## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Dokumenttyp

- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (95) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Fatigue (7)
- Damage detection (4)
- Damage localization (4)
- Numerical modelling (4)
- Bridge transition zone (3)
- Continuous dynamic monitoring (3)
- Finite element method (3)
- Ground vibration (3)
- Inspection planning (3)
- Reliability (3)
- Risk (3)
- Structural health monitoring (3)
- Temperature rejection (3)
- Vibration measurements (3)
- Aerodynamic damping (2)
- Assessment criteria (2)
- Bahnerschütterungen (2)
- Cable failure (2)
- Cable-stayed bridge (2)
- Concrete (2)
- Cracks (2)
- Damage evolution (2)
- Experimental testing (2)
- Field tests (2)
- Fire (2)
- Grout (2)
- Grouted connection (2)
- HTLS (2)
- Hammer impact (2)
- High-cycle (2)
- High-strength concrete (2)
- Impact (2)
- Interface (2)
- Layered soils (2)
- Load vector (2)
- Numerical model (2)
- Offshore wind energy (2)
- Offshore wind turbines (2)
- Overhead transmission lines (2)
- Railway track (2)
- Repair (2)
- Residual evaluation (2)
- Resonance (2)
- SDDLV (2)
- SHM (2)
- Schadensdetektion (2)
- Slab track (2)
- Soil-pile interaction (2)
- Soil-structure interaction (2)
- Statistical evaluation (2)
- Statistical tests (2)
- Subspace-based method (2)
- Track-soil interaction (2)
- Train-induced ground vibration (2)
- Train-track-bridge-interaction (2)
- Tunnel (2)
- Ultrasonic testing (2)
- Uncertainty (2)
- Value of information (2)
- Vehicle model (2)
- Aberfan flowslide (1)
- Accelerated ageing (1)
- Acoustic emission analysis (1)
- Acoustic emission testing (1)
- Amplitude-charge weight laws (1)
- Amplitude-distance laws (1)
- Analysis (1)
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- Analytical Design Methods (1)
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- Ballast tracks (1)
- Bauwerksüberwachung (1)
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- Bodeneigenschaften (1)
- Bodenübertragungsfunktion (1)
- Boundary element method (1)
- Box-Behnken (1)
- Bridges (1)
- Cable dynamics (1)
- Clay fill (1)
- Cohesive granular media (1)
- Compaction Grouting (1)
- Compaction grouting (1)
- Comparative study (1)
- Compressive Cyclic loading (1)
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- Contact problem (1)
- Continuously inhomogeneous soils (1)
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- Crack detection (1)
- Crack formation (1)
- Crack pattern (1)
- Cyclic load (1)
- Cyclic loading (1)
- DUCON® (1)
- Damage characterization (1)
- Damage quantification (1)
- Daniels systems (1)
- Datenmanagement (1)
- Dehnungsmessung (1)
- Deterioration (1)
- Digital Image Correlation (DIC) (1)
- Digital image correlation (1)
- Dispersionsmessung (1)
- Displacements (1)
- Drone (1)
- Ductility (1)
- Dynamic load test (1)
- Dynamic loading (1)
- Dynamic testing (1)
- E-modulus (1)
- Elastische Gebäudelagerung (1)
- Energy (1)
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- Environmental/operational effects (1)
- Ermüdung (1)
- Erosion onset (1)
- Erosion phenomena (1)
- Erschütterungsursachen (1)
- Excitation forces (1)
- Explosion-induced ground vibrations (1)
- FEBEM and simplified methods (1)
- Failure (1)
- Fault detection (1)
- Fault isolation (1)
- Feature extraction (1)
- Finite-element boundary-element method (1)
- Floor amplification (1)
- Fluidised geomaterials (1)
- Foundation Pile (1)
- Foundation reduction (1)
- Freileitung (1)
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- Generalized plasticity (1)
- Granular cohesion (1)
- Ground vibration measurements (1)
- Grouted Connection (1)
- Grouted connections (1)
- Grouting (1)
- Hammer tests (1)
- High temperature low sag (1)
- High temperature low sag conductors (1)
- Horizontal stress (1)
- Hypothesis tests (1)
- In-situ measurements (1)
- Injection Sequence (1)
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- Integrity (1)
- Jet erosion (1)
- Joint capacity (1)
- LBM-DEM (1)
- LBM-DEM numerical simulation (1)
- Laboratory tests (1)
- Long-term loading (1)
- Material Point Method (MPM) (1)
- Mechanical systems (1)
- Micro-reinforcement (1)
- Microfine Cement (1)
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- Mitigation (1)
- Mixed formulation (1)
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- Offshore (1)
- Offshore Pile Foundation (1)
- Offshore Windenergieanlagen (1)
- Offshore foundations (1)
- Offshore pile foundation (1)
- Offshore steel structures (1)
- Offshore wind energy converter (1)
- Offshore-Windenergie (1)
- Offshore-Windenergieanlagen (1)
- Onset of jet erosion (1)
- Operational modal analysis (1)
- PLIF-RIM optical techniques (1)
- Pfahl (1)
- Pfahlgründungen (1)
- Physical model testing (1)
- Pile bending stiffness (1)
- Pile foundation (1)
- Piles (1)
- Planar tomography (1)
- Prediction of explosion induced ground and building vibration (1)
- Quasi-static and dynamic tests (1)
- RIM-PLIF techniques (1)
- Railway embankment (1)
- Railway vibration (1)
- Rechenmodelle (1)
- Rehabilitation (1)
- Reinforced concrete structure (1)
- Reliability updating (1)
- Resistance (1)
- Risk assessment (1)
- Rissdetektion (1)
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- Road (1)
- SHM environmental bridges (1)
- SPH (1)
- Safety (1)
- Sand (1)
- Scaled boundary finite element method (1)
- Self-damping (1)
- Service life performance (1)
- Shear keys (1)
- Shearing (1)
- Shrinkage Reducing Admixture (1)
- Size effect (1)
- Slenderness effect (1)
- Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (1)
- Soil properties (1)
- Soil stiffness (1)
- Soil-building interaction (1)
- Static load (1)
- Static load test (1)
- Statistical method (1)
- Steel structures (1)
- Stereo photogrammetry (1)
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- Structural reliability and risks (1)
- Structure (1)
- Subcritical debonding (1)
- Subspace-based detection (1)
- Subspace-basierte Verfahren (1)
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- Suction bucket (1)
- Superplasticizer (1)
- Supplementary Cementitious Materials (1)
- Supplementary cementitious materials (1)
- System (1)
- Temperatureinfluss (1)
- Tensile Capacity (1)
- Tensile capacity (1)
- Tower-nacelle system (1)
- Track damage (1)
- Track damage monitoring (1)
- Track deterioration (1)
- Tragfähigkeit (1)
- Train passage (1)
- Train passages (1)
- Train speed (1)
- Train-track interaction (1)
- UHPC (1)
- Uncertainty in reference (1)
- Under sleeper pads (1)
- Under-ballast plate (1)
- Vehicle-track interaction (1)
- Vehicle-track-soil interaction (1)
- Vibration (1)
- Vibrations (1)
- Wellengeschwindigkeit (1)
- Westend bridge (1)
- Wind Turbines (1)
- Wind energy tower (1)
- Wind tunnel (1)
- Wind tunnel experiments (1)
- Wind turbine (1)
- Windenergie (1)
- Zuggeschwindigkeit (1)
- Zugtragfähigkeit (1)
- Zyklik (1)
- Zyklisches Tragverhalten (1)
- floor vibration (1)
- ground vibration (1)
- mitigation (1)
- modal analysis (1)
- railway track (1)
- temperature (1)
- track-soil interaction (1)
- undersleeper (1)
- wave analysis (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (95) (entfernen)

