stress state. Using the Palmgren–Miner rule for damage accumulation, order effects resulting from the non-linear response are generally neglected.
In this work, a constitutive model for concrete using continuum damage mechanics is developed. The model includes rate-dependent effects and realistically reproduces gradual performance degradation of normal strength concrete under compressive static, creep and cyclic loading in a unified framework. The damage evolution is driven by inelastic deformations and captures strain rate effects observed experimentally. Implementation details are discussed. Finally, the model is validated by comparing simulation and experimental data for creep, fatigue and triaxial compression.

This paper deals with the system identification of a mechanical structure supported by nonlinear springs subjected to an external load. If all mechanical parameters of the system were known, the displacement of the system subjected to this load could be easily calculated. However, the monitoring applications often deal with the inverse problem. The loads and displacements of the system are known and certain mechanical Parameters of the system are sought. The solution of such inverse problems can be difficult, especially when they have a nonlinear and multimodal character, which often makes them appear intractable at first sight. However, evolutionary computing can be applied to solve this inverse, nonlinear and multimodal problem. Sometimes a prior knowledge exists on certain system properties, which is difficult to implement into analytical or numerical solvers. This knowledge can play a decisive role in identifying the System properties and it can be easily included as a boundary condition when applying evolutionary algorithms.
This article discusses how and under what conditions the unknown spring resistances can be identified. The practical application of this procedure is exemplified here with the mechanical system of a pile foundation.

A mechanical structure supported by nonlinear springs subjected to an external load is considered. If all mechanical parameters of the system were known, the displacement of the system subjected to this load could be easily calculated. If not all of the parameters are known, but the load and the displacement are measured at one location, an inverse problem exists. In the presented problem the nonlinear springs are unknown and have to be determined. At first glance a problem needs to be solved, which is underdetermined due to the number of unknown variables. However, evolutionary computing can be applied to solve this inverse, nonlinear and multimodal problem. Sometimes a prior knowledge exists on certain system properties, which is difficult to implement into analytical or numerical solver. This knowledge can play a decisive role in identifying the system properties and it can be easily included as boundary condition when applying evolutionary algorithm. This article examines how and under what conditions the spring resistances can be identified. The procedure is exemplified at a mechanical system of a pile foundation.

A prototype of wind turbines in 5 megawatt dass was built and tested at the first German offshore wind energy test fteld in the North Sea. In order to investigate dynamic behaviors under a complex state of loads, a continuous dynamic monitoring System was implemented by Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing (BAM). It recorded structural responses and environmental/operational variables from November 2007 to October 2009.
This paper presents significant resonance phenomenon due to the interaction in the tower-nacelle System under operational conditions. Modal parameters are automatically estimated by the poly reference Least Square Complex Frequency domain (p-LSCF) method. Campbell plot demonstrates that a three-blade passage frequency and its multiples f3n match with the natural frequencies of the wind turbine System in several modal Orders. The damping estimates decrease and the Vibration amplitude increase significantly. A control System is necessary to minimize the excessive vibrations.

Vibration-based structural health monitoring of a wind turbine system. Part I: Resonance phenomenon
(2015)

This paper is focused on a resonance phenomenon of a wind turbine system in 5 MW class, on the basis of dynamic signals acquired continuously from the tubular tower under normal operational conditions during two years.
Firstly, technique specifications of the wind turbine system are introduced and a finite element model is developed to characterize the structural dynamic properties. The following part describes the continuous dynamic monitoring system integrated with an automated operational modal analysis procedure using the poly-reference Least Squares Complex Frequency domain (p-LSCF) method. Subsequently, variations and mutual relationships of environmental/operational factors such as vibration amplitude, temperature, wind speed, rotation speed of blades, pitch angle and nacelle direction are also presented. Finally, significant resonance is observed due to the fundamental frequency of the tower matching with the harmonic frequency induced by the rotation of three blades. As the rotation speed of rotor approaches to 8 rpm, the vibration amplitude of the tower increases significantly and the corresponding damping value decreases. With the further rising wind velocity, the rotation speed of blades stops increasing and the input energy just contribute to accumulate the vibration amplitude of tower. Such observation indicates the Sommerfeld effect that aggravates the resonance phenomenon. A vibration control device is necessary to minimize the excessive structural responses.
A companion paper will further discuss the environmental/operational effects on dynamic properties of the wind turbine system under the operational conditions.

