## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

### Filtern

#### Erscheinungsjahr

- 2017 (75) (entfernen)

#### Dokumenttyp

- Vortrag (31)
- Zeitschriftenartikel (19)
- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (18)
- Buchkapitel (3)
- Posterpräsentation (3)
- Dissertation (1)

#### Schlagworte

- Finite element method (7)
- Ground vibration (7)
- Axial force (5)
- Dynamic test (5)
- Truss structures (5)
- Inspection (4)
- Modal parameters (4)
- Model updating (4)
- Monitoring (4)
- Optimization technique (4)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (75) (entfernen)

Suction Bucket Jackets (SBJ) are found as a suitable alternative to driven piles for the support of foundations for offshore wind energy converters. In the case of jackets or multipods, a predominant vertical load is to be expected. The effect of such a tensile loading is the generation of suction in the soil inside the bucket which leads to an increment of tensile capacity. This paper aims to study the bearing behaviour of a suction foundation by taking into account how the soil permeability and the loading rate influence the foundation behaviour. Moreover, after submitting the structure to a storm load, the bearing capacity is studied again, in order to see the effect of such a load on the bucket's bearing behaviour. This study is carried out by means of Finite Element numerical simulations based on the formulation of Biot's equations combined with a constitutive model that reproduces the key aspects of cyclic soil behaviour in the frame of Generalized Plasticity.

Gerammte Stahlrohrpfähle sind das wesentlichste Gründungselement für Offshore-Konstruktionen. Typischerweise kommen diese als Monopiles oder als Mehrpfahlgründungen für Jacket-Konstruktionen zum Einsatz. Für die verhältnismäßig leichten Windenergieanlagen auf See wird bei Mehrpfahlgründungen regelmäßig die Zugtragfähigkeit maßgebend in der Bemessung. Zusätzlich sind Effekte aus wiederholten zyklischen Belastungen zu beachten, die sich auch auf die Zugtragfähigkeit auswirken können. Auch hier ergibt sich eine Besonderheit dadurch, dass im extremwertverteilten Lastspektrum wenige große (Wechsel-)Last-Amplituden entscheidend sind.
Die gründungstechnischen Herausforderungen bei der Planung solcher Windparks auf See wurden von einer Reihe von Untersuchungen begleitet. Eine Versuchsserie zur Zugtragfähigkeit von großmaßstäblichen Pfählen wurde auf dem Testgelände der BAM nahe Horstwalde bei Berlin durchgeführt. Hierfür wurde ein Testfeld mit 10 Pfählen angelegt. Die Pfähle wurden monoton auf Zug und zyklisch belastet. Vergleichend wurden dynamische Pfahlprobebelastungen durchgeführt. Zwei der Pfähle wurden mit Dehnungssensoren instrumentiert und es konnte die Pfahl-Boden-Interaktion abschnittsweise ermittelt werden.

Current trend suggests that global energy consumption will increase in the future. This growing energy demand and advancement of technology lead to explore all potential offshore fossil and non-fossil energy sources, necessitating erection of exploration and production structures, rigs, platforms and towers, which are susceptible to adverse environmental conditions along with their maintenances. Cylindrical grouted joints provide suitable connections between steel substructure and foundation in these offshore platforms and wind structures especially monopiles for ease of installation. However, these are composite connections with exterior sleeve, interior pile and infill grout. The capacity of these connections is affected by number of factors. The literature over last four decades by numerous researchers has shown the development of these connections with increasingly higher capacities and influences on these capacities due to various factors. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the factors affecting the connection capacity along with technical challenges for the future. Critical aspects and shortcomings of the current connection systems and potential solutions may be sought after for these issues are also discussed.

At present, Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs) operating in onshore and offshore wind farms are primary sources of renewable energy around the world. Cylindrical grouted sleeve connections are usually adopted in these WTG structures to connect the upper structure and foundation for ease of installation. These structures including grouted connections experience considerable adverse loading during their lifetimes. Settlements were reported inside similar connections used in energy structures especially oil and gas platforms, which were installed in last three decades. Thus, repair and rehabilitation of such connections in existing wind structures should also be planned ahead to keep them operating in the future. The nature of failure and crack generation in grouted connections are crucial prior to adopt a strengthening strategy. This pilot study is carried out to actualize the failure mechanism in the grouted connection, when subjected to axial loading. A novel reusable scaled cylindrical grouted connection with shear keys was designed and tested for its load bearing behaviour. The mechanical test was accompanied by classical measuring techniques (e.g. displacement transducer) as well as non-destructive measuring techniques (e.g. digital image correlation (DIC), acoustic emission analysis (AE)). The failure mechanism incorporating slippage of the shear keys and cracking of the grout was investigated. The capacity and applicability of such test mould were also discussed. The knowledge is expected to pave way towards repair of deteriorated grouted connections with similar geometry and failure pattern.