Der folgende Beitrag befasst sich mit der analytischen Herleitung eines sog. Spannweitenfaktors zur Berücksichtigung der Korrelation der Windeinwirkung auf weitgespannte Freileitungsseile. Insbesondere zur Abschätzung der Windlast auf Maste trägt dieser Lastfall maßgebend zur Bemessung bei. Mithilfe von Naturmessungen und Simulationen werden zugrunde gelegte Annahmen überprüft und validiert. Die Ergebnisse werden schließlich anhand der einschlägigen Regelwerke verglichen und bewertet.

Grouting is a universal repair and strengthening technique, which is constantly used for structural remediation of concrete components, trenches, mine subsidence, dam joints, restoration of masonry structures, and geological stabilizations. Having an extremely small particle size of only few microns, ultrafine cements are ideal for grouting applications due to their superior permeability and compressive strength properties of the hardened cement paste compared to that of the less-expensive, but coarser ordinary Portland cements. Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are often used to replace ultrafine cement in order to modify certain properties and to reduce costs. The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the effect of three supplementary materials: microsilica (MS), fly ash (FA), and metakaolin (MK) on the workability, and mechanical properties of an ultrafine cement based grout with a constant water-binder ratio and constant superplasticizer content. Maximum percentages of replacement with ultrafine cement were 6% by volume of cement for MS and 16% for FA, and MK. In general, results suggest that the workability is improved by addition of FA, whereas is reduced, when modified with MS and MK. The compressive strength of grout after cement replacement remains comparable to that of pure cement grout. However, there is a tendency of the MS to positively affect the compressive strength opposite to FA, whereas flexural strength is positively affected by FA. Based on the results, it is evident that grouts with Hägerman cone flow more than 500 mm and compressive strength of more than 90 MPa after 28 days can be produced.

This paper presents the continuous dynamic measurements of an aging prestressed box-beam bridge during the period from 2000 to 2013, which consists of dynamic properties and environmental/operational factors, as well as the Variation of the extracted health features after removing the environmental/operational effects. Firstly, the variations of frequency estimates, temperatures and traffic loads from 2000 to 2013 are described. Subsequently, correlation analysis between them indicates the nonlinear influences of the temperature on the frequency estimates. The Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) method is used to remove the environmental/operational effects and the health index is proposed by performing the Novelty Detection analysis of the residual errors. Finally, the variations of the health index may indicate clear structural modifications that can be also characterized by the long term monitoring of the dynamic strain in the prestressed cable.

The damage detection and repair control have become important tasks for ballast and slab tracks. Measurements which compare the damaged and the repaired status of the same track section at different times, or which compare a damaged and an intact track section at the same time, have been successfully performed at some sites in Germany with slab tracks and ballast tracks and compared with the theoretical behaviour of intact and damaged tracks. The loss of contact between the sleeper and the plate, between the plate and the base layer, and some problems with soft or weakened soil have been analysed. The observed results, changes in the time histories of displacements and velocities due to train passages and in the transfer functions (compliances) due to hammer impacts, are encouraging that these measurements can be used to detect track damage. In addition, calculations with the combined finite-element boundary-element method have been used to confirm the conclusions about intact or damaged railway tracks.

The identification of the dynamic behavior of structures, like bridges and towers, is relevant to address multiple issues. In many cases the dynamic parameters should be acquired only once or at a frequency that doesn’t justify the installation of distinct vibration sensors for a long-term monitoring. To identify modal frequencies of a structure, a drone based mobile sensing platform has been implemented. This sensing platform measures the relative displacement be-tween the structure and the drone, which also shows a strong dynamic behavior under wind tur-bulences. By regarding the dynamic model of the drone and additional measurements at the dis-tance sensor the absolute movement of the structure can be estimated based on the measured relative distance. This time domain data is a suitable input for various operational modal analysis algorithms. The system has been used to identify the dynamic properties of test and real structure, like a 1.5 MW wind turbine tower.

A combined finite element boundary element method has been developed to calculate the dynamic interaction of the railway track and the underlying soil. The track-soil results are coupled with a simple vehicle model to establish the force transfer function of the vehicle-track-soil system. Mitigation measures at the track, namely three different tracks with under-sleeper pads, are analysed. The un-sprung vehicle and heavy track masses on soft track elements yield a lower vehicle-tracksoil resonant frequency and a better reduction of the excitation forces at higher frequencies. If the effectiveness of the mitigation is measured as a vibration ratio between the isolated and an un-isolated reference track, the vehicle-track-soil resonance of the reference track has an important influence on the mitigation effectiveness. Therefore, different un-isolated reference tracks are analysed. It is shown how the frequency and amplitude of the vehicle-track resonance are influenced by the stiffness of the rail pads (strongest), the ballast (medium) and the soil (weakest). The reference track models have been compared with shaker tests on two railway tracks with strong resonances. The damage detection and repair control have become important tasks for ballast and slab tracks. Measurements which compare the damaged and the repaired status of the same track section at different times, or which compare a damaged and an intact track section at the same time, have been successfully performed at some sites in Germany and compared with the theoretical behaviour of intact and damaged tracks.