The second part of these companion papers mainly researches environmental/operational influences on structural dynamic properties under normal operational conditions during two years, in order to extract a statistical based damage-sensitive indicator for health monitoring of a wind turbine system.
The correlation analyses between experimental identified frequencies, damping values as well as mode shapes and environmental/operational factors such as rotation speed of blades, wind speed, pitch angle, temperature and nacelle direction are presented. It is observed that the frequency estimates are influenced by the nacelle position, the activation of rotor, the rotation speed of blades and the wind speed as well as the temperature. Regarding to the damping estimates, they are mainly associated with variation of the aerodynamic damping due to the increasing wind speed. Besides, the resonance phenomenon is also observed in higher modes. The harmonic frequencies due to blades passing by tower are found and the corresponding damping value decreases. Moreover, the mode shapes in some modes are strongly affected by the position of the nacelle.
Subsequently, two types of simulated damage including the reduction of stiffness in both the rotor blade and the tubular tower are successfully detected by applying the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based methods to these temperature-sensitive frequency estimates. Comparison of change of the extracted health features indicates that they are more sensitive with the tower damage.

This work describes a vibration-based structural health monitoring of a prestressed-concrete box girder bridge on the A100 Highway in Berlin by applying statistical pattern recognition technique to a huge amount of data continuously collected by an integrated monitoring system during the period from 2000 to 2013. Firstly, the general condition and potential damage of the bridge is described. Then, the dynamic properties are extracted from 20 velocity sensors. Environmental variability captured by five thermal transducers and traffic intensity approximately estimated by strain measurements are also reported. Nonlinear influences of temperature on natural frequencies are observed. Subsequently, the measurements during the first year are used to build a baseline health index. The multiple linear regression (MLR) method is used to characterize the nonlinear relationship between natural frequencies and temperatures. The Euclidean distance of the residual errors is calculated to build a statistical health index. Finally, the indices extracted from the following years gradually deviate; which may indicate structural deterioration due to loss of prestress in the prestressed tendons.

This paper presents the development of a continuous dynamic monitoring System and its applications to different structures, with the purpose of understanding structural real behaviours under operational conditions and detecting early structural modifications. The first part of paper introduces a complete continuous dynamic System, consists of signal acquisition and communication, automated signal processing and management, investigation of the interaction between structures and its environmental/operational conditions, feature extraction and detection of structural modification.
The rest of paper describes the applications of continuous dynamic monitoring System to different structures such as a wind turbine System and a highway bridge.

The implementation of continuous dynamic monitoring systems in two bridges, in Portugal, is enabled to detect the occurrence of very significant environmental and operational effects on the modal properties of these bridges, based on automated processing of massive amounts of monitoring data collected by a set of accelerometers and thermal sensors over several years.
In order to remove or mitigate such environmental/operational effects with the purpose of damage detection, two different statistical methods have been adopted. One of them is the multiple linear regression by performing nonlinear correlation analysis between measured modal properties and environmental/operational variables. Another one is principal component regression based on the identification of the linear subspace within the modal properties without using measured values of environmental and operational variables.
This paper presents a comparison of the performance of these two alternative approaches on the basis of continuous monitoring data acquired from two instrumented bridges and simulated damage scenarios. It is observed that different methods show similar capacity in removing environmental effects, and the multiple linear regression method is slightly more sensitive to structural damage.

The Westend Bridge is located on the A100 Highway in Berlin. An integrated continuous dynamic monitoring system, composed of 20 velocity sensors, 5 temperature sensors, 3 strain gauges, 1 crack sensor and 2 inclination sensors, was implemented by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing in 2000. The system runs continuously with occasional intermittence and led to a huge amount of data over a 14-year span. In this article, variations of the strain, crack and inclination measurements during the last 14 years are presented. It is noted that the observed crack and inclination of the bridge are strongly influenced by seasonal temperature variation. It further induces change in the relationship between the strains measured in both concrete and prestressed tendon. Application of k-means cluster Analysis technique in both the crack and strain measurements can partition them into different seasonal phases by identifying ‘turning points’ that indicate annual periodical bridge change. In the period of these two ‘turning points’, a strong linear relation of the strains in two materials is observed. In the rest of the year, a nonlinear relationship between the strains recorded in both the concrete and the prestressed tendon is noted. The possible reason is the additional thermal load due to the change in temperature difference between the bridge’s surface and soffit. Finally, a health index in a Framework of regression model and process control theory is proposed by investigating the linear relationship between the strains in concrete and prestressed tendon. The tendency of the health index in the 14 years may suggest the long-term bridge change during that time frame.