In granular soils, long-term cyclically loaded structures can lead to an accumulation of irreversible strain by forming closed convective cells in the upper layer of the bedding. The size of the convective cell, its formation and grain migration inside this closed volume have been studied with reference to different stiffness of the embedded structure and different maximum force amplitudes applied at the head of the structure.
This relation was experimentally investigated by applying a cyclic lateral force to a scaled flexible vertical element embedded in a dry granular soil. The model was monitored with a camera in order to derive the displacement field by means of the PIV technique. Furthermore, the ratcheting convective cell was also simulated with DEM with the aim of extracting some micromechanical information. The main results regarded the different development, shape and size of the convection cell and the surface settlements.

The inverse identification of the stress state in axially loaded slender members of iron and steel truss structures using measured dynamic data is discussed. A methodology is proposed based on the finite element model updating coupled with nature-inspired optimization techniques, in particular the particle swarm optimization. The numerical model of truss structures is calibrated using natural frequencies and mode shapes from vibration tests, as well as additional information of the axial forces in selected truss members based on the experimentally identified modal parameters. The results of the identification are the axial forces or corresponding stresses in truss structures and the joint rigidity in relation to pinned and rigid conditions.

The damage detection and repair control have become important tasks for ballast and slab tracks. Measurements which compare the damaged and the repaired status of the same track section at different times, or which compare a damaged and an intact track section at the same time, have been successfully performed at some sites in Germany. The loss of contact between the sleeper and the track plate, between the track plate and the base plate, and between the base plate and the base layer have been analysed. The soil properties of each site have been measured and have been used to establish realistic track-soil models. Theoretical results of the wavenumber domain and the finite-element boundary element method have been compared with the experimental results. The observed experimental and theoretical results, changes in the time histories of displacements and velocities due to train passages and in the transfer functions (receptances) due to hammer impacts, are encouraging that these measurements can be used to detect track damage.

Offshore wind energy towers are dynamically loaded by waves and wind. Pile foundations provide stiffness and damping and should be properly calculated. A combined finite-element boundary-element method for the dynamic interaction of flexible structures and the soil has been developed. The flexible structures such as single piles or complete wind energy towers are modeled by the finite element method whereas the homogeneous or layered soil is modeled by the boundary element method which uses the Green’s functions for interior loads in the layered half-space to establish the dynamic stiffness matrix of the soil. Soils with a stiffness that is continuously increasing with depth can be modeled as multi-layer soils with step-wise increasing stiffness. The effects of different parameters such as the stiffness of the soil, the axial and bending stiffness of the pile, and the radius of the cylindrical contact area will be analysed for the different components of excitation (vertical, horizontal, rotation and coupling). The results can be determined as specific power laws which are different for the different load cases and for the different soil models (Winkler support, homogeneous continuum, continuum with increasing stiffness). The dynamic effect of radiation damping will be analysed by the frequency-dependent compliance functions. A clear layering of the soil can cause noticeable changes in the dynamic compliances as reductions of the stiffness and the damping in certain frequency ranges (below and around layer resonance frequencies). The distribution of the displacements along the pile help to explain the observed laws. An example of an offshore wind energy tower has been modeled and calculated for wind, wave and weight loads. The resonances of the tower are usually limited by the radiation damping which is strongest for a soft soil.

Measurements of downburst wind loading acting on an overhead transmission line in northern Germany
(2017)

Along an overhead transmission line in Northern Germany, a unique instrumentation of anemometers and force measurements is installed. Details of this test line with wind measurements along a horizontal axis are given. A recent event of a presumable downburst wind event is analyzed by means of available data and precedent works on thunderstorm analysis. The measured response of the conductors at the suspension tower is investigated and compared with time domain simulation of a finite element model.