Abstract. Three measurement campaigns of train-induced ground vibrations are evaluated for the vehicle-track-soil interaction. Ground vibrations, track vibrations and vehicle vibrations have been measured for train passages and impulse excitation and compared with theoretical results.
The soil and the track-soil system are calculated by wavenumber integrals. The influence of the vehicle is introduced by a substructure method. By comparing theory and measurement the different components of excitation force and ground vibration can be analysed, the quasi-static excitation, track-alignment errors, the out-of-roundness of wheels, the wheel and rail roughness, and moreover, scattered axle impulses and ineffective high-frequency parts of the wheelset accelerations and forces.

Three measurement campaigns of train-induced ground vibrations are evaluated for the vehicle-track-soil interaction. Ground vibrations, track vibrations and vehicle vibrations have been measured for train passages and impulse excitation and compared with theoretical results. The soil and the track-soil system are calculated by wavenumber integrals. The influence of the vehicle is introduced by a substructure method. By comparing theory and measurement the different components of excitation force and ground vibration can be analysed, the quasi-static excitation, track-alignment errors, the out-of-roundness of wheels, the wheel and rail roughness, and moreover, scattered axle impulses and ineffective high-frequency parts of the wheelset accelerations and forces.

Experiments have been performed at a test site with six different tracks with under-ballast plates. Hammer excitations of the soil and the tracks as well as train passages have been measured. The experimental observations are as follows. 1. The natural soil is stiff gravel whereas the railway dam consists of softer material. 2. The track compliance indicates a soft ballast if no train is present to provide a confining pressure. 3. The track response to the train passages can be split into a low-frequency region which is ruled by the static loads and a high-frequency region which is ruled by dynamic loads. 4. The track responses to hammer and track excitation indicate the presence of many voids between the sleepers and the ballast. 5. The ground vibrations are highly influenced by the soil. Due to the stiff soil at the site, the hammer and train induced spectra have a considerable high-frequency content. 6. A reduction of the ground vibration has been observed in a low-frequency range. The mitigation effects of an under-ballast plate are also investigated by calculations of a wavenumber domain model. The under-ballast plate has an effect at low frequencies where it distributes the static load over a longer track section. The impulse of the axle passage is longer and the frequencies are lower due to the plate stiffness. The axle impulses could yield a low-frequency ground vibration in an irregular soil with a randomly varying stiffness. This low-frequency part of the ground vibration (the scattered axle impulses) seem to be reduced by the under-ballast plate.

Most railway embankments in the UK were built in the Victorian era and are of end-tipped construction using materials (usually cohesive) excavated from adjacent cuttings, resulting in a clod-and-matrix structure. Historically, there has been a lack in understanding of the mechanical behaviour of such railway embankments. In the next decade railway traffic in the UK, particularly freight, is forecast to grow considerably. Consequently, there is a need to improve the understanding of how increases in rail traffic loading may influence the mechanical behaviour of railway embankments and thus track performance. The Rail Safety and Standards Board in conjunction with Network Rail is currently undertaking a programme of applied research into this topic. As part of these studies a programme of physical model tests has been carried out. Physical model tests can provide high quality data on system performance under a large range of loading conditions and geometrical configurations. The data can be generated rapidly, with test periods of weeks or months rather than years or decades. Additionally, boundary conditions are well-defined and controlled, compared with the complex situations encountered in full scale embankments in the field. This paper summarises the physical model test programme, the development of the test set-up, the tests themselves and the conclusions drawn.

The Influence of brittle Daniels system characteristics on the value of load monitoring information
(2016)

This paper addresses the influence of deteriorating brittle Daniels system characteristics on the value of structural health monitoring (SHM). The value of SHM is quantified as the difference between the life cycle benefits with and without SHM. A value of SHM analysis is performed within the framework of the Bayesian pre-posterior decision theory and requires (1) structural performance modelling and prediction, (2) structural integrity management models, (3) the (pre-posterior) modelling of SHM and (4) the coupling of SHM and the structural performance models. The pre-posterior decision theoretical framework facilitates that the value of SHM can be quantified before the SHM system is quantified and before data are acquired. The results of this study support decisions to select structural systems for which the SHM strategy load monitoring is optimal.

In case one wants to predict or design the bearing capacity of a foundation pile and there are no possibilities to perform an in-situ test, such as a Cone Penetration Test, the pile bearing capacity is in most cases estimated with analytical formulas. The most known and used method is the Meyerhof method published some decades ago. There are also other design methods such as derived from a certain failure mechanism around the pile tip, which is, in most cases, wedge failure mechanism. This failure mechanism was originally developed for a shallow (infinite) strip foundation, though. Therefore, it represents a plane failure mechanism.
Numerical simulations on loaded foundation piles performed with the Plaxis software Show however, that the failure mechanism of a foundation pile represents a far more complex threedimensional failure mechanism around the pile tip.
In addition, the existing analytical methods for foundation piles are based on the vertical stresses in the soil, as if the failure mechanism is the same as of a shallow foundation. Numerical simulations, performed in Plaxis show that, not the vertical, but the horizontal stresses, play an important role on the pile bearing capacity. Plaxis represents the stresses in the soil by using the procedure. So, different horizontal soil stresses are obtained for different values of the lateral earth pressure coefficient. The results show that the pile tip bearing capacity depends strongly on the horizontal stresses in the soil, but only for. The same results were observed by using a Material Point Method (MPM). Consequently, the analytical methods should estimate the pile bearing.

A variety of isolation measures exists to reduce the vibration in the neighbourhood of railway lines. They can be roughly classified as elastic or stiffening systems. There are the following elastic elements, rail pads or resilient fixation systems between rail and sleeper, under sleeper pads or sleeper shoes under the sleepers, and ballast mats under the ballast. Stiffening systems (plates) are used as slab tracks, floating slab tracks, or mass-spring systems. In the EU project “Railway induced vibration abatement solutions (RIVAS)”, elastic under sleeper pads have been investigated. The dynamic behaviour of the track and the surrounding soil has been calculated by the combined finite-element boundary-element method in a systematic parameter study. It has been shown that the mitigation effect can be improved by soft under sleeper pads or by heavy sleepers. Consequently, such track elements (soft under sleeper pads and heavy sleepers) have been thoroughly investigated in laboratory tests to establish the static and dynamic parameters as well as their serviceability. Finally, field tests at and near railway tracks with and without under sleeper pads have been performed. To determine the reduction effect of the isolated track, the ground vibrations excited by trains or artificial sources have been measured. The soil properties at the different sites have also been measured so that the comparison of the isolated and un-isolated track can take into account possible differences of the soil parameters. The contribution shows how the different (numerical, laboratory and field) methods and results can be combined to achieve an improved mitigation solution with soft under sleeper pads and heavy sleepers for ballasted and slab tracks.

