## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Erscheinungsjahr

- 2017 (75) (entfernen)

#### Dokumenttyp

- Vortrag (31)
- Zeitschriftenartikel (19)
- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (18)
- Buchkapitel (3)
- Posterpräsentation (3)
- Dissertation (1)

#### Schlagworte

- Finite element method (7)
- Ground vibration (7)
- Axial force (5)
- Dynamic test (5)
- Truss structures (5)
- Inspection (4)
- Modal parameters (4)
- Model updating (4)
- Monitoring (4)
- Optimization technique (4)
- Contact problem (3)
- Damage detection (3)
- Fatigue (3)
- Jet erosion (3)
- LBM-DEM (3)
- Micromechanical modelling (3)
- Offshore wind turbines (3)
- Track damage (3)
- Vehicle-track interaction (3)
- Accelerated ageing (2)
- Acoustic emission analysis (2)
- Axle box measurements (2)
- Ballast tracks (2)
- Base isolation (2)
- Continuously inhomogeneous soils (2)
- Crack (2)
- Cracks (2)
- Digital image correlation (2)
- Downburst (2)
- Dynamic testing (2)
- Erosion onset (2)
- Experimental testing (2)
- Failure (2)
- Field tests (2)
- Finite-element boundary-element method (2)
- Generalized plasticity (2)
- Granular cohesion (2)
- Grouted connection (2)
- Grouted connections (2)
- Hammer tests (2)
- High temperature low sag conductors (2)
- Inspection planning (2)
- Inspektion (2)
- Joint capacity (2)
- Layered soils (2)
- Long-term loading (2)
- Mitigation (2)
- Non-synoptic wind event (2)
- Numerical modelling (2)
- Numerical simulation (2)
- Offshore Windenergieanlagen (2)
- Offshore wind energy (2)
- Offshore wind energy converter (2)
- Overhead transmission line (2)
- Particle image velocimetry (2)
- Pfahlgründungen (2)
- Pile bending stiffness (2)
- Pile foundation (2)
- Pile foundations (2)
- Railway measurement campaign (2)
- Railway track (2)
- Railway vibration (2)
- Sand (2)
- Shear keys (2)
- Soil stiffness (2)
- Soil-building interaction (2)
- Strengthening strategy (2)
- Structural reliability (2)
- Subcritical debonding (2)
- Suction bucket (2)
- Tensile capacity (2)
- Track vibration (2)
- Track-soil interaction (2)
- Train passages (2)
- Under-ballast plate (2)
- Wind energy tower (2)
- Zugtragfähigkeit (2)
- Zyklisches Tragverhalten (2)
- Aberfan flowslide (1)
- Aerodynamic damping (1)
- Authorities approval process (1)
- Axial and lateral design (1)
- Axial pile capacity (1)
- Axle-load spectra (1)
- Bayesian analysis (1)
- Boundary element method (1)
- Bridge (1)
- Brückenübergangsbereich (1)
- Close range photogrammetry (1)
- Cohesionless granular soil (1)
- Cohesive granular media (1)
- Compaction grouting (1)
- Concrete (1)
- Conductors (1)
- Cyclic loading (1)
- Cyclic loads (1)
- Damage Evolution (1)
- Damage localization (1)
- Damage quantification (1)
- Detection (1)
- Detection of structural change (1)
- Deterioration (1)
- Digital X-ray laminography (1)
- Digitale Bildverarbeitung (1)
- Discrete element method (1)
- Dynamik (1)
- Emission (1)
- Energiewende (1)
- Environmental/operational effect (1)
- Ermüdung (1)
- Erosion (1)
- Erosion phenomena (1)
- Evaluation of crack fields (1)
- Experimental optical techniques RIM-PLIF (1)
- Experimental verification (1)
- FEM-Simulation (1)
- Fahrzeug-Fahrweg-Wechselwirkung (1)
- Fatigue damage (1)
- Finite element model updating (1)
- Force transfer (1)
- Freileitungen (1)
- Gekoppeltes FE-SBFE-Modell (1)
- Groutverbindung (1)
- HTLS (1)
- Hard object collisions (1)
- High temperature low sag (1)
- High-Cycle (1)
- Hypothesis tests (1)
- Impact test (1)
- Inclination (1)
- Instandhaltung (1)
- Iron and steel truss structures (1)
- Jet hydrodynamics (1)
- Kostenoptimierung (1)
- LBM-DEM numerical simulation (1)
- Landslide propagation modelling (1)
- Langzeitmessung (1)
- Large concrete blocks (1)
- Layered soil (1)
- Luminescence (1)
- Material point method (1)
- Material point method (MPM) (1)
- Measurements (1)
- Mixed formulation (1)
- Modal property (1)
- Mouthguard (1)
- Multi-beam model (1)
- Multiple linear (1)
- Nichtlinearitäten (1)
- Nonlinearities (1)
- Numerical problem (1)
- OWEA (1)
- Offshore Windenergie (1)
- Offshore-Gründungen (1)
- Offshore-Strukturen (1)
- Offshore-Wind (1)
- Onset of jet erosion (1)
- Optimization strategies (1)
- Overhead transmission lines (1)
- PLIF-RIM optical techniques (1)
- Particle image velocimetry (PIV) (1)
- Perzyna viscoplasticity (1)
- Physical phenomenology (1)
- Prediction (1)
- RIM-PLIF techniques (1)
- Railway (1)
- Ratcheting convective cell (1)
- Regular inspection (1)
- Reliability (1)
- Reliability updating (1)
- Resistance (1)
- Risikobasierte Inspektionsplanung (1)
- Risikobasierte Maßnahmenplanung (1)
- SPH (1)
- Schienenverkehr (1)
- Self-damping (1)
- Service life performance (1)
- Shock absorbtion (1)
- Slab track (1)
- Soil-grout interface (1)
- Soil-pile interaction (1)
- Soil-structure interaction (1)
- Stabilität (1)
- Stahlbau (1)
- Steel (1)
- Strain (1)
- Stress state (1)
- Structural health monitoring (1)
- Structural reliability and risks (1)
- Subset simulation (1)
- Subspace-methods (1)
- Substructures (1)
- Track deformation (1)
- Track-soil and vehicle-track resonances (1)
- Tragstrukturen (1)
- Train induced ground vibration (1)
- Uncertainty (1)
- Updated Lagrange Formulierung (1)
- Value of information (1)
- Verdichtungsinjektionen (1)
- Vibration behaviour (1)
- Vibration measurements (1)
- WKP (1)
- Wavenumber method (1)
- Wiederkehrende Prüfung (1)
- Wind (1)
- Windenergie (1)
- u-p-Formulierung (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (75) (entfernen)