This contribution presents some principles and some examples of the mitigation of railway-induced ground vibrations. The principles are different for the mitigation measures at the track, in the soil or at the building. Force transfer functions of isolated and un-isolated track-soil systems, reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes at walls and trenches in the soil, and the transfer of the (free-field) vibration amplitudes to the foundation amplitudes of the building are analysed. The mitigation effect can be calculated by exact or simplified formulas. Some examples with 3D (finite-element boundary-element), 2D (beam-on-support), and 1D track models, 2D and 1D soil models, detailed 3D building models and finite or infinite 1D wall-floor models are investigated to find out if simple models can be used for a satisfactory prediction of the mitigation effect. The 1D track examples show that the force transfer of the track without vehicle can be exactly calculated, whereas the total force transfer can be calculated approximately if appropriate wheelset masses per track length are used for the isolated and the un-isolated track. The mitigation effect of a filled trench is calculated by a 2D finite element model and the results compare with simple transmission formula if the stiffness per area rather than the wave impedances are used for the infill material. The base isolation of a building is analysed by a detailed 3D model and the results are similar to the analytic results of a single wall with floors on the soil. Other reduction measures as different floor and column dimensions are usually less effective so that the clearly best mitigation solution at a building is a partly or a complete base isolation.

Measurements on the vehicle-track interaction and the excitation of railway-induced ground vibration
(2017)

Two railway measurement campaigns have been performed in Germany and Switzerland which yield insight in the vehicle-track-soil interaction. The campaign in Germany has included simultaneous measurement of vehicle, track, and soil vibrations during train runs with 16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 100, 125, 140, 160 km/h, and impulse measurements of the passenger car, three track sections and the soil. Two ballast tracks, one on the soil surface and one on a concrete bridge, have been investigated as well as a slab track in a tunnel. Ten different sites in Switzerland have been measured for soil properties and train-induced ground vibrations, which allow to determine the excitation forces of the railway traffic. New axle-box measurements at some of the Swiss sites have been analysed to get further experimental evidence. All these measurements have been evaluated to characterize the excitation processes. Relations between vehicle vibration and ground vibration can be observed. The vehicle vibrations, namely the accelerations of the wheelsets, yield the dynamic forces due to the passage over the irregularities of the vehicle and the track. The ground vibrations are correlated to these dynamic forces to a certain extent. Some mid-frequency ground vibration amplitudes, however, are higher than expected from the dynamic excitation forces. The experimental observations can be explained by an irregular response to the passage of the static loads, that means the passage of the static loads over an irregular ballast or soil. This correct understanding of the excitation processes is important for the prediction as well as for the mitigation of railway induced ground vibrations.

Precise identification of the axial forces and corresponding stresses plays a crucial role for the preservation of existing truss structures. The assessment measures require non–destructiveness, minimum intervention and practical applicability. The work aims to develop a non–destructive methodology to identify the axial forces and stress states in iron and steel truss structures based on vibration measurements and the finite element model updating coupled with optimization techniques.

Based on the state-of-the-art research and advances in dynamic testing methods in the past decades, the research project aims to develop a non-destructive methodology to determine the axial forces and real stress state in existing truss structures making use of the vibration signatures of the natural frequencies and mode shapes. Furthermore, it aims to estimate the joint rigidity of trusses as well as to design structural health monitoring schemes for the safety of existing truss-type structures.

Die Beanspruchung von Freileitungen erfolgt hauptsächlich durch Naturlasten. Dabei spielt für die bemessungsbestimmenden Lastfälle häufig der Wind eine entscheidende Rolle. Die Leiter, die mehrere hundert Meter weit spannen, tragen einen wesentlichen Anteil zur Gesamtbeanspruchung von Tragmasten bei, die wiederum Eigengewicht und Windlasten der Leiter zwischen zwei Abspannmasten abtragen. Wenn die Reaktion der Seile auf Starkwindereignisse abgeschätzt werden soll, müssen sowohl geometrische Nichtlinearitäten durch die großen Verformungen wie auch aerodynamische Nichtlinearitäten berücksichtigt werden. Insbesondere für die Anwendung und Berücksichtigung in Bemessungsvorschriften werden hierfür Vereinfachungen vorgenommen. In diesem Beitrag wird eine umfassende Untersuchung vorgestellt, über Naturmessungen, FEM-Simulationen kombiniert mit Windkanalversuchen und generierten Windzeitreihen. Ziel ist es, existierende Bemessungsvorschriften im Hinblick auf die Abschätzung der Beanspruchung aus Wind auf Leiter zu validieren. Hierbei sind insbesondere die Turbulenzannahmen und das dynamische Verhalten von weitgespannten Leitern wichtig, um die Extremschnittgrößen zu beschreiben. Mithilfe von so genannten Spannweitenfaktoren sollen die relevanten Parameter, wie Spannweite und Windturbulenz, bei der Beanspruchungsabschätzung berücksichtigt werden.