This paper addresses operational modal analysis (OMA) and continuous dynamic monitoring (CDM) of two bridges. One of them is installed with Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) while another one is a normal bridge. Two ambient vibration tests were performed on these two bridges respectively. It is observed that not only installation of TMDs but also environmental factors influence the variations of structural frequencies, which may mask the subtle change induced by small structural changes. As a result, continuous dynamic monitoring systems were implemented on these two bridges, in order to evaluate efficiency of the TMD system, remove the environmental effects and build reliable damage indices that are only sensitive to structural changes. The results of CDM of these two bridges during several years are presented. Software systems developed for OMA and CDM are also introduced.

Altematively to common modal analysis as tool for detectmg changes between a reference and an actual (possibly damaged) structural state, the subspace-based damage detection method has been developed in recent years and successfully adopted to test application data sets. Characteristic for that method is that instead of analyzing modal parameters, a Statistical test with respect to changes of a dynamic signature of structural response is introduced. Therefor, a Gaussian residual vector is extracted from the subspace of an output only Vibration data covariance matrix within the reference state. The paper describes the application of this damage detection method within a laboratory fatigue test on a Steel frame structure. Aim of the investigation was to analyze the usability and efficiency of the detection method for realistic damage on carrying structures of wind energy turbines. In a second Step, a numerical model of the lab test structure is developed and validated. Thus, a comparable numerical Simulation of the fatigue damage detection was feasible and the accuracy of the Simulation procedure could be verified. The present study describes the first Step in a two-step approach for quantifying and optimizing fundamental characteristics of SHM Systems for offshore wind turbine structures concerning a required number of sensors and their optimal location.

Subspace-based detection of fatigue damage on jacket support structures of offshore wind turbines
(2014)

The paper describes the application of the Stochastic Subspace-based Damage Detection (SSDD) method on model structures for an utilization of this approach on offshore wind turbine structures. Aim of the study was therefore to analyze the usability and efficiency of the detection method as well as to determine an optimized set of parameter for realistic damage on support structures of wind energy turbines. Based on results of an experimental fatigue test on a Steel frame laboratory structure a strategy for a numerical verification of the experimentally evolved damage detection was developed, utilizing a time integration approach to simulate the dynamic response. In a second Step the identified modeling and computing methodology is used to numerically investigate the ability to detect damage in real size structural components of offshore wind turbines.

Following the long tradition of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) since Adolf Martens has created first routines in failure analysis (Ruske, 1971), BAM has been frequently called-in by the Berlin Traffic Association (BVG) to carry out root-cause analyses of the Berlin suburban train line (Frahm, 1902), reported in Helmerich and Herter (1999), Helmerich (2000), Nega and Winkler (1998), Helmerich et al. (2002) and Herter et al. (2002). This was also the case in the 1990s, when BVG-inspectors found cracks in hanging, barrel-like shaped ballast plates of the Berlin underground steel viaducts during regularly scheduled inspections. Cracks were located parallel to the riveted connection between the ballast plates and the upper chord of the viaduct cross girder steel profiles. For safety reasons, the operator BVG immediately stopped the cracks by means of drilling stop holes at the crack tips. As intermediate measures, longitudinal steel profiles were spanned below the rail axes between the cross girders affected to stabilize the track in longitudinal direction. The inspection period was shortened from years to few weeks. BAM was mandated to measure strains under regular train traffic to analyze the cause of the cracks. Strains were measured in identical connections as the damaged details, which did not suffer from cracks at the time of the measurement. The traffic-induced strain cycles and thus the resulting strain differences in the questionable cross sections were higher than expected and resulted in stresses of max. 85.8 MPa. Calculations showed that the credible remaining fatigue life for this particular structural detail was exceeded after 68 years according to nowadays standards. Extensive discussions, further field and laboratory tests followed to develop a rehabilitation plan for retrofitting the structure with minimum interference of the traffic. Finally, a method with minimum intervention to the structure was elaborated by a consortium of the operator BVG, BAM and producers based on further laboratory and field tests at BAM. Now, the viaduct is saved for the future.