Superplasticizer and Shrinkage Reducing Admixture Dosages for Microfine Cement in Grout Systems
(2019)

Grouts have numerous applications including crack repair as maintenance in construction industries. Microfine cements are intensively used for high strength mortar and grout products. They are ideal for injection grouting in structural repair. Such grouts should have suitable rheological properties to be injectable, especially those used in repair and rehabilitation. The use of superplasticizers (SP) in these products is thus becoming increasingly crucial to achieve favorable workability and viscosity properties. A difficulty in such grouts is the plastic shrinkage due to finer particles used. It is thus necessary to determine optimum SP and shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) dosages for a microfine cement based grout. In this study, a saturation dosage was decided from two Polycarboxylate ether (PCE) based SPs in relation to neat cement using slump flow and rheological parameters. A range of grout mixtures was formulated containing micro silica (MS) and fly ash (FA), and tested for suitable rheological and mechanical parameters. Based on the results, a grout mixture with MS and FA was selected to determine optimum SRA content. According to the results, a SP dosage of 3% by weight of neat cement is sufficient to achieve saturation. The grout material including MS and FA can produce comparable properties to neat cement grout. MS is found to improve compressive strength within the range considered, whereas a higher FA content provides favourable rheological properties. Finally, a SRA dosage of 4%, which could reduce the shrinkage by about 43% after 28d days, is determined for the grout system.

Suction Bucket Jackets (SBJ) are found as a suitable alternative to driven piles for the support of foundations for offshore wind energy converters. In the case of jackets or multipods, a predominant vertical load is to be expected. The effect of such a tensile loading is the generation of suction in the soil inside the bucket which leads to an increment of tensile capacity. This paper aims to study the bearing behaviour of a suction foundation by taking into account how the soil permeability and the loading rate influence the foundation behaviour. Moreover, after submitting the structure to a storm load, the bearing capacity is studied again, in order to see the effect of such a load on the bucket's bearing behaviour. This study is carried out by means of Finite Element numerical simulations based on the formulation of Biot's equations combined with a constitutive model that reproduces the key aspects of cyclic soil behaviour in the frame of Generalized Plasticity.

Subspace-based detection of fatigue damage on jacket support structures of offshore wind turbines
(2014)

The paper describes the application of the Stochastic Subspace-based Damage Detection (SSDD) method on model structures for an utilization of this approach on offshore wind turbine structures. Aim of the study was therefore to analyze the usability and efficiency of the detection method as well as to determine an optimized set of parameter for realistic damage on support structures of wind energy turbines. Based on results of an experimental fatigue test on a Steel frame laboratory structure a strategy for a numerical verification of the experimentally evolved damage detection was developed, utilizing a time integration approach to simulate the dynamic response. In a second Step the identified modeling and computing methodology is used to numerically investigate the ability to detect damage in real size structural components of offshore wind turbines.

Altematively to common modal analysis as tool for detectmg changes between a reference and an actual (possibly damaged) structural state, the subspace-based damage detection method has been developed in recent years and successfully adopted to test application data sets. Characteristic for that method is that instead of analyzing modal parameters, a Statistical test with respect to changes of a dynamic signature of structural response is introduced. Therefor, a Gaussian residual vector is extracted from the subspace of an output only Vibration data covariance matrix within the reference state. The paper describes the application of this damage detection method within a laboratory fatigue test on a Steel frame structure. Aim of the investigation was to analyze the usability and efficiency of the detection method for realistic damage on carrying structures of wind energy turbines. In a second Step, a numerical model of the lab test structure is developed and validated. Thus, a comparable numerical Simulation of the fatigue damage detection was feasible and the accuracy of the Simulation procedure could be verified. The present study describes the first Step in a two-step approach for quantifying and optimizing fundamental characteristics of SHM Systems for offshore wind turbine structures concerning a required number of sensors and their optimal location.

Temperature variation can be a nuisance that perturbs vibration based structural health monitoring (SHM) approaches for civil engineering structures. In this paper, temperature affected vibration data is evaluated within a stochastic damage detection framework, which relies on a null space based residual. Besides two existing temperature rejection approaches – building a reference state from an averaging method or a piecewise method – a new approach is proposed, using model interpolation. In this approach, a general reference model is obtained from data in the reference state at several known reference temperatures. Then, for a particular tested temperature, a local reference model is derived from the general reference model. Thus, a well fitting reference null space for the formulation of a residual is available when new data is tested for damage detection at an arbitrary temperature. Particular attention is paid to the computation of the residual covariance, taking into account the uncertainty related to the null space matrix estimate. This improves the test performance, contrary to prior methods, for local and global damages, resulting in a higher probability of detection (PoD) for the new interpolation approach compared to previous approaches.

Die Grundidee einer Schwingungsminderung ist es eine tiefe Eigenfrequenz der Struktur zu erreichen, so dass höhere Frequenzen abgemindert werden. Das gilt für die Minderung an der Quelle, zum Beispiel einem Eisenbahngleis, und für die Minderung am Empfänger, dem Gebäude. Die Eigenfrequenz ermittelt man aus dem Verhältnis der Auflagersteifigkeit und der Masse. Wie ist die Masse bei einem Gebäude zu wählen? Und wie ist die Untergrundsteifigkeit zu berücksichtigen? Als Referenzsituation ohne Minderungsmaßnahme? Der Beitrag bringt Rechenergebnisse zu abgefederten Gebäuden mit einfachen und komplexen (FE-) Modellen, Mess- und Rechenergebnisse zur Schwingungsübertragung von unabgefederten Gebäuden. Es wird der Einfluss der Abstimmfrequenz, der Bodensteifigkeit und der „starren“ Gebäudemasse untersucht. Die komplexen Gebäudemodelle erlauben, neben der Berechnung einer elastischen Gebäudelagerung, auch die Variation von Gebäudeparametern zur Reduktion der Deckenschwingungen. Den Ergebnissen bei der Erschütterungs-übertragung in Gebäude werden zwei ähnliche Beispiele zur elastischen Maschinenlagerung und zur elastischen Gleislagerung gegenübergestellt.