Aerodynamic damping is a decisive parameter influencing the dynamic response of overhead transmission line conductors. Methods of how to account for the effects of aerodynamic damping differ significantly and so might do the results. In this work, the source of aerodynamic damping being the result of the relative velocity between the structure and wind flow will be revised. Based on wind tunnel tests and validated by simulations, the differences of linear movement compared to a pendulum movement of a sagging cable are shown. The reasons for that Deviation are the large deflections, resulting in a movement non-parallel to the acting wind flow. For analysis in frequency domain, it is not possible to incorporate aerodynamic damping implicitly by fluid structure interaction. If the dynamic movement can be linearized at a working point of the mean deflection, a modification to the linear approach is suggested. This approach is validated by simulation with a finite element model of an existing overhead transmission line, calibrated with full scale measurements. Aerodynamic damping is incorporated in time step analysis by Rayleigh damping and modal damping. The differences between both approaches are emphasized and modal damping is shown to be the most adequate.

Measurements of downburst wind loading acting on an overhead transmission line in Northern Germany
(2017)

Windeinwirkungen auf Freileitungen wurden in der Vergangenheit meist an exponierten Standorten bestimmt. In einem Langzeitversuch wurden seit 2012 an einer mit moderner Messtechnik ausgerüsteten 380-kV-Leitung der 50 Hertz Transmission GmbH, die im nicht besonders exponierten Gelände verläuft und somit den Leitungen im Netz entspricht, die Windgeschwindigkeiten entlang der Leiter und deren Auswirkungen auf die Stützpunkte gemessen. Die Messungen und die begleitenden Auswertungen bestätigen die heute verwendeten normativen Vorgaben für die Windwirkung auf die Leiter von Freileitungen, soweit dies in der relativ kurzen Zeit von fünf Jahren möglich ist.

Accelerated electrical and mechanical ageing tests of high temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors
(2017)

As part of the Best Paths project, work package 6 of the DEMO #4 combines the R&D tasks for repowering of transmission overhead line corridors. The aim of the presented research work is the electrical and mechanical investigation of high temperature low sag conductors (HTLS) and their respective accessories. In contrast to the conventional ACSR (aluminum conductor steel reinforced) conductors, new material combinations of HTLS technologies result in a better sagging behavior combined with an operation at higher temperatures. Because of missing operational experience, the ageing behavior of HTLS conductor technologies shall be analyzed regarding the operating parameters such as electrical, thermal and mechanical load.

To cope with future requirements, the transfer capacities of distribution systems as well as of transmission systems in Europe need to be increased. Therefore repowering of existing overhead lines with high temperature low sag con-ductors (HTLS) can be one interesting possibility. Because of limited experiences with that technology, current re-search of TU Dresden, the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH investigates the ageing behaviour of several differ-ent HTLS technologies in a consortium with other Euro-pean partners. In this context, accelerated ageing tests of conductors and its corresponding fittings with combined mechanical and electrical loads are done. To evaluate the changes due to ageing, several mechanical tests of the con-ductors are carried out and the contact behaviour of the fittings is analysed.

Vorschlag zur möglichen Lebensdauerverlängerung einzelner Bauteile einer im Betrieb befindlichen Offshore-Windenergieanlage durch Beschreibung der Versagenswahrscheinlichkeiten
Beschreibung der Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit durch geeignete Schädigungsmodelle
Aktualisierung der Versagenswahrscheinlichkeiten aufgrund von Inspektionsergebnissen und möglichen Reparaturen auf Basis der Bayes‘schen Entscheidungstheorie
Quantifizierte Bewertung von Inspektionsmethoden und Reparaturmaßnamen im Hinblick auf die Zuverlässigkeit der Bauteile
Grundlage für Entscheidungen für Inspektionen und Reparaturen

In dieser Blockveranstaltung lernen die Studierenden die Grundlagen der stahlbaulichen Bemessung zum Thema Stabilität. Inhalt ist eine kurze Einführung in die Problematik des Stabilitätsversagens. Danach wird eingegangen auf die Grundlagen des Bemessungsverfahrens nach EC 3, gefolgt von einer Nachweisführung anhand eines Beispiels.