Offshore wind energy towers are dynamically loaded by waves and wind. Pile foundations provide stiffness and damping and should be properly calculated. A combined finite-element boundary-element method for the dynamic interaction of flexible structures and the soil has been developed. The flexible structures such as single piles or complete wind energy towers are modeled by the finite element method whereas the homogeneous or layered soil is modeled by the boundary element method which uses the Green’s functions for interior loads in the layered half-space to establish the dynamic stiffness matrix of the soil. Soils with a stiffness that is continuously increasing with depth can be modeled as multi-layer soils with step-wise increasing stiffness. The effects of different parameters such as the stiffness of the soil, the axial and bending stiffness of the pile, and the radius of the cylindrical contact area will be analysed for the different components of excitation (vertical, horizontal, rotation and coupling). The results can be determined as specific power laws which are different for the different load cases and for the different soil models (Winkler support, homogeneous continuum, continuum with increasing stiffness). The dynamic effect of radiation damping will be analysed by the frequency-dependent compliance functions. A clear layering of the soil can cause noticeable changes in the dynamic compliances as reductions of the stiffness and the damping in certain frequency ranges (below and around layer resonance frequencies). The distribution of the displacements along the pile help to explain the observed laws. An example of an offshore wind energy tower has been modeled and calculated for wind, wave and weight loads. The resonances of the tower are usually limited by the radiation damping which is strongest for a soft soil.

This contribution presents some principles and some examples of the mitigation of railway-induced ground vibrations. The principles are different for the mitigation measures at the track, in the soil or at the building. Force transfer functions of isolated and un-isolated track-soil systems, reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes at walls and trenches in the soil, and the transfer of the (free-field) vibration amplitudes to the foundation amplitudes of the building are analysed. The mitigation effect can be calculated by exact or simplified formulas. Some examples with 3D (finite-element boundary-element), 2D (beam-on-support), and 1D track models, 2D and 1D soil models, detailed 3D building models and finite or infinite 1D wall-floor models are investigated to find out if simple models can be used for a satisfactory prediction of the mitigation effect. The 1D track examples show that the force transfer of the track without vehicle can be exactly calculated, whereas the total force transfer can be calculated approximately if appropriate wheelset masses per track length are used for the isolated and the un-isolated track. The mitigation effect of a filled trench is calculated by a 2D finite element model and the results compare with simple transmission formula if the stiffness per area rather than the wave impedances are used for the infill material. The base isolation of a building is analysed by a detailed 3D model and the results are similar to the analytic results of a single wall with floors on the soil. Other reduction measures as different floor and column dimensions are usually less effective so that the clearly best mitigation solution at a building is a partly or a complete base isolation.

Measurements on the vehicle-track interaction and the excitation of railway-induced ground vibration
(2017)

Two railway measurement campaigns have been performed in Germany and Switzerland which yield insight in the vehicle-track-soil interaction. The campaign in Germany has included simultaneous measurement of vehicle, track, and soil vibrations during train runs with 16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 100, 125, 140, 160 km/h, and impulse measurements of the passenger car, three track sections and the soil. Two ballast tracks, one on the soil surface and one on a concrete bridge, have been investigated as well as a slab track in a tunnel. Ten different sites in Switzerland have been measured for soil properties and train-induced ground vibrations, which allow to determine the excitation forces of the railway traffic. New axle-box measurements at some of the Swiss sites have been analysed to get further experimental evidence. All these measurements have been evaluated to characterize the excitation processes. Relations between vehicle vibration and ground vibration can be observed. The vehicle vibrations, namely the accelerations of the wheelsets, yield the dynamic forces due to the passage over the irregularities of the vehicle and the track. The ground vibrations are correlated to these dynamic forces to a certain extent. Some mid-frequency ground vibration amplitudes, however, are higher than expected from the dynamic excitation forces. The experimental observations can be explained by an irregular response to the passage of the static loads, that means the passage of the static loads over an irregular ballast or soil. This correct understanding of the excitation processes is important for the prediction as well as for the mitigation of railway induced ground vibrations.