This paper deals with uncertainty considerations in damage diagnosis using the stochastic subspace-based damage detection technique. With this method, a model is estimated from data in a (healthy) reference state and confronted to measurement data from the possibly damaged state in a hypothesis test. Previously, only the uncertainty related to the measurement data was considered in this test, whereas the uncertainty in the estimation of the reference model has not been considered. We derive a new test framework, which takes into account both the uncertainties in the estimation of the reference model as well as the uncertainties related to the measurement data. Perturbation theory is applied to obtain the relevant covariances. In a numerical study the effect of the new computation is shown, when the reference model is estimated with different accuracies, and the performance of the hypothesis tests is evaluated for small damages. Using the derived covariance scheme increases the probability of detection when the reference model estimate is subject to high uncertainty, leading to a more reliable test.

The subject of damage localization is an important issue for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) particularly in mechanical or civil structures under ambient excitation. In this paper, the statistical subspacebased damage localization method has been applied on a benchmark application, namely a 1/200 scale model of the Saint-Nazaire Bridge, which is a cable-stayed bridge located on the Loire River near the river’s mouth. The employed damage localization method combines data-driven features with physical parameter information from a finite element model in statistical tests, avoiding typical ill-conditioning problems of FE model updating. Damage is introduced in the mockup for cable failures on some of the 72 cables. The purpose of the experiment is to assess the capability of damage assessment methods to find a cable failure.

Offshore wind energy towers are dynamically loaded by waves and wind. Pile foundations provide stiffness and damping and should be properly calculated. A combined finite-element boundary-element method for the dynamic interaction of flexible structures and the soil has been developed. The flexible structures such as single piles or complete wind energy towers are modeled by the finite element method whereas the homogeneous or layered soil is modeled by the boundary element method which uses the Green’s functions for interior loads in the layered half-space to establish the dynamic stiffness matrix of the soil. Soils with a stiffness that is continuously increasing with depth can be modeled as multi-layer soils with step-wise increasing stiffness. The effects of different parameters such as the stiffness of the soil, the axial and bending stiffness of the pile, and the radius of the cylindrical contact area will be analysed for the different components of excitation (vertical, horizontal, rotation and coupling). The results can be determined as specific power laws which are different for the different load cases and for the different soil models (Winkler support, homogeneous continuum, continuum with increasing stiffness). The dynamic effect of radiation damping will be analysed by the frequency-dependent compliance functions. A clear layering of the soil can cause noticeable changes in the dynamic compliances as reductions of the stiffness and the damping in certain frequency ranges (below and around layer resonance frequencies). The distribution of the displacements along the pile help to explain the observed laws. An example of an offshore wind energy tower has been modeled and calculated for wind, wave and weight loads. The resonances of the tower are usually limited by the radiation damping which is strongest for a soft soil.

A novel method for risk-based optimization of inspection and repair strategies for deteriorating structural systems has recently been proposed. The method defines heuristics at the system level to reduce the number of possible strategies. For each defined strategy, it computes the updated system failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories, and evaluates the associated costs and risk. The expected total service life costs and risk for a strategy are finally determined using Monte Carlo simulation. The optimal strategy minimizes the expected total service life costs and risk. We intend to adopt this approach to optimize inspection, monitoring and repair activities for offshore wind park support structures. As a first step, we simulate – in analogy to an offshore wind park – the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type frames. The performance is quantified in terms of the group’s system failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories. The underlying system model accounts for the structural redundancy of the frames and the interdependence among their failure events due to similar loading conditions. The model also captures stochastic dependence among the deterioration states of the frames. As part of the simulation process the a-priori unknown outcome of any planned inspection is generated conditional on the outcome of all previous inspections.

Risslumineszenz ist eine neue Erfindung, mit der Ermüdungsrisse unter laufendem Betrieb ohne weiteres Zutun leicht detektiert werden können, indem sie leuchten. Die Bedeutung liegt in der allgemeinen Problematik ermüdungsbeanspruchter Konstruktionen. Risse begrenzen ihre Lebensdauer. Das betrifft zum Beispiel Verkehrsinfrastrukturbauwerke oder allgemein Tragwerke unter nicht ruhender Beanspruchung, auch Maschinen, Baufahrzeuge, Kräne, Zentrifugen und Schiffe. Bei dem Risslumineszenzverfahren leuchten die Risse unter UVLicht.

Methodologies on fire risk analysis in road tunnels consider numerous factors affecting risks (risk indicators) and express the results by risk measures. But only few comprehensive studies on effects of risk indicators on risk measures are available. For this reason, this study quantifies the effects and highlights the most important risk indicators with the aim to Support further developments in risk analysis. Therefore, a system model of a road tunnel was developed to determine the risk measures.
The system model can be divided into three parts: the fire part connected to the fire model Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS); the evacuation part connected to the evacuation model FDS+Evac; and the frequency part connected to a model to calculate the frequency of fires. This study shows that the parts of the system model (and their most important risk indicators) affect the risk measures in the following order: first, fire part (maximum heat release rate); second, evacuation part (maximum preevacuation time); and, third, frequency part (specific frequency of fire). The plausibility of These results is discussed with view to experiences from experimental studies and past fire incidents.
Conclusively, further research can focus on these most important risk indicators with the aim to optimise risk analysis.

Safety measures like tunnel emergency Ventilation Systems cause high financial costs. Hence, safety measures have to be chosen with the focus on the expected reduction of the consequences like fatalities or damage on structures and in conjunction with the investments. Since 2004, the European directive EU 2004/54/EC proposes therefore the application of risk assessments. Because the EU directive provides only few legal requirements on risk assessments, the methodologies developed on this basis have large differences. After one decade of intensive research, the comparative study now highlights common aspects and differences of several methodologies.

A prototype of wind turbines in 5 megawatt dass was built and tested at the first German offshore wind energy test fteld in the North Sea. In order to investigate dynamic behaviors under a complex state of loads, a continuous dynamic monitoring System was implemented by Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing (BAM). It recorded structural responses and environmental/operational variables from November 2007 to October 2009.
This paper presents significant resonance phenomenon due to the interaction in the tower-nacelle System under operational conditions. Modal parameters are automatically estimated by the poly reference Least Square Complex Frequency domain (p-LSCF) method. Campbell plot demonstrates that a three-blade passage frequency and its multiples f3n match with the natural frequencies of the wind turbine System in several modal Orders. The damping estimates decrease and the Vibration amplitude increase significantly. A control System is necessary to minimize the excessive vibrations.