The authors are currently investigating the possibility to apply compaction grouting for offshore pile foundations (Jacket piles as well as monopiles) as a possible retrofitting technique for an optimised foundation concept. In this research project, we are developing a design approach aiming to predict the ideal amount and properties of a grout for a specific soil situation and desired improvement of pile bearing capacity after Installation and during service time. Both numerical and experimental tests have been carried out to investigate the injection process during which a highly viscous grout is injected into the soil under high pressure to displace and compact the surrounding soil without fracturing it. The implicit Material Point Method (MPM) based on a mixed formulation is the numerical technique chosen to deal with the expected large deformations and the arbitrary shape of the developing grout bulb. The usage of MPM prevents both the need of remeshing and the numerical instability induced by extensive mesh distortion. For validation with experimental results, we have constructed a testing chamber with one transparent sidewall. This chamber enables us to observe the injection process directly at the transparent vertical window and to measure the in-plane soil displacements and strains by means of the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique.
The results already reveal the interrelation of soil and grout properties for a successful usage of this common ground improvement technique.

In the last ten years, monitoring the integrity of the civil infrastructure has been an active research topic, including in connected areas as automatic control. It is common practice to perform damage detection by detecting changes in the modal parameters between a reference state and the current (possibly damaged) state from measured vibration data. Subspace methods enjoy some popularity in structural engineering, where large model orders have to be considered. In the context of detecting changes in the structural properties and the modal parameters linked to them, a subspace-based fault detection residual has been recently proposed and applied successfully, where the estimation of the modal parameters in the possibly damaged state is avoided. However, most works assume that the unmeasured ambient excitation properties during measurements of the structure in the reference and possibly damaged condition stay constant, which is hardly satisfied by any application. This paper addresses the problem of robustness of such fault detection methods. It is explained why current algorithms from literature fail when the excitation covariance changes and how they can be modified. Then, an efficient and fast subspace-based damage detection test is derived that is robust to changes in the excitation covariance but also to numerical instabilities that can arise easily in the computations. Three numerical applications show the efficiency of the new approach to better detect and separate different levels of damage even using a relatively low sample length.

Automatic vibration-based structural health monitoring has been recognized as a useful alternative or addition to visual inspections or local non-destructive testing performed manually. It is, in particular, suitable for mechanical and aeronautical structures as well as on civil structures, including cultural heritage sites. The main challenge is to provide a robust damage diagnosis from the recorded vibration measurements, for which statistical signal processing methods are required. In this chapter, a damage detection method is presented that compares vibration measurements from the current system to a reference state in a hypothesis test, where data9
related uncertainties are taken into account. The computation of the test statistic on new measurements is straightforward and does not require a separate modal identification. The performance of the method is firstly shown on a steel frame structure in a laboratory experiment. Secondly, the application on real measurements on S101 Bridge is shown during a progressive damage test, where damage was successfully detected for different damage scenarios.

Structural health monitoring with statistical methods during progressive damage test of S101 Bridge
(2014)

For the last decades vibration based damage detection of engineering structures has become an important issue for maintenance operations on transport infrastructure. Research in vibration based structural damage detection has been rapidly expanding from classic modal parameter estimation to modern operational monitoring. Since structures are subject to unknown ambient excitation in operation conditions, all estimates from the finite data measurements are of statistical nature. The intrinsic uncertainty due to finite data length, colored noise, non-stationary excitations, model order reduction or other operational influences needs to be considered for robust and automated structural health monitoring methods. In this paper, two subspace-based methods are considered that take these statistical uncertainties into account, first modal parameter and their confidence interval estimation for a direct comparison of the structural states, and second a statistical null space based damage detection test that completely avoids the identification step. The performance of both methods is evaluated on a large scale progressive damage test of a prestressed concrete road bridge, the S101 Bridge in Austria. In an on-site test, ambient vibration data of the S101 Bridge was recorded while different damage scenarios were introduced on the bridge as a benchmark for damage identification. It is shown that the proposed damage detection methodology is able to clearly indicate the presence of structural damage, if the damage leads to a change of the structural system.