Experiments have been performed at a test site with six different tracks with under-ballast plates. Hammer excitations of the soil and the tracks as well as train passages have been measured. The experimental observations are as follows. 1. The natural soil is stiff gravel whereas the railway dam consists of softer material. 2. The track compliance indicates a soft ballast if no train is present to provide a confining pressure. 3. The track response to the train passages can be split into a low-frequency region which is ruled by the static loads and a high-frequency region which is ruled by dynamic loads. 4. The track responses to hammer and track excitation indicate the presence of many voids between the sleepers and the ballast. 5. The ground vibrations are highly influenced by the soil. Due to the stiff soil at the site, the hammer and train induced spectra have a considerable high-frequency content. 6. A reduction of the ground vibration has been observed in a low-frequency range. The mitigation effects of an under-ballast plate are also investigated by calculations of a wavenumber domain model. The under-ballast plate has an effect at low frequencies where it distributes the static load over a longer track section. The impulse of the axle passage is longer and the frequencies are lower due to the plate stiffness. The axle impulses could yield a low-frequency ground vibration in an irregular soil with a randomly varying stiffness. This low-frequency part of the ground vibration (the scattered axle impulses) seem to be reduced by the under-ballast plate.

A complex measuring campaign has been performed including the simultaneous measurement of vehicle, track, and soil vibrations during train runs at 16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 100, 125, 140, 160 km/h, and impulse measurements of the passenger car, three track sections and the soil. A ballast track on the soil surface and on a concrete bridge have been investigated as well as a slab track in a tunnel. The evaluation and comparison of all these data shows a generally good agreement for all components if the strong low- and high-frequency cut-off characteristics of the layered and damped soil are incorporated. There is a strong causal correlation between the vehicle and the soil by the dynamic excitation forces and a weak relation between the track and the soil by the axle-sequence spectrum of the train. However, the similarity between the axle-impulse spectrum observed at the track and the spectra of the ground vibration lead to the special excitation component of “scattered axle impulses” which is pre-dominant at the far-field points of the soil.

Train passages induce forces on the track, train-induced vibrations propagate through the soil and excite neighbouring buildings. The emission, which is the first part of the prediction of vibrations near railway lines, is presented by focusing on the dynamic axle loads. The calculation of the axle loads is based on the vehicle-track-soil interaction. This interaction calculus utilises the dynamic stiffness of the vehicle (the inertia of the wheelset) and the dynamic stiffness of the track-soil system. Based on various time consuming finite-element boundary-element calculations, an approximate track-soil model has been established. The vehicle-track-soil analysis yields several transfer functions between the various geometric or stiffness irregularities and the axle loads of the train. Geometric irregularities of the vehicle (the wheels) and the track (rail surface and track alignment) are the simplest components. Geometric irregularities of the subsoil (trackbed irregularities) have to be transferred to effective irregularities at rail level. The bending stiffness of the track is filtering out the short-wavelength contribution. Stiffness irregularities occur due to random variations in the ballast or the subsoil, which must also be transferred to effective track irregularities, and due to the discrete rail support on sleepers. All necessary transfer functions for the prediction of axle-load spectra are presented as general formula and as specific graphs for differing vehicle and track parameters. The prediction method is applied to a ballast track and a slab track and compared with corresponding axle-box measurements. Moreover, ground vibration measurements at numerous sites are exploited for the axle-load spectra and the validation of the prediction method. All theoretical and experimental results confirm that the dynamic axle-load spectra have an approximate value of 1 kN per third of octave and increase with train speed, track stiffness and around the vehicle-track resonance.

The dynamics of un-isolated and isolated ballast tracks have been analysed by multi-beam models for the track and by a layered half-space model for the soil. The solution is calculated in frequency-wavenumber domain and transformed back to space domain by a wavenumber integral. This is a faster method compared to other detailed track-soil interaction methods and almost as fast as the widely used Winkler-soil method, especially if the compliances of the soil have been stored for repeated use. Frequency-dependent compliances and force transfer functions have been calculated for a variety of track and soil parameters. The ballast has a clear influence on the high-frequency behaviour whereas the soil is dominating the low-frequency behaviour of the track. A layering of the soil may cause a moderate track-soil resonance whereas more pronounced vehicle-track resonances occur with elastic track elements like rail pads, sleeper pads and ballast mats. Above these resonant frequencies, a reduction of the excitation forces follows as a consequence. The track deformation along the track has been analysed for the most interesting track systems. The track deformation is strongly influenced by the resonances due to layering or elastic elements. The attenuation of amplitudes and the velocity of the track-soil waves change considerably around the resonant frequencies. The track deformation due to complete trains have been calculated for different continuous and Winkler soils and compared with the measurement of a train passage showing a good agreement for the continuous soil and clear deviations for the Winkler soil model.

The damage detection and repair control have become important tasks for ballast and slab tracks. Measurements which compare the damaged and the repaired status of the same track section at different times, or which compare a damaged and an intact track section at the same time, have been successfully performed at some sites in Germany. The loss of contact between the sleeper and the track plate, between the track plate and the base plate, and between the base plate and the base layer have been analysed. The soil properties of each site have been measured and have been used to establish realistic track-soil models. Theoretical results of the wavenumber domain and the finite-element boundary element method have been compared with the experimental results. The observed experimental and theoretical results, changes in the time histories of displacements and velocities due to train passages and in the transfer functions (receptances) due to hammer impacts, are encouraging that these measurements can be used to detect track damage.

The Federal Institute of Material Research and Testing (BAM) has collected some experience with the testing of damaged, repaired and newly constructed railway tracks. The experimental methods are hammer testing of the track at different positions, hammer testing of the soil, measurement of train passages, and in all cases, measurements with geophones at different positions. The measured signals are evaluated for wave velocities (dispersion of the soil or the track-soil system), for transfer functions (transfer admittances of the soil, compliances of the track in amplitude and phase), and one-third octave band spectra of the track response to hammer and train excitation. These methods are applied at different stages of the track construction. Before track construction, wave velocities and transfer functions of the sub-soil can indicate problems with soft soils. After track construction, a check of the acceptable state of the track can be done by comparison of many excitation positions and track sites. After a track damage (a lose sleeper or a lose plate of a slab track) and after its repair, the sensitivity of the different measurement quantities to different track errors and the achieved improvement of the repair can be determined. The contribution shows examples of all these track situations.