Remediation of Cracks Formed in Grouted Connections of Offshore Energy Structures under Static Loads
(2018)

The future energy demand necessitates the exploration of all potential energy sources both onshore and offshore. Global trend has shifted towards offshore energy, which can be obtained from either carbon intensive or renewable options, hence requiring structures such as rigs, platforms, and monopiles. Most of these structures adopt easily installable construction techniques, where lower foundation need to be connected with the super structure by mean of grouted composite joints. Generally, these composite connections have exterior sleeve, interior pile and infill grout. Being located in remote offshore conditions, connections can experience considerable adverse loading during their lifetimes. Degradations were reported inside similar connections, which were installed in last three decades. Besides, grouting in the offshore sites may often be proven difficult, which eventually leads to reduced capacity of connections in the long run. Thus, repair and rehabilitation of such connections should be planned ahead to minimize operational delays and costs in the future. This study aims at characterizing the nature of crack generation in grouted connections and thereby identifying the potential of repair using suitable repair material. Scaled grouted joints were manufactured using a novel mold, and connections were loaded under static load to visualize the main failure pattern. The failure mechanism and loading capacity are found compatible to previous results from earlier literature. Grouted connection was then repaired using cementitious injectable grout. The effectiveness of the repair system is also discussed.

Train passages induce static and dynamic forces on the track, the train-induced vibrations propagate through the soil and excite neighbouring buildings. The problem of train vibrations is divided into the parts emission, which is the excitation by railway traffic (the present contribution), transmission, which is the wave propagation through the soil, and immission, which is the transfer into a building, - The calculation of the axle loads are based on the vehicle-track-soil interaction. This interaction uses the dynamic stiffness of the vehicle (the inertia of the wheelset) and the dynamic stiffness of the track-soil System. Based on various time consuming finite-element boundary-element calculations, an approximate track-soil model has been established. The vehicle-track-soil analysis yields several transfer functions between the various geometric or stiffness irregularities and the axle loads of the train. Geometric irregularities of the vehicle (the wheels) and the track (rail surface and track alignment) are the simplest components. Geometric irregularities of the subsoil (trackbed irregularities) have to be transferred to effective irregularities at rail level. The bending stiffness of the track is filtering out the short-wavelength contribution. Stiffness irregularities occur due to random variations in the bailast or the subsoil, which must also be transferred to effective track irregularities, and due to the discrete rail support on sleepers. The axle loads due to the effective track errors from stiffness variations have their specific vehicle-track transfer function. - All necessary formula for the prediction of axle-load spectra will be presented. The prediction method is compared with axle-box measurements at a Standard ballasted track. Moreover, ground Vibration measurements at numerous sites are exploited for the axle-load spectra and the Validation of the prediction method.

Filter criteria in the Frame of Fire PSA identify compartments in a first qualitative analysis for which the contribution to the overall core damage frequency of the NPP is negligible. The aim of the filter criteria is to reduce the number of compartments to be analysed precisely in Fire PSA. One example for filter criteria is the 'fire load criterion'. By the fire load criterion compartments with a fire load density of less than 90 MJ/m² are 'screened out' which means to exclude them from a precise analysis in Fire PSA. Neither the justification of the particular value of 90 MJ/m² is well documented nor does this criterion take into account varying compartment configurations such as ventilation conditions, physical and chemical properties of the fire load as well as compartment characteristics.
A probabilistic set of filter criteria was developed to overcome the restrictions of the fire load criterion. In line with the 'fire load criterion', the probabilistic set of filter criteria assumes that a compartment can be screened out if a fire is not able to cause any damage to other components within the compartment. Therefore, the electrical failure of an electrical cable conservatively represents the damages of all components. It is assumed that the electrical cable failure occurs when the maximum cable temperature exceeds an experimentally determined failure temperature. The maximum cable temperature that can occur in a compartment fire is mainly influenced by the four significant factors: 1. inlet air stream of the mechanical ventilation, 2. the fire growth rate, 3. the compartment floor area and 4. the compartment height. A parameter study revealed how the significant factors affect the maximum cable temperature in fictitious compartment fires. The results of the parameter study are transferred on true Nuclear Power Plant compartments. However, it is not possible to determine precisely the occurrence of an electrical cable failure because of uncertainties in the maximum cable temperature and the failure temperature. The probabilistic set of filter criteria considers these uncertainties and determines the probability of cable failure for true compartments to be screened in Fire PSA. Finally, a compartment can be screened out in Fire PSA if the failure probability exceeds a predefined accepted threshold value for the failure probability. The theoretical application of the methodology is shown at the end of the paper.

Explosion-induced ground vibrations have been measured at several places. Results about the wave propagation are shown in this contribution. The particle velocities of the soil have been measured at up to 1000 m distance from the explosion and are presented as time records (seismograms) and one-third octave band spectra (transfer functions). The results are compared with the results of hammer impacts. The seismograms clearly show different wave types, compressional waves of the air, the water and the soil, and the Rayleigh wave. The hammer impacts yield good results up to 100 m and incorporate higher frequencies at about 50 Hz, whereas the explosion results in a ground vibration with frequencies around 10 Hz and a longer range of influence. Explosion and hammer excitations are evaluated for the wave velocities of the soil by using the wavenumber and the spatial auto-correlation method. The attenuation of the ground vibration amplitudes A with distance r can well be presented by a power law A ~ r -q. This type of amplitude-distance law and the corresponding power q > 1 are substantiated in the contribution. The influence of the charge weight W is evaluated as an additional power law A ~ W -p for each measuring site. The power is found quite similarly around q 0.6 as all sites have a medium soft soil such as sand and clay. The obtained amplitude-charge-distance law can be used to predict the explosion-induced ground and building vibrations at other sites.

The present contribution evaluates four measuring series made by the Federal Institute of Material Research and Testing for the relations between train speed and ground vibration amplitudes. This experimental evaluation is supported by the simulation of the train passages at the different sites by using appropriate excitation mechanisms and forces as well as layered soil models which have been derived from impact measurements at each site.

We focus here on the major and still relevant issue of soil erosion by fluid flows, and more specifically on the determination of both a critical threshold for erosion occurrence and a kinetics that specifies the rate of eroded matter entrainment. A state-of-the-art is first proposed with a critical view on the most commonly used methods and erosion models. It is then discussed an alternative strategy, promoting the use of model materials that allow systematic parametric investigations with the purpose of identifying more precisely the local mechanisms responsible for soil particle erosion and ultimately quantifying both critical onsets and kinetics, possibly through existing or novel empirical erosion laws. Finally, we present and discuss several examples following this methodology, implemented either by means of experiments or numerical simulations, and coupling erosion tests in several particular hydrodynamical configurations with wisely selected mechanical tests.