Im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit steht die numerische Modellierung der Fahrzeug-Fahrweg-Wechselwirkung von Eisenbahnfahrwegen, die auch für Fahrwege mit einer Diskontinuität einsetzbar ist. Der Fokus wurde hier auf Fahrwege mit einem Brückenbauwerk gelegt, weil es an den Übergängen zu einer erhöhten Beanspruchung kommt.
Daher wurde für den Fahrweg mittels der Finiten Elemente Methode (FEM) ein dreidimensionales Modell mit einer Lösung im Zeitbereich entwickelt, das die wesentlichen Elemente des Schienenverkehrs, das Fahrzeug, den Fahrwegoberbau und den Untergrund, enthält. Aufgrund der unendlichen Ausdehnung des Untergrundes wurde für den Rand des endlichen FE-Gebiets, die sogenannte Scaled Boundary Finite Element Methode (SBFEM) verwendet, welche ein semi-analytisches Verfahren ist und die Abstrahlungsbedingung erfüllt. Da dieses Verfahren sowohl zeitlich als auch räumlich global ist, kann es mitunter für lange Simulationszeiten sehr aufwendig sein. Deshalb wurde es mittels der Methode der reduzierten Basisfunktionen und einer Linearisierung der Beschleunigungs-Einflussmatrix modifiziert, wodurch das Berechnungsverfahren effizienter gestaltet werden konnte. Anhand von zwei analytischen Lösungen aus der Bodendynamik konnte das modifizierte Verfahren der SBFEM validiert werden.
Für ein Gleis auf homogenem Untergrund wurden mit Hilfe des gekoppelten FE-SBFE-Modells verschiedene Ergebnisse am Oberbau, im Boden und für die Ausbreitung von Erschütterungen berechnet, die sehr gut mit Ergebnissen aus der Literatur übereinstimmen. Zudem konnte das numerische Modell mit einer Schwingungsmessung an einer Schwelle eines realen Fahrwegs validiert werden.
Unter Anwendung des gekoppelten FE-SBFE-Modells wurde ein Fahrweg mit Brückenbauwerk untersucht, wobei eine Beurteilung und Optimierung des Übergangsbereichs unter Verkehrslast hinsichtlich des Langzeitverhaltens im Vordergrund stand. Anhand von einfachen Bewertungskriterien, die als Indikatoren für das Langzeitverhalten dienen können, wurden verschiedene konstruktive Optimierungsmaßnahmen für den Brückenübergangsbereich diskutiert, wie zum Beispiel die Gestaltung eines Hinterfüllungsbereiches oder der Einsatz elastischer Elemente (Zwischenlagen, Besohlungen, Unterschottermatten) im Fahrweg.
Das entwickelte numerische Modell für die Fahrzeug-Fahrweg-Wechselwirkung lässt sich ohne großen Aufwand auf weitere Problemstellungen von Übergangsbereichen erweitern, um spezifische konstruktive Optimierungsmaßnahmen zu untersuchen.

Erosive phenomena at the mesoscale – Perspectives and challenges using coupled LBM-DEM models
(2017)

The physical phenomena related to the erosion of granular materials by a fluid flow are ubiquitous and often present major challenges and threats to a wide range of civil engineering constructions and infrastructures. Catastrophic earth-dam failures and large sinkholes are just some of the possible outcomes of the different forms of erosion (a.o. surface erosion, suffusion, piping, backwards erosion, etc…). However, little is known about the actual mechanical origins of erosion, while the assessment of erodibility is generally performed by means of experimental tests and empirical correlations.
Here we provide a general overview of some current research models aiming to clarify the micromechanical phenomena and their macromechanical consequences taking place in different erosion scenarios. The employed numerical techniques rely on the coupling of two well-stablished particle methods for the fluid and solid phases, namely the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM) respectively. Further ingredients of our numerical models include an elastoplastic cohesion model for intergranular solid bridges and a subcritical debonding model for the simulation of transient damage processes within the soil matrix.

The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to analyze locally (at the element level) the contact behavior of a soil-pile contact problem. Therefore, a 2D shear test is modeled using the Finite Element Method. The formulation of a 4 nodded zero-thickness Interface element of Beer is chosen with a linear interpolation function. Four constitutive contact models adapted for contact problems have been implemented. The Mohr-Coulomb and Clough and Duncan models were chosen initially, due to the ease of implementation and few number of parameters needed. After, more complicated models in the framework of
elasto-plasticity such as: Lashkari and Mortara were implemented for the first time into the finite element code of the shear test problem. They include other phenomena such as:
relative density of soil, the stress level and sand dilatancy. From the results the relation between shear displacement and shear stress has been deduced. Finally, a discussion of the advantages and the drawbacks during computation of each model is given at the end.

The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to analyze locally (at the element level) the contact behavior of a soil-pile contact problem. Therefore, a 2D shear test is modeled using the Finite Element Method. The formulation of a 4 nodded zero-thickness interface element of Beer is chosen with a linear interpolation function. Four constitutive contact models adapted for contact problems have been implemented. The Mohr-Coulomb and Clough and Duncan models were chosen initially, due to the ease of implementation and few number of parameters needed. After, more complicated models in the framework of elasto-plasticity such as: Lashkari and Mortara were implemented for the first time into the finite element code of the shear test problem. They include other phenomena such as: relative density of soil, the stress level and sand dilatancy. From the results the relation between shear displacement and shear stress has been deduced. Finally, a discussion of the advantages and the drawbacks during computation of each model is given at the end.