The Federal Institute of Material Research and Testing (BAM) has collected some experience with the testing of damaged, repaired and newly constructed railway tracks. The experimental methods are hammer testing of the track at different positions, hammer testing of the soil, measurement of train passages, and in all cases, measurements with geophones at different positions. The measured signals are evaluated for wave velocities (dispersion of the soil or the track-soil system), for transfer functions (transfer admittances of the soil, compliances of the track in amplitude and phase), and one-third octave band spectra of the track response to hammer and train excitation. These methods are applied at different stages of the track construction. Before track construction, wave velocities and transfer functions of the sub-soil can indicate problems with soft soils. After track construction, a check of the acceptable state of the track can be done by comparison of many excitation positions and track sites. After a track damage (a lose sleeper or a lose plate of a slab track) and after its repair, the sensitivity of the different measurement quantities to different track errors and the achieved improvement of the repair can be determined. The contribution shows examples of all these track situations

Measurements on the vehicle-track interaction and the excitation of railway-induced ground vibration
(2017)

Measurements of downburst wind loading acting on an overhead transmission line in northern Germany
(2017)

Along an overhead transmission line in Northern Germany, a unique instrumentation of anemometers and force measurements is installed. Details of this test line with wind measurements along a horizontal axis are given. A recent event of a presumable downburst wind event is analyzed by means of available data and precedent works on thunderstorm analysis. The measured response of the conductors at the suspension tower is investigated and compared with time domain simulation of a finite element model.

Mit der Fertigstellung von mehr und mehr Offshore-Windparks rückt die Betriebsphase in den Mittelpunkt des Interesses.
Hierbei sind auch die Groutverbindungen, die häufig so konzeptioniert sind, dass wenige Möglichkeiten zur Prüfung und
Instandhaltung bestehen, von Interesse. Naturgemäß können auch kaum Erfahrungen für diese Ziele vorliegen.
Der geplante Workshop hat folgende Schwerpunkte im Fokus:
– Wiederkehrende Prüfung – Instandhaltung und Reparaturkonzepte
– Inspektionskonzepte – Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung und
– Schadensszenarien – Condition Monitoring Systeme (CMS)
Beiträge aus dem Bereich Betrieb, Begutachtung, Forschung, Produktherstellung, Zertifizierung, behördliche Aufsicht und
Condition Monitoring sind vorgesehen. Diskutiert werden sollen die technischen Anforderungen an die Überwachung im Betrieb
im Hinblick auf die tatsächlich vorhandenen Probleme und Möglichkeiten.
Die Präsentation leitet in die Thematik ein.

Die BAM unterstützt das Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrografie bei der bautechnischen Bewertung von Tragstrukturen für Offshore-Windparks. Im Hinblick auf die vielfältigen nationalen Aktivitäten in Forschung und Entwicklung wird in der eingeladenen Präsentation auf Schwerpunkte behördlicher Erfahrungen und Bedenken Bezug genommen um eine Perspektive auf zukünftigen Forschungsbedarf zu eröffnen.

Offshore wind turbines enter unknown territory, especially where the foundations are concerned. This is because offshore wind power can only make use of the experience from the common offshore constructions used by the oil and gas industry to a limited extent. The offshore wind industry has tried to reduce foundation dimensions, especially the pile lengths, as much as possible compared with those of the oil and gas industry. This is because with the large number of wind turbines involved it can provide considerable economic advantages. On the other hand, the stability of the foundations is additionally at risk because due to the much larger number of cyclic loads they are subjected to it is very difficult to predict how they will behave. Since offshore wind farms are manufactured in series, every systematic fault in the foundation acts as a series fault for a large number of turbines. This calls for monitoring – and the right dimensions of pile foundation, the most common type of foundations used for wind turbines

Accelerated electrical and mechanical ageing tests of high temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors
(2017)

As part of the Best Paths project, work package 6 of the DEMO #4 combines the R&D tasks for repowering of transmission overhead line corridors. The aim of the presented research work is the electrical and mechanical investigation of high temperature low sag conductors (HTLS) and their respective accessories. In contrast to the conventional ACSR (aluminum conductor steel reinforced) conductors, new material combinations of HTLS technologies result in a better sagging behavior combined with an operation at higher temperatures. Because of missing operational experience, the ageing behavior of HTLS conductor technologies shall be analyzed regarding the operating parameters such as electrical, thermal and mechanical load.

This paper deals with vibration-based damage localization and quantification from output-only measurements. We describe an approach which operates on a data-driven residual vector that is statistically evaluated using information from a finite element model, without updating the parameters of the model. First, the damaged elements are detected in statistical tests, and second, the damage is quantified only for the damaged elements. We propose a new residual vector in this context that is based on the transfer matrix difference between reference and damaged states, and compare it with a previously introduced subspace-based residual. We show localization and quantification on both residuals in simulations.