Overhead transmission line cables under wind gust loading - measurements and numerical simulations
(2014)

Overhead transmission lines with conductor cables spanning over a few hundred meters are highly
sensitive to the action of wind. Particularly wind acting on the cables signifies a major load on the
suspension towers. In order to identify critical loading parameters and the load-response
mechanism of those structures, measurements are carried out along a high voltage overhead
transmission line capturing the acting wind field as well as the structural response of the cables. A
finite element model of the structure is built and used to simulate the system's response. A method
is presented which allows generating a complete wind field for all the models nodes
incorporating measured wind velocities and estimated parameters of the acting wind. The full
scale measurements of both action and reaction will be compared to the numerical results.

This paper deals with vibration-based damage localization and quantification from output-only measurements. We describe an approach which operates on a data-driven residual vector that is statistically evaluated using information from a finite element model, without updating the parameters of the model. First, the damaged elements are detected in statistical tests, and second, the damage is quantified only for the damaged elements. We propose a new residual vector in this context that is based on the transfer matrix difference between reference and damaged states, and compare it with a previously introduced subspace-based residual. We show localization and quantification on both residuals in simulations.

This paper addresses operational modal analysis (OMA) and continuous dynamic monitoring (CDM) of two bridges. One of them is installed with Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) while another one is a normal bridge. Two ambient vibration tests were performed on these two bridges respectively. It is observed that not only installation of TMDs but also environmental factors influence the variations of structural frequencies, which may mask the subtle change induced by small structural changes. As a result, continuous dynamic monitoring systems were implemented on these two bridges, in order to evaluate efficiency of the TMD system, remove the environmental effects and build reliable damage indices that are only sensitive to structural changes. The results of CDM of these two bridges during several years are presented. Software systems developed for OMA and CDM are also introduced.

In this paper a shear test, which helps to study local behavior of the soil-pile interaction, is modelled numerically with the Finite Element Method as a 2D plane strain problem. A normal pressure on top and shear displacement on side were applied. So far, the material behavior was considered elastic for the sake of simplicity.
The effect of thickness on contact elements and the presence of in plane stress has been highlighted. The purpose of the paper is to find a suitable contact element which represents more close to reality a soil-pile interaction problem under cyclic axial loading. Moreover, an insight on the presence of in-plane stress shows that it needs to be considered cautiously.

Overhead transmission lines are very sensitive structures in regards to wind action. The cables, spanning over a few hundred meters contribute in particular to the overall action on the suspension towers. These slender structures incorporate both structural nonlinearities from the large deformation of the cables and aerodynamic nonlinearities which need to be accounted for when it is to estimate the system response to strong wind events. In this work, a finite element procedure is presented to model an existing power line section using nonlinear cable elements. The wind force is assumed quasi-steady with force coefficients determined in wind tunnel test on a conductor section. Further, aerodynamic damping is incorporated by considering the relative velocity between cable nodes and oncoming wind flow. The results are compared with on-site measurements of the cables support reaction. The results show a significant effect of damping since almost no resonant amplification is visible both in observation and simulation. In addition, wind tunnel tests approved aerodynamic damping to be large for the system of sagging cables, but nonlinear in its nature. It is concluded, that the dynamic response of overhead transmission line cables has to be modeled with care, considering all sources of nonlinearities. That is of particular interest in case of random excitation such as wind because the peak response depends on the probability distribution of the system's response.

Here we investigate the physical mechanisms behind the surface erosion of a cohesive granular soil induced by an impinging jet by means of numerical simulations coupling fluid and grains at the microscale. The 2D numerical model combines the Discrete Element and Lattice Boltzmann methods (DEM-LBM) and accounts for the granular cohesion with a contact model featuring a paraboloidal yield surface. Here we review first the hydrodynamical conditions imposed by the fluid jet on a solid granular packing, turning then the attention to the impact of cohesion on the erosion kinetics. Finally, the use of an additional subcritical debonding damage model based on the work of Silvani and co-workers provides a novel insight into the internal solicitation of the cohesive granular sample by the impinging jet.

MOSYTRAF - Monitoringsystem zur Tragverhaltensstudie von Freileitungen unter Böenbeanspruchung
(2014)

Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens MOSYTRAF (Monitoringsystem zur Tragverhaltensstudie von Freileitungen unter Böenbeanspruchung)
werden seit Ende 2011 kontinuierlich Windgeschwindigkeiten entlang eines insgesamt 800 m langen Freileitungsabschnitts gemessen. Gleichzeitig wird die resultierende Windkraft aus Wind auf Leiterseile an den Isolatoren erfasst. Dadurch soll der Zusammenhang zwischen Einwirkung und Bauwerksreaktion möglichst zuverlässig ermittelt werden. Dabei ist besonderes Augenmerk auf die kurzzeitigen
Windgeschwindigkeitsspitzen, die Böen gerichtet. Diese erfassen anders als die konstante mittlere Windgeschwindigkeit, nicht die gesamte Länge des Freileitungsabschnitts, sondern nur einen eingeschränkten Bereich. Aus diesem Grund erfolgen die Windmessungen an insgesamt 13 Stellen entlang des Abschnitts und geben ein fein aufgelöstes Bild des Windfeldes. In dem Beitrag werden Messergebnisse beispielhaft präsentiert und einige Plausibilitätskontrollen vorgestellt, da dies einen unerlässlichen Schritt bei Naturmessungen darstellt. Ausgehend von einem Übersichtsdiagramm der bisherigen Messergebnisse wird die Aufgabenstellung und die Zielsetzung der Messkampagne erörtert.

