## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Erscheinungsjahr

- 2014 (18) (entfernen)

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- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (18) (entfernen)

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#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (18) (entfernen)

This paper presents the development of a continuous dynamic monitoring System and its applications to different structures, with the purpose of understanding structural real behaviours under operational conditions and detecting early structural modifications. The first part of paper introduces a complete continuous dynamic System, consists of signal acquisition and communication, automated signal processing and management, investigation of the interaction between structures and its environmental/operational conditions, feature extraction and detection of structural modification.
The rest of paper describes the applications of continuous dynamic monitoring System to different structures such as a wind turbine System and a highway bridge.

A prototype of wind turbines in 5 megawatt dass was built and tested at the first German offshore wind energy test fteld in the North Sea. In order to investigate dynamic behaviors under a complex state of loads, a continuous dynamic monitoring System was implemented by Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing (BAM). It recorded structural responses and environmental/operational variables from November 2007 to October 2009.
This paper presents significant resonance phenomenon due to the interaction in the tower-nacelle System under operational conditions. Modal parameters are automatically estimated by the poly reference Least Square Complex Frequency domain (p-LSCF) method. Campbell plot demonstrates that a three-blade passage frequency and its multiples f3n match with the natural frequencies of the wind turbine System in several modal Orders. The damping estimates decrease and the Vibration amplitude increase significantly. A control System is necessary to minimize the excessive vibrations.

Fault detection and isolation can be handled by many different approaches. This paper builds upon a hypothesis test that checks whether the mean of a Gaussian random vector has become non-zero in the faulty state, based on a chi2 test. For fault isolation, it has to be decided which components in the parameter set of the Gaussian vector have changed, which is done by variants of the chi2 hypothesis test using the so-called sensitivity and minmax approaches. While only the sensitivity of the tested parameter component is taken into account in the sensitivity approach, the sensitivities of all parameters are used in the minmax approach, leading to better statistical properties at the expense of an increased computational burden. The computation of the respective test variable in the minmax test is cumbersome and may be ill-conditioned especially for large parameter sets, asking hence for a careful numerical evaluation. Furthermore, the fault isolation procedure requires the repetitive calculation of the test variable for each of the parameter components that are tested for a change, which may be a significant computational burden. In this paper, dealing with the minmax problem, we propose a new efficient computation for the test variables, which is based on a simultaneous QR decomposition for all parameters. Based on this scheme, we propose an efficient test computation for a large parameter set, leading to a decrease in the numerical complexity by one order of magnitude in the total number of parameters. Finally, we show how the minmax test is useful for structural damage localization, where an asymptotically Gaussian residual vector is computed from output-only vibration data of a mechanical or a civil structure.

Filter criteria in the Frame of Fire PSA identify compartments in a first qualitative analysis for which the contribution to the overall core damage frequency of the NPP is negligible. The aim of the filter criteria is to reduce the number of compartments to be analysed precisely in Fire PSA. One example for filter criteria is the 'fire load criterion'. By the fire load criterion compartments with a fire load density of less than 90 MJ/m² are 'screened out' which means to exclude them from a precise analysis in Fire PSA. Neither the justification of the particular value of 90 MJ/m² is well documented nor does this criterion take into account varying compartment configurations such as ventilation conditions, physical and chemical properties of the fire load as well as compartment characteristics.
A probabilistic set of filter criteria was developed to overcome the restrictions of the fire load criterion. In line with the 'fire load criterion', the probabilistic set of filter criteria assumes that a compartment can be screened out if a fire is not able to cause any damage to other components within the compartment. Therefore, the electrical failure of an electrical cable conservatively represents the damages of all components. It is assumed that the electrical cable failure occurs when the maximum cable temperature exceeds an experimentally determined failure temperature. The maximum cable temperature that can occur in a compartment fire is mainly influenced by the four significant factors: 1. inlet air stream of the mechanical ventilation, 2. the fire growth rate, 3. the compartment floor area and 4. the compartment height. A parameter study revealed how the significant factors affect the maximum cable temperature in fictitious compartment fires. The results of the parameter study are transferred on true Nuclear Power Plant compartments. However, it is not possible to determine precisely the occurrence of an electrical cable failure because of uncertainties in the maximum cable temperature and the failure temperature. The probabilistic set of filter criteria considers these uncertainties and determines the probability of cable failure for true compartments to be screened in Fire PSA. Finally, a compartment can be screened out in Fire PSA if the failure probability exceeds a predefined accepted threshold value for the failure probability. The theoretical application of the methodology is shown at the end of the paper.