In this in vitro study, the protective qualities of different mouthguard types were examined during small hard object collisions. The aim was to investigate inconclusive aspects of hard inserts, nylon nets, and air spaces as reinforcements in the anterior region and the protection qualities of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA).
Five different mouthguards with a labial thickness between 2 mm and 11 mm made of materials of varying stiffness were investigated. As a negative control, the same experiments were performed without a mouthguard. Different combinations of EVA and labial inserts ((polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified [PETG]), nylon mesh, air space) were tested. Using a stainless steel pendulum device, blows of different energy (0.07-2.85 joules) were applied to the center of the crown of a pivoted tooth in a custom-built jaw model. A laser Doppler vibrometer measured the tooth deflection, while an acceleration sensor attached to the pendulum measured the braking accelerations.
Tooth deflection was reduced up to 99.7% compared to no mouthguard, and the braking acceleration was reduced up to 72.2% by increasing the mouthguards' labial thickness in combination with labial inserts of different stiffness and a built-in air space between the front teeth and the mouthguard. The mouthguards made of soft materials (EVA with nylon mesh) showed slightly better protection qualities than the more rigid mouthguards of similar thickness (PETG; P<.05). However, with increasing impact energy, their protective capacities decreased to a greater extent than the stiffer mouthguards.
The combination of increased labial thickness and labial inserts of varying stiffness and eventually an air space offers the best protection capacities for hard, small object collisions.

Im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit steht die numerische Modellierung der Fahrzeug-Fahrweg-Wechselwirkung von Eisenbahnfahrwegen, die auch für Fahrwege mit einer Diskontinuität einsetzbar ist. Der Fokus wurde hier auf Fahrwege mit einem Brückenbauwerk gelegt, weil es an den Übergängen zu einer erhöhten Beanspruchung kommt.
Daher wurde für den Fahrweg mittels der Finiten Elemente Methode (FEM) ein dreidimensionales Modell mit einer Lösung im Zeitbereich entwickelt, das die wesentlichen Elemente des Schienenverkehrs, das Fahrzeug, den Fahrwegoberbau und den Untergrund, enthält. Aufgrund der unendlichen Ausdehnung des Untergrundes wurde für den Rand des endlichen FE-Gebiets, die sogenannte Scaled Boundary Finite Element Methode (SBFEM) verwendet, welche ein semi-analytisches Verfahren ist und die Abstrahlungsbedingung erfüllt. Da dieses Verfahren sowohl zeitlich als auch räumlich global ist, kann es mitunter für lange Simulationszeiten sehr aufwendig sein. Deshalb wurde es mittels der Methode der reduzierten Basisfunktionen und einer Linearisierung der Beschleunigungs-Einflussmatrix modifiziert, wodurch das Berechnungsverfahren effizienter gestaltet werden konnte. Anhand von zwei analytischen Lösungen aus der Bodendynamik konnte das modifizierte Verfahren der SBFEM validiert werden.
Für ein Gleis auf homogenem Untergrund wurden mit Hilfe des gekoppelten FE-SBFE-Modells verschiedene Ergebnisse am Oberbau, im Boden und für die Ausbreitung von Erschütterungen berechnet, die sehr gut mit Ergebnissen aus der Literatur übereinstimmen. Zudem konnte das numerische Modell mit einer Schwingungsmessung an einer Schwelle eines realen Fahrwegs validiert werden.
Unter Anwendung des gekoppelten FE-SBFE-Modells wurde ein Fahrweg mit Brückenbauwerk untersucht, wobei eine Beurteilung und Optimierung des Übergangsbereichs unter Verkehrslast hinsichtlich des Langzeitverhaltens im Vordergrund stand. Anhand von einfachen Bewertungskriterien, die als Indikatoren für das Langzeitverhalten dienen können, wurden verschiedene konstruktive Optimierungsmaßnahmen für den Brückenübergangsbereich diskutiert, wie zum Beispiel die Gestaltung eines Hinterfüllungsbereiches oder der Einsatz elastischer Elemente (Zwischenlagen, Besohlungen, Unterschottermatten) im Fahrweg.
Das entwickelte numerische Modell für die Fahrzeug-Fahrweg-Wechselwirkung lässt sich ohne großen Aufwand auf weitere Problemstellungen von Übergangsbereichen erweitern, um spezifische konstruktive Optimierungsmaßnahmen zu untersuchen.

Among different devices developed quite recently to quantify the resistance to erosion of natural soil within the broader context of dyke safety, the most commonly used is probably the jet erosion test in which a scouring crater is induced by impingement of an immersed water jet. A comprehensive experimental investigation on the jet erosion in the specific situation of a cohesionless granular material is presented here. The tests were performed by combining special optical techniques allowing for an accurate measurement of the scouring onset and evolution inside an artificially translucent granular sample. The impinging jet hydrodynamics are also analyzed, empirically validating the use of a self-similar theoretical framework for the laminar round jet. The critical conditions at the onset of erosion appear to be best described by a dimensionless Shields number based on the inertial drag force created by the fluid flow on the eroded particles rather than on the pressure gradients around them. To conclude, a tentative empirical model for the maximal flow velocity initiating erosion at the bottom of the scoured crater is put forward and discussed in the light of some preliminary results.

Erosion of soils affects both natural landscapes and engineering constructions as embankment dams or levees. Improving the safety of such earthen structures requires in particular finding out more about the elementary mechanisms involved in soil erosion. Towards this end, an experimental work was undertaken in three steps. First, several model materials were developed, made of grains (mostly glass beads) with solid bridges at particle contacts whose mechanical yield strength can be continuously varied. Furthermore, for most of them, we succeeded in obtaining a translucent system for the purpose of direct visualization. Second, these materials were tested against surface erosion by an impinging jet to determine a critical shear stress and a kinetic coefficient. Note that an adapted device based on optical techniques (combination of Refractive Index Matching and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence) was used specifically for the transparent media. Third, some specifically developed mechanical tests, and particularly traction tests, were implemented to estimate the mechanical strength of the solid bridges both at micro-scale (single contact) and at macro-scale (sample) and to investigate a supposed relationship with soil resistance to erosion.