In this paper a shear test, which helps to study local behavior of the soil-pile interaction, is modelled numerically with the Finite Element Method as a 2D plane strain problem. A normal pressure on top and shear displacement on side were applied. So far, the material behavior was considered elastic for the sake of simplicity.
The effect of thickness on contact elements and the presence of in plane stress has been highlighted. The purpose of the paper is to find a suitable contact element which represents more close to reality a soil-pile interaction problem under cyclic axial loading. Moreover, an insight on the presence of in-plane stress shows that it needs to be considered cautiously.

Compaction grouting involves the injection under high pressure of a highly viscous grout into the soil to displace and compact the surrounding soil without fracturing it. This ground improvement technique has been used widely for settlement control, increasing liquefaction resistance or bearing capacity of soil under new or existing structures. The work presented here aims to show some numerical and experimental investigations being carried out to understand the compaction mechanism and the soil-grout interaction, which is crucial for a successful usage of this technique.
To investigate compaction grouting in the laboratory under various stress conditions, a large-scale testing chamber has been developed. The grout was injected directly at the transparent vertical window of the chamber in order to investigate the possibility to monitor the injection process with a camera to measure the in-plane soil displacements and strains by means of the PIV technique. The other aim of this study is to develop a numerical model, which should be able to deal with large displacements and deformations and to simulate the change in shape of the distinct soil-grout interface solely as a result of the interaction between the injected grout and the surrounding soil. Based on these considerations, as a numerical technique, we employ the implicit Material Point Method based on a mixed formulation, which is implemented in the open source Kratos Multiphysics framework. In contrast to standard FE formulations, the usage of the MPM avoids both the numerical instability caused by extensive mesh distortion and the high computational costs of remeshing. The main results focus on the different evolution of the grout bulb inside the soil under various stress states.

- Impact tests of concrete blocks
- High energy facility for laminographic testing
- Laminographic arrangement
- Cross-Laminography
- Measurement range extension by detector tiling
- Reconstruction methods
- Fast “shift averaging” method “next to base plane”
- reconstruction --> Removal of reinforcement indications
- 3D-Data analysis
- Crack-Segmentation by „Template Matching“

Measurements on the vehicle-track interaction and the excitation of railway-induced ground vibration
(2017)

Experiments have been performed at a test site with six different tracks with under-ballast plates. Hammer excitations of the soil and the tracks as well as train passages have been measured. The experimental observations are as follows. 1. The natural soil is stiff gravel whereas the railway dam consists of softer material. 2. The track compliance indicates a soft ballast if no train is present to provide a confining pressure. 3. The track response to the train passages can be split into a low-frequency region which is ruled by the static loads and a high-frequency region which is ruled by dynamic loads. 4. The track responses to hammer and track excitation indicate the presence of many voids between the sleepers and the ballast. 5. The ground vibrations are highly influenced by the soil. Due to the stiff soil at the site, the hammer and train induced spectra have a considerable high-frequency content. 6. A reduction of the ground vibration has been observed in a low-frequency range. The mitigation effects of an under-ballast plate are also investigated by calculations of a wavenumber domain model. The under-ballast plate has an effect at low frequencies where it distributes the static load over a longer track section. The impulse of the axle passage is longer and the frequencies are lower due to the plate stiffness. The axle impulses could yield a low-frequency ground vibration in an irregular soil with a randomly varying stiffness. This low-frequency part of the ground vibration (the scattered axle impulses) seem to be reduced by the under-ballast plate.

Train passages induce forces on the track, train-induced vibrations propagate through the soil and excite neighbouring buildings. The emission, which is the first part of the prediction of vibrations near railway lines, is presented by focusing on the dynamic axle loads. The calculation of the axle loads is based on the vehicle-track-soil interaction. This interaction calculus utilises the dynamic stiffness of the vehicle (the inertia of the wheelset) and the dynamic stiffness of the track-soil system. Based on various time consuming finite-element boundary-element calculations, an approximate track-soil model has been established. The vehicle-track-soil analysis yields several transfer functions between the various geometric or stiffness irregularities and the axle loads of the train. Geometric irregularities of the vehicle (the wheels) and the track (rail surface and track alignment) are the simplest components. Geometric irregularities of the subsoil (trackbed irregularities) have to be transferred to effective irregularities at rail level. The bending stiffness of the track is filtering out the short-wavelength contribution. Stiffness irregularities occur due to random variations in the ballast or the subsoil, which must also be transferred to effective track irregularities, and due to the discrete rail support on sleepers. All necessary transfer functions for the prediction of axle-load spectra are presented as general formula and as specific graphs for differing vehicle and track parameters. The prediction method is applied to a ballast track and a slab track and compared with corresponding axle-box measurements. Moreover, ground vibration measurements at numerous sites are exploited for the axle-load spectra and the validation of the prediction method. All theoretical and experimental results confirm that the dynamic axle-load spectra have an approximate value of 1 kN per third of octave and increase with train speed, track stiffness and around the vehicle-track resonance.