Mit dem generellen Ziel, die Anwendbarkeit und Funktionalität des Verfahrens der stochastischen subspace-basierten Schadensdetektion für Strukturen von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen nachzuweisen, wurden experimentelle und numerische Untersuchungen an einer Laborstruktur sowie anschließend numerische Untersuchungen an einer OWEA-Gründungsstruktur durchgeführt.
Das zugrundeliegende Verfahren verwendet einen Ansatz, in weder modale Kenngrößen noch andere benutzerdefinierte Eingaben erfordert, nachdem einmalig der Referenzzustand aufgenommen wurde. Dabei werden ausschließlich dem Belastungsprozess inhärente stochastische Anregungen der betrachteten Struktur genutzt.
Auf der Basis experimentell erzielter Detektionsergebnisse aus einem Ermüdungsversuch an einer Laborstruktur aus Stahl wurden numerische Modelle und Berechnungsalgorithmen entwickelt und getestet. In einem zweiten Schritt wird diese Analysemethodik auf eine fiktive OWEA-Jacketstruktur realer Größe angewendet. An den simulierten Strukturantworten im Ungeschädigten und geschädigten Zustand wird der Detektionsalgorithmus angewendet, um den Einfluss von Sensorposition und Abtastrate auf die Schadensdetektion festzustellen. Unter Berücksichtigung einzelner vereinfachender Annahmen zeigten die Ergebnisse der Anwendung der vorgestellten Detektionsmethodik an den numerisch erzeugte Antwortdatensätzen eine beachtliche Empfindlichkeit des x2-Testwert basierten Schadensindikators. Obwohl nicht unter allen Umständen in einem frühen Stadium nachweisbar, typische Ermüdungsrisse in Schweißverbindungen von aufgelösten Tragwerken haben ab einer Restbiegesteifigkeit von ca. 80% einen signifikanten und detektierbaren Einfluss auf den Schadensindikator.
Künftige Forschungsaktivitäten in diesem Bereich sollten neben der Erkennung von Schäden auch die Lokalisierung und ggf. auch die Quantifizierung zum Ziel haben. Erforderlich dazu ist die Berücksichtigung und Verarbeitung der strukturellen Parameter und ihrer Sensitivitäten im zugrunde liegenden mathematischen Modell.

Long wooden floor beams above a ball room in an old historical palace have been analysed experimentally. The eleven beams are weakly coupled by three layers of floor boards. It has been investigated if the state (the stiffness) of the wooden beams can be determined by vibration measurements of global or preferably local modes. Hammer, heel-drop and ambient excitations have been used. The vibration modes of the structure show dominating local deformations if an impact excitation is applied. This is understood as the positive superposition of several modes which yield the maximum at the excitation point but a cancellation at more distant points. Natural modes have been estimated from these vibration modes by standard and special methods which were necessary for the high damping of the wooden floor. It has been found that all floor beams contribute to each natural mode even for a weak coupling of the beams. In addition to the modal discussion, the impact tests have also been analysed for the wave propagation and amplitude attenuation with distance. The coupling of floor beams has been studied theoretically by an analytic multiple-beam model where the coupling by translational or rotational springs and by a common support motion has been assumed.

Landslides can cause major economic damage and a large number of casualities as it is possible to see from past events occurred all over the world. Being able to predict these kind of hazards would then suppose the achievement of great benefits. Here a model that combines a depth integrated description of the soil-pore fluid mixture together with a set of 1D models dealing with pore pressure evolution within the soil mass is presented. The mathematical model is based on the Biot-Zienkiewicz equations, from where a depth averaged model is derived. Concerning the material behaviour, the approach used is the one suggested by the Perzyna viscoplasticity, which has been extensively used in the past to model solid behaviour prior to failure. In this framework, a simple shear rheological model is derived, providing the basal friction needed in depth integrated models. The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been the numerical technique chosen to spatially discretised the depth integrated equations of the mathematical model. The purpose of this work is to apply the SPH depth integrated numerical model, together with the sub-model that predicts the evolution of the pore water pressure inside the landslide, to simulate the propagation phase of the Aberfan flowslide occurred in 1966.

The structural performance of many geotechnical systems (e.g. axially-loaded pile foundations), depends on the shearing resistance at the soil interface, which may govern the load bearing capacity of the foundation. Experimental investigations have shown that this interaction is mainly localised within a narrow shear band next to the structure. Under cyclic loading, a contraction of the soil at the interface may arise (net volume loss), possibly leading to a stress relaxation and thus to a reduction of the load bearing capacity (the so-called friction fatigue). Based on the constitutive similarities between soil continua and interfaces, we propose here the adaption of a Generalized Plasticity model for sandy soils for the numerical analysis of interface problems. In this contribution, the results of an experimental campaign for the parameter calibration of the constitutive model are presented. The tests have been conducted with a ring shear device involving different normal stresses, roughness of the steel plates as well as cyclic loading. The new modelling approach shows promising results and has the additional practical advantage that the interface zone and the soil continuum can both be described with the same constitutive model in general boundary value problems.

Measured train passages and hammer impacts in combination with track-soil calculation have been successfully used for the detection of damaged slab tracks. This approach is now extended to intact slab and ballast tracks. The vibrations of many tracks have been measured at several levels from rail, sleeper, track plate, base plate, base layer to the subsoil by velocity or acceleration sensors. The time histories have to be integrated once or twice to get the displacements. The displacement signals include an arbitrary time-dependent shift which must be eliminated or respected in the interpretation. On the other hand, the calculation of slab and ballast tracks have been done in frequency-wavenumber domain. The displacements along the track and the frequency-dependent compliance transfer functions can be calculated. The latter can be compared with the results of the hammer impacts on the track. The deformation of the track can be transformed to time histories for a whole train and compared to the measured train passages. Many slab (and ballast) tracks have been measured at different sites. The displacements of the tracks are presented, and the following parameters have been analysed in the measurement results: slab track vs. ballast track, different types of slab tracks, damaged slab tracks, different trains, switches at different measuring points, an elastic layer, the mortar layer, different soils at different places. The soil should have the dominant influence on the track-plate displacements. Slab and ballast track yield also big differences in maximum displacement and width of deformation. Some of the preceding aspects will be analysed in comparison of measurement and theory.

The Stochastic Dynamic Damage Locating Vector (SDDLV) approach is a vibration-based damage localization method based on both a finite element model of a structure and modal parameters estimated
from output-only measurements in the damage and reference states. A statistical version of the Approach takes into account the inherent uncertainty due to noisy measurement data. In this paper, the effect of temperature fluctuations on the performance of the method is analyzed in a model-based approach using a finite element model with temperature dependent parameters. Robust damage localization is carried out by rejecting the temperature influence on the identified modal parameters in the damaged state. The algorithm is illustrated on a simulated structure.

To cope with future requirements, the transfer capacities of distribution systems as well as of transmission systems in Europe need to be increased. Therefore repowering of existing overhead lines with high temperature low sag con-ductors (HTLS) can be one interesting possibility. Because of limited experiences with that technology, current re-search of TU Dresden, the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH investigates the ageing behaviour of several differ-ent HTLS technologies in a consortium with other Euro-pean partners. In this context, accelerated ageing tests of conductors and its corresponding fittings with combined mechanical and electrical loads are done. To evaluate the changes due to ageing, several mechanical tests of the con-ductors are carried out and the contact behaviour of the fittings is analysed.