Erosive phenomena at the mesoscale – Perspectives and challenges using coupled LBM-DEM models
(2017)

The physical phenomena related to the erosion of granular materials by a fluid flow are ubiquitous and often present major challenges and threats to a wide range of civil engineering constructions and infrastructures. Catastrophic earth-dam failures and large sinkholes are just some of the possible outcomes of the different forms of erosion (a.o. surface erosion, suffusion, piping, backwards erosion, etc…). However, little is known about the actual mechanical origins of erosion, while the assessment of erodibility is generally performed by means of experimental tests and empirical correlations.
Here we provide a general overview of some current research models aiming to clarify the micromechanical phenomena and their macromechanical consequences taking place in different erosion scenarios. The employed numerical techniques rely on the coupling of two well-stablished particle methods for the fluid and solid phases, namely the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM) respectively. Further ingredients of our numerical models include an elastoplastic cohesion model for intergranular solid bridges and a subcritical debonding model for the simulation of transient damage processes within the soil matrix.

In this lecture, both the physical behaviour and the general design procedures for deep foundations in the context of the offshore wind energy generation are presented. The first part of the lecture deals with the phenomenology and design of the pile foundations relative to the bearing of axial loads. The second part dwelves on the particularities of the lateral loads as well as on two research topics beyond the current design procedures, namely the hydromechanical coupling and the aging and fatigue phenomena as observed in the course of large-scale field tests.

Die Motivation für den hier vorgestellten Forschungsvorhaben liegt in den offenen Fragen bezüglich der Pfahlgründungen für Offshore Windenergieanlagen, die aktuell in zunehmender Zahl in den deutschen Gewässern installiert werden. Aus den unterschiedlichen Gründungsvarianten, die für den Offshore-Bereich normalerweise in Betracht kommen, zeichnen sich die Multi-Pfahl Varianten (also die Tripod- und Jacket-Gründungen) für eine vorwiegende axiale Komponente unter zyklischer Belastung aus. So werden die zyklische Momente aus Wind- und Wellenbelastung als zyklischen Kräftepaare an gegenüberliegenden Pfählen übertragen. Bei extremen Sturmereignissen können die Pfähle sogar aus den Druckbereich gezogen werden, was oft Bemessungsrelevant ist und technisch ein Neuland darstellt. Grundlegende Fragen zum Tragverhalten unter Zuglasten, wie z.B. die Minderung der Mantelreibung auf Zug oder die Möglichkeit einer zyklischen Degradation, bleiben noch offen und werden oft lediglich anhand von Annahmen berücksichtigt, wenn überhaupt.

Here we investigate the physical mechanisms behind the surface erosion of a cohesive granular soil induced by an impinging jet by means of numerical simulations coupling fluid and grains at the microscale. The 2D numerical model combines the Discrete Element and Lattice Boltzmann methods (DEM-LBM) and accounts for the granular cohesion with a contact model featuring a paraboloidal yield surface. Here we review first the hydrodynamical conditions imposed by the fluid jet on a solid granular packing, turning then the attention to the impact of cohesion on the erosion kinetics. Finally, the use of an additional subcritical debonding damage model based on the work of Silvani and co-workers provides a novel insight into the internal solicitation of the cohesive granular sample by the impinging jet.

Suction Bucket Jackets (SBJ) are found as a suitable alternative to driven piles for the support of foundations for offshore wind energy converters. In the case of jackets or multipods, a predominant vertical load is to be expected. The effect of such a tensile loading is the generation of suction in the soil inside the bucket which leads to an increment of tensile capacity. This paper aims to study the bearing behaviour of a suction foundation by taking into account how the soil permeability and the loading rate influence the foundation behaviour. Moreover, after submitting the structure to a storm load, the bearing capacity is studied again, in order to see the effect of such a load on the bucket's bearing behaviour. This study is carried out by means of Finite Element numerical simulations based on the formulation of Biot's equations combined with a constitutive model that reproduces the key aspects of cyclic soil behaviour in the frame of Generalized Plasticity.

The choice of a pure cohesive or a pure frictional viscoplastic model to represent the rheological behaviour of a flowslide is of paramount importance in order to obtain accurate results for real cases. The principal Goal of the present work is to clarify the influence of the type of viscous model—pure cohesive versus pure frictional—with the numerical reproduction of two different real flowslides that occurred in 1966: the Aberfan flowslide and the Gypsum tailings impoundment flowslide. In the present work, a depth-integrated model based on the v-pw Biot–Zienkiewicz formulation, enhanced with a diffusion-like equation to account for the pore pressure Evolution within the soil mass, is applied to both 1966 cases. For the Aberfan flowslide, a frictional viscous model based on Perzyna viscoplasticity is considered, while a pure cohesive viscous model (Bingham model) is considered for the case of the Gypsum flowslide. The numerical approach followed is the SPH method, which has been enriched by adding a 1D finite difference grid to each SPH node in order to improve the description of the pore water evolution in the propagating mixture. The results obtained by the performed simulations are in agreement with the documentation obtained through the UK National Archive (Aberfan flowslide) and the International Commission of large Dams (Gypsum flowslide).