A complex measuring campaign has been performed including the simultaneous measurement of vehicle, track, and soil vibrations during train runs at 16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 100, 125, 140, 160 km/h, and impulse measurements of the passenger car, three track sections and the soil. A ballast track on the soil surface and on a concrete bridge have been investigated as well as a slab track in a tunnel. The evaluation and comparison of all these data shows a generally good agreement for all components if the strong low- and high-frequency cut-off characteristics of the layered and damped soil are incorporated. There is a strong causal correlation between the vehicle and the soil by the dynamic excitation forces and a weak relation between the track and the soil by the axle-sequence spectrum of the train. However, the similarity between the axle-impulse spectrum observed at the track and the spectra of the ground vibration lead to the special excitation component of “scattered axle impulses” which is pre-dominant at the far-field points of the soil.

The Westend Bridge is located on the A100 Highway in Berlin. An integrated continuous dynamic monitoring system, composed of 20 velocity sensors, 5 temperature sensors, 3 strain gauges, 1 crack sensor and 2 inclination sensors, was implemented by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing in 2000. The system runs continuously with occasional intermittence and led to a huge amount of data over a 14-year span. In this article, variations of the strain, crack and inclination measurements during the last 14 years are presented. It is noted that the observed crack and inclination of the bridge are strongly influenced by seasonal temperature variation. It further induces change in the relationship between the strains measured in both concrete and prestressed tendon. Application of k-means cluster Analysis technique in both the crack and strain measurements can partition them into different seasonal phases by identifying ‘turning points’ that indicate annual periodical bridge change. In the period of these two ‘turning points’, a strong linear relation of the strains in two materials is observed. In the rest of the year, a nonlinear relationship between the strains recorded in both the concrete and the prestressed tendon is noted. The possible reason is the additional thermal load due to the change in temperature difference between the bridge’s surface and soffit. Finally, a health index in a Framework of regression model and process control theory is proposed by investigating the linear relationship between the strains in concrete and prestressed tendon. The tendency of the health index in the 14 years may suggest the long-term bridge change during that time frame.

An efficient approach to reliability analysis of deteriorating structural systems is presented, which considers stochastic dependence among element deterioration. Information on a deteriorating structure obtained through inspection or monitoring is included in the reliability assessment through Bayesian updating of the system deterioration model. The updated system reliability is then obtained through coupling the updated deterioration model with a probabilistic structural model. The underlying high-dimensional structural reliability problems are solved using subset simulation, which is an efficient and robust sampling-based algorithm suitable for such analyses. The approach is demonstrated in two case studies considering a steel frame structure and a Daniels system subjected to high-cycle fatigue.

Accelerated electrical and mechanical ageing tests of high temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors
(2017)

This paper describes the experimental calibration of an existing Wiegmann–Polonceau roof truss based on modal parameters. Dynamic tests allowed the determination of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the global truss and of individual truss members. The global and local modal configurations as well as coupled vibration of truss members are discussed. In addition, as truss members are axially loaded, the effect of stress stiffening on the modal parameters is considered. Moreover, several finite element models with different modelling assumptions for the details of the connections and member geometrical characteristics such as gusset plates and turnbuckles were developed. A suitable numerical model was chosen to represent the truss structural behavior. This paper focuses on the local measurement and analysis strategies applied to single truss members. The possibility of using a local analysis method, namely methods that consider individual members as part of a structure, is demonstrated to assess the behavior of the global truss structure. The comparison of the results after calibration reveals a very good correlation between the experimentally identified and numerically estimated modal parameters of the historic truss.