Landslides can cause major economic damage and a large number of casualities as it is possible to see from past events occurred all over the world. Being able to predict these kind of hazards would then suppose the achievement of great benefits. Here a model that combines a depth integrated description of the soil-pore fluid mixture together with a set of 1D models dealing with pore pressure evolution within the soil mass is presented. The mathematical model is based on the Biot-Zienkiewicz equations, from where a depth averaged model is derived. Concerning the material behaviour, the approach used is the one suggested by the Perzyna viscoplasticity, which has been extensively used in the past to model solid behaviour prior to failure. In this framework, a simple shear rheological model is derived, providing the basal friction needed in depth integrated models. The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been the numerical technique chosen to spatially discretised the depth integrated equations of the mathematical model. The purpose of this work is to apply the SPH depth integrated numerical model, together with the sub-model that predicts the evolution of the pore water pressure inside the landslide, to simulate the propagation phase of the Aberfan flowslide occurred in 1966.

The choice of a pure cohesive or a pure frictional viscoplastic model to represent the rheological behaviour of a flowslide is of paramount importance in order to obtain accurate results for real cases. The principal Goal of the present work is to clarify the influence of the type of viscous model—pure cohesive versus pure frictional—with the numerical reproduction of two different real flowslides that occurred in 1966: the Aberfan flowslide and the Gypsum tailings impoundment flowslide. In the present work, a depth-integrated model based on the v-pw Biot–Zienkiewicz formulation, enhanced with a diffusion-like equation to account for the pore pressure Evolution within the soil mass, is applied to both 1966 cases. For the Aberfan flowslide, a frictional viscous model based on Perzyna viscoplasticity is considered, while a pure cohesive viscous model (Bingham model) is considered for the case of the Gypsum flowslide. The numerical approach followed is the SPH method, which has been enriched by adding a 1D finite difference grid to each SPH node in order to improve the description of the pore water evolution in the propagating mixture. The results obtained by the performed simulations are in agreement with the documentation obtained through the UK National Archive (Aberfan flowslide) and the International Commission of large Dams (Gypsum flowslide).

A comprehensive numerical model for the analysis of offshore foundations under a general transient loading is presented here. The theoretical basis of the model lies on the Swansea formulation of Biot's equations of dynamic poroelasticity combined with a constitutive model that reproduces key aspects of cyclic soil behaviour in the frame of the theory of generalised plasticity. On the practical side, the adoption of appropriate finite element formulations may prevent the appearance of spurious numerical instabilities of the pore pressure field. In this respect, the use of a coupled enhanced-strain element is here proposed. On the other hand, the practicality of the presented model depends ultimately on its computational efficiency. Some practical recommendations concerning the solution strategies, the matrix storage/handling procedures and the parallel multi-processor computation are here provided. Finally, the performance of the model with a benchmark study case and its practical application to analyse the soil–structure interaction of an offshore monopile under a realistic transient storm loading are discussed.

Among different devices developed quite recently to quantify the resistance to erosion of natural soil within the broader context of dyke safety, the most commonly used is probably the jet erosion test in which a scouring crater is induced by impingement of an immersed water jet. A comprehensive experimental investigation on the jet erosion in the specific situation of a cohesionless granular material is presented here. The tests were performed by combining special optical techniques allowing for an accurate measurement of the scouring onset and evolution inside an artificially translucent granular sample. The impinging jet hydrodynamics are also analyzed, empirically validating the use of a self-similar theoretical framework for the laminar round jet. The critical conditions at the onset of erosion appear to be best described by a dimensionless Shields number based on the inertial drag force created by the fluid flow on the eroded particles rather than on the pressure gradients around them. To conclude, a tentative empirical model for the maximal flow velocity initiating erosion at the bottom of the scoured crater is put forward and discussed in the light of some preliminary results.

The main degradation process at bridge transition zones due to traffic loads is the appearance of differential settlements. Abrupt stiffness changes, repeating traffic loads and relative displacements of the superstructure ends on bridges often aggravate this problem. In this contribution, a 3D finite element (FE) model extended with a boundary formulation in the frame of the scaled-boundary finite element method (SBFEM) for a transient analysis of train-track-bridge interaction is presented. This numerical model permits an assessment of bridge transition zone with respect to permanent deformations of the track. The main focus lies on the modeling strategies for the vehicle and their impact on suitable assessment criteria for bridge transition zones. For this purpose, two different modeling strategies for the vehicle, a moving load model and a multibody model, have been compared and discussed on the basis of the assessment criteria. The results indicate that the model of the vehicle has a minor effect for an assessment on the embankment, but that the assessment on the bridge may show significant differences depending on whether the inertial components of the vehicle (multibody model) are considered.