- Impact tests of concrete blocks
- High energy facility for laminographic testing
- Laminographic arrangement
- Cross-Laminography
- Measurement range extension by detector tiling
- Reconstruction methods
- Fast “shift averaging” method “next to base plane”
- reconstruction --> Removal of reinforcement indications
- 3D-Data analysis
- Crack-Segmentation by „Template Matching“

Compaction grouting involves the injection under high pressure of a highly viscous grout into the soil to displace and compact the surrounding soil without fracturing it. This ground improvement technique has been used widely for settlement control, increasing liquefaction resistance or bearing capacity of soil under new or existing structures. The work presented here aims to show some numerical and experimental investigations being carried out to understand the compaction mechanism and the soil-grout interaction, which is crucial for a successful usage of this technique.
To investigate compaction grouting in the laboratory under various stress conditions, a large-scale testing chamber has been developed. The grout was injected directly at the transparent vertical window of the chamber in order to investigate the possibility to monitor the injection process with a camera to measure the in-plane soil displacements and strains by means of the PIV technique. The other aim of this study is to develop a numerical model, which should be able to deal with large displacements and deformations and to simulate the change in shape of the distinct soil-grout interface solely as a result of the interaction between the injected grout and the surrounding soil. Based on these considerations, as a numerical technique, we employ the implicit Material Point Method based on a mixed formulation, which is implemented in the open source Kratos Multiphysics framework. In contrast to standard FE formulations, the usage of the MPM avoids both the numerical instability caused by extensive mesh distortion and the high computational costs of remeshing. The main results focus on the different evolution of the grout bulb inside the soil under various stress states.

Die Verdichtungsinjektion stellt ein Verfahren in der Geotechnik dar, bei dem der Baugrund durch Einpressen eines Mörtels mit hoher innerer Reibung verdichtet wird, ohne ihn aufzubrechen. Dieses Verfahren wird weithin verwendet zur Setzungskontrolle oder Erhöhung der Tragfähigkeit des Baugrunds unter neuen bzw. bestehenden Bauwerken.
Da die Injektion innerhalb des Bodens stattfindet, ist eine visuelle Beurteilung des Verdichtungserfolgs nicht möglich. Bisher beruht die Beurteilung bzw. Bewertung daher zumeist auf Erfahrungen. Ziel ist es somit mittels numerischer und experimenteller Untersuchungen eine Methode zu erschaffen, die es ermöglicht den Verdichtungserfolg nicht nur vorherzusagen sondern auch bezüglich der Materialparameter des Injektionsguts zu optimieren. Bezüglich der Numerik werden sowohl die grundsätzliche Eignung als auch die ersten notwendigen Anpassungen der impliziten "Material Point Method" zur Simulation einer Verdichtungsinjektion präsentiert. Für die experimentellen Untersuchungen wurde eigens ein Versuchsstand konstruiert, in dem es möglich ist, den Injektionsprozess an einer Glasscheibe zu beobachten und mittels digitaler Bildverarbeitung zu bewerten.

The Westend Bridge is located on the A100 Highway in Berlin. An integrated continuous dynamic monitoring system, composed of 20 velocity sensors, 5 temperature sensors, 3 strain gauges, 1 crack sensor and 2 inclination sensors, was implemented by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing in 2000. The system runs continuously with occasional intermittence and led to a huge amount of data over a 14-year span. In this article, variations of the strain, crack and inclination measurements during the last 14 years are presented. It is noted that the observed crack and inclination of the bridge are strongly influenced by seasonal temperature variation. It further induces change in the relationship between the strains measured in both concrete and prestressed tendon. Application of k-means cluster Analysis technique in both the crack and strain measurements can partition them into different seasonal phases by identifying ‘turning points’ that indicate annual periodical bridge change. In the period of these two ‘turning points’, a strong linear relation of the strains in two materials is observed. In the rest of the year, a nonlinear relationship between the strains recorded in both the concrete and the prestressed tendon is noted. The possible reason is the additional thermal load due to the change in temperature difference between the bridge’s surface and soffit. Finally, a health index in a Framework of regression model and process control theory is proposed by investigating the linear relationship between the strains in concrete and prestressed tendon. The tendency of the health index in the 14 years may suggest the long-term bridge change during that time frame.

The implementation of continuous dynamic monitoring systems in two bridges, in Portugal, is enabled to detect the occurrence of very significant environmental and operational effects on the modal properties of these bridges, based on automated processing of massive amounts of monitoring data collected by a set of accelerometers and thermal sensors over several years.
In order to remove or mitigate such environmental/operational effects with the purpose of damage detection, two different statistical methods have been adopted. One of them is the multiple linear regression by performing nonlinear correlation analysis between measured modal properties and environmental/operational variables. Another one is principal component regression based on the identification of the linear subspace within the modal properties without using measured values of environmental and operational variables.
This paper presents a comparison of the performance of these two alternative approaches on the basis of continuous monitoring data acquired from two instrumented bridges and simulated damage scenarios. It is observed that different methods show similar capacity in removing environmental effects, and the multiple linear regression method is slightly more sensitive to structural damage.

At present, Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs) operating in onshore and offshore wind farms are primary sources of renewable energy around the world. Cylindrical grouted sleeve connections are usually adopted in these WTG structures to connect the upper structure and foundation for ease of installation. These structures including grouted connections experience considerable adverse loading during their lifetimes. Settlements were reported inside similar connections used in energy structures especially oil and gas platforms, which were installed in last three decades. Thus, repair and rehabilitation of such connections in existing wind structures should also be planned ahead to keep them operating in the future. The nature of failure and crack generation in grouted connections are crucial prior to adopt a strengthening strategy. This pilot study is carried out to actualize the failure mechanism in the grouted connection, when subjected to axial loading. A novel reusable scaled cylindrical grouted connection with shear keys was designed and tested for its load bearing behaviour. The mechanical test was accompanied by classical measuring techniques (e.g. displacement transducer) as well as non-destructive measuring techniques (e.g. digital image correlation (DIC), acoustic emission analysis (AE)). The failure mechanism incorporating slippage of the shear keys and cracking of the grout was investigated. The capacity and applicability of such test mould were also discussed. The knowledge is expected to pave way towards repair of deteriorated grouted connections with similar geometry and failure pattern.