This paper is concerned with the inverse identification of the stress state in axially loaded slender members of iron and steel truss structures using measured dynamic data. A methodology is proposed based on the finite element model updating coupled with nature-inspired optimization techniques, in particular the particle swarm optimization. The numerical model of truss structures is calibrated using natural frequencies and mode shapes from vibration tests, as well as additional information of the axial forces in selected truss members based on the experimentally identified modal parameters. The results of the identification are the axial forces or corresponding stresses in truss structures and the joint rigidity in relation to pinned and rigid conditions. Attention is given to several examined aspects, including the effects of the axial tensile and compressive forces on the dynamic responses of trusses, mode pairing criteria, as well as modeling assumptions of joints and the use of a joint rigidity parameter. Considering the pairing of modes, it is performed by adapting an enhanced modal assurance criterion that allows the selection of desired clusters of degrees-of-freedom. Thus, information extracted from the measurements related to specific modes is utilized in a more beneficial way. For modeling of joints, the numerical model of a truss structure includes rotational springs of variable stiffness to represent semi-rigid connections. Moreover, a fixity factor is introduced for practical estimation of the joint flexibility. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by case studies involving simulated and laboratory experimental data.

In this lecture, both the physical behaviour and the general design procedures for deep foundations in the context of the offshore wind energy generation are presented. The first part of the lecture deals with the phenomenology and design of the pile foundations relative to the bearing of axial loads. The second part dwelves on the particularities of the lateral loads as well as on two research topics beyond the current design procedures, namely the hydromechanical coupling and the aging and fatigue phenomena as observed in the course of large-scale field tests.

The Federal Institute of Material Research and Testing (BAM) has collected some experience with the testing of damaged, repaired and newly constructed railway tracks. The experimental methods are hammer testing of the track at different positions, hammer testing of the soil, measurement of train passages, and in all cases, measurements with geophones at different positions. The measured signals are evaluated for wave velocities (dispersion of the soil or the track-soil system), for transfer functions (transfer admittances of the soil, compliances of the track in amplitude and phase), and one-third octave band spectra of the track response to hammer and train excitation. These methods are applied at different stages of the track construction. Before track construction, wave velocities and transfer functions of the sub-soil can indicate problems with soft soils. After track construction, a check of the acceptable state of the track can be done by comparison of many excitation positions and track sites. After a track damage (a lose sleeper or a lose plate of a slab track) and after its repair, the sensitivity of the different measurement quantities to different track errors and the achieved improvement of the repair can be determined. The contribution shows examples of all these track situations.

The Federal Institute of Material Research and Testing (BAM) has collected some experience with the testing of damaged, repaired and newly constructed railway tracks. The experimental methods are hammer testing of the track at different positions, hammer testing of the soil, measurement of train passages, and in all cases, measurements with geophones at different positions. The measured signals are evaluated for wave velocities (dispersion of the soil or the track-soil system), for transfer functions (transfer admittances of the soil, compliances of the track in amplitude and phase), and one-third octave band spectra of the track response to hammer and train excitation. These methods are applied at different stages of the track construction. Before track construction, wave velocities and transfer functions of the sub-soil can indicate problems with soft soils. After track construction, a check of the acceptable state of the track can be done by comparison of many excitation positions and track sites. After a track damage (a lose sleeper or a lose plate of a slab track) and after its repair, the sensitivity of the different measurement quantities to different track errors and the achieved improvement of the repair can be determined. The contribution shows examples of all these track situations

Offshore wind turbines enter unknown territory, especially where the foundations are concerned. This is because offshore wind power can only make use of the experience from the common offshore constructions used by the oil and gas industry to a limited extent. The offshore wind industry has tried to reduce foundation dimensions, especially the pile lengths, as much as possible compared with those of the oil and gas industry. This is because with the large number of wind turbines involved it can provide considerable economic advantages. On the other hand, the stability of the foundations is additionally at risk because due to the much larger number of cyclic loads they are subjected to it is very difficult to predict how they will behave. Since offshore wind farms are manufactured in series, every systematic fault in the foundation acts as a series fault for a large number of turbines. This calls for monitoring – and the right dimensions of pile foundation, the most common type of foundations used for wind turbines

A great deal is possible, even on the seabed. Together, wind and waves shake the foundations of the offshore wind turbines. "ere is also the “normal” current and ebb and #ow of the tides that are so distinctive in the North Sea. Pore water pressure can also occur on the seabed, loosening it. Where monopiles are involved, the worst case is that the stability of the whole turbine can be altered – even if such a monopile rammed into the seabed has a diameter of up to eight metres. Over half the planned offshore wind turbines in the North and Baltic Seas are to have monopile foundations, and over 40 % are to have multi-pile foundations, designed for example as a tripod. "is is why pile foundations and their loads deserve special attention. For one thing above all is to be avoided in plant operations, and that is the risk of turbine tilt.