Gerammte Stahlrohrpfähle sind das wesentlichste Gründungselement für Offshore-Konstruktionen. Typischerweise kommen diese als Monopiles oder als Mehrpfahlgründungen für Jacket-Konstruktionen zum Einsatz. Für die verhältnismäßig leichten Windenergieanlagen auf See wird bei Mehrpfahlgründungen regelmäßig die Zugtragfähigkeit maßgebend in der Bemessung. Zusätzlich sind Effekte aus wiederholten zyklischen Belastungen zu beachten, die sich auch auf die Zugtragfähigkeit auswirken können. Auch hier ergibt sich eine Besonderheit dadurch, dass im extremwertverteilten Lastspektrum wenige große (Wechsel-)Last-Amplituden entscheidend sind.
Die gründungstechnischen Herausforderungen bei der Planung solcher Windparks auf See wurden von einer Reihe von Untersuchungen begleitet. Eine Versuchsserie zur Zugtragfähigkeit von großmaßstäblichen Pfählen wurde auf dem Testgelände der BAM nahe Horstwalde bei Berlin durchgeführt. Hierfür wurde ein Testfeld mit 10 Pfählen angelegt. Die Pfähle wurden monoton auf Zug und zyklisch belastet. Vergleichend wurden dynamische Pfahlprobebelastungen durchgeführt. Zwei der Pfähle wurden mit Dehnungssensoren instrumentiert und es konnte die Pfahl-Boden-Interaktion abschnittsweise ermittelt werden.

The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to analyze locally (at the element level) the contact behavior of a soil-pile contact problem. Therefore, a 2D shear test is modeled using the Finite Element Method. The formulation of a 4 nodded zero-thickness Interface element of Beer is chosen with a linear interpolation function. Four constitutive contact models adapted for contact problems have been implemented. The Mohr-Coulomb and Clough and Duncan models were chosen initially, due to the ease of implementation and few number of parameters needed. After, more complicated models in the framework of
elasto-plasticity such as: Lashkari and Mortara were implemented for the first time into the finite element code of the shear test problem. They include other phenomena such as:
relative density of soil, the stress level and sand dilatancy. From the results the relation between shear displacement and shear stress has been deduced. Finally, a discussion of the advantages and the drawbacks during computation of each model is given at the end.

In this paper a shear test, which helps to study local behavior of the soil-pile interaction, is modelled numerically with the Finite Element Method as a 2D plane strain problem. A normal pressure on top and shear displacement on side were applied. So far, the material behavior was considered elastic for the sake of simplicity.
The effect of thickness on contact elements and the presence of in plane stress has been highlighted. The purpose of the paper is to find a suitable contact element which represents more close to reality a soil-pile interaction problem under cyclic axial loading. Moreover, an insight on the presence of in-plane stress shows that it needs to be considered cautiously.

The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to analyze locally (at the element level) the contact behavior of a soil-pile contact problem. Therefore, a 2D shear test is modeled using the Finite Element Method. The formulation of a 4 nodded zero-thickness interface element of Beer is chosen with a linear interpolation function. Four constitutive contact models adapted for contact problems have been implemented. The Mohr-Coulomb and Clough and Duncan models were chosen initially, due to the ease of implementation and few number of parameters needed. After, more complicated models in the framework of elasto-plasticity such as: Lashkari and Mortara were implemented for the first time into the finite element code of the shear test problem. They include other phenomena such as: relative density of soil, the stress level and sand dilatancy. From the results the relation between shear displacement and shear stress has been deduced. Finally, a discussion of the advantages and the drawbacks during computation of each model is given at the end.

To cope with future requirements, the transfer capacities of distribution systems as well as of transmission systems in Europe need to be increased. Therefore repowering of existing overhead lines with high temperature low sag con-ductors (HTLS) can be one interesting possibility. Because of limited experiences with that technology, current re-search of TU Dresden, the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH investigates the ageing behaviour of several differ-ent HTLS technologies in a consortium with other Euro-pean partners. In this context, accelerated ageing tests of conductors and its corresponding fittings with combined mechanical and electrical loads are done. To evaluate the changes due to ageing, several mechanical tests of the con-ductors are carried out and the contact behaviour of the fittings is analysed.

This paper addresses the quantification of the value of damage detection system and algorithm information on the basis of Value of Information (VoI) analysis to enhance the benefit of damage detection information by providing the basis for its optimization before it is performed and implemented. The approach of the quantification the value of damage detection information builds upon the Bayesian decision theory facilitating the utilization of damage detection performance models, which describe the information and its precision on structural system level, facilitating actions to ensure the structural integrity and facilitating to describe the structural system performance and its functionality throughout the service life. The structural system performance is described with its functionality, its deterioration and its behavior under extreme loading. The structural system reliability given the damage detection information is determined utilizing Bayesian updating. The damage detection performance is described with the probability of indication for different component and system damage states taking into account type 1 and type 2 errors. The value of damage detection information is then calculated as the difference between the expected benefits and risks utilizing the damage detection information or not. With an application example of the developed approach based on a deteriorating Pratt truss system, the value of damage detection information is determined,demonstrating the potential of risk reduction and expected cost reduction.

The inverse identification of the stress state in axially loaded slender members of iron and steel truss structures using measured dynamic data is discussed. A methodology is proposed based on the finite element model updating coupled with nature-inspired optimization techniques, in particular the particle swarm optimization. The numerical model of truss structures is calibrated using natural frequencies and mode shapes from vibration tests, as well as additional information of the axial forces in selected truss members based on the experimentally identified modal parameters. The results of the identification are the axial forces or corresponding stresses in truss structures and the joint rigidity in relation to pinned and rigid conditions.