Safety measures like tunnel emergency Ventilation Systems cause high financial costs. Hence, safety measures have to be chosen with the focus on the expected reduction of the consequences like fatalities or damage on structures and in conjunction with the investments. Since 2004, the European directive EU 2004/54/EC proposes therefore the application of risk assessments. Because the EU directive provides only few legal requirements on risk assessments, the methodologies developed on this basis have large differences. After one decade of intensive research, the comparative study now highlights common aspects and differences of several methodologies.

Altematively to common modal analysis as tool for detectmg changes between a reference and an actual (possibly damaged) structural state, the subspace-based damage detection method has been developed in recent years and successfully adopted to test application data sets. Characteristic for that method is that instead of analyzing modal parameters, a Statistical test with respect to changes of a dynamic signature of structural response is introduced. Therefor, a Gaussian residual vector is extracted from the subspace of an output only Vibration data covariance matrix within the reference state. The paper describes the application of this damage detection method within a laboratory fatigue test on a Steel frame structure. Aim of the investigation was to analyze the usability and efficiency of the detection method for realistic damage on carrying structures of wind energy turbines. In a second Step, a numerical model of the lab test structure is developed and validated. Thus, a comparable numerical Simulation of the fatigue damage detection was feasible and the accuracy of the Simulation procedure could be verified. The present study describes the first Step in a two-step approach for quantifying and optimizing fundamental characteristics of SHM Systems for offshore wind turbine structures concerning a required number of sensors and their optimal location.

Subspace-based detection of fatigue damage on jacket support structures of offshore wind turbines
(2014)

The paper describes the application of the Stochastic Subspace-based Damage Detection (SSDD) method on model structures for an utilization of this approach on offshore wind turbine structures. Aim of the study was therefore to analyze the usability and efficiency of the detection method as well as to determine an optimized set of parameter for realistic damage on support structures of wind energy turbines. Based on results of an experimental fatigue test on a Steel frame laboratory structure a strategy for a numerical verification of the experimentally evolved damage detection was developed, utilizing a time integration approach to simulate the dynamic response. In a second Step the identified modeling and computing methodology is used to numerically investigate the ability to detect damage in real size structural components of offshore wind turbines.

BAW and BAM have performed a large scale comparison and calibration test on static and dynamic load capacity evaluation of bored piles in glacial sandy soil. The test was performed using eight piles at the BAM test site for technical safety at Horstwalde 50 km south of Berlin. The test area has been prepared and investigated in great detail using boreholes, cone penetration tests, pore pressure sensors and geophysical methods to assure controlled conditions for all piles and tests. The piles (10 m length, 0.9 m diameter) are mainly friction piles (low toe resistance) and have been checked by integrity testing. Five piles have been tested by five contractors using the dynamic method in a blind experiment, the other ones piles by static load and/or later on by the dynamic method. Some piles have been equipped with additional fibre optic Instrumentation which proved to be robust and helpful in interpreting the results of static, dynamic and integrity tests. We have experienced a deviation of the dynamic load test results gathered in the blind experiment from the static values of up to 20% in most cases, sometimes even up to 30%. This can be related to the known soil inhomogeneities, interpretation and modelling in CAPWAP and method inherent uncertainties. In cases where the static values were known by the testers for calibration, the deviations were significantly smaller. It has to be taken into account, that the two static load tests showed different results as well. Due to the low toe resistance, use of a big drop weight (11 tons) and large drop heights most piles suffered from cracking, which was clearly seen in follow up integrity tests and confirmed by excavation. The piles are available for further research.

A variety of isolation measures exists to reduce the vibration in the neighbourhood of railway lines. They can be roughly classified as elastic or stiffening systems. There are the following elastic elements, rail pads or resilient fixation systems between rail and sleeper, under sleeper pads or sleeper shoes under the sleepers, and ballast mats under the ballast. Stiffening systems (plates) are used as slab tracks, floating slab tracks, or mass-spring systems. In the EU project “Railway induced vibration abatement solutions (RIVAS)”, elastic under sleeper pads have been investigated. The dynamic behaviour of the track and the surrounding soil has been calculated by the combined finite-element boundary-element method in a systematic parameter study. It has been shown that the mitigation effect can be improved by soft under sleeper pads or by heavy sleepers. Consequently, such track elements (soft under sleeper pads and heavy sleepers) have been thoroughly investigated in laboratory tests to establish the static and dynamic parameters as well as their serviceability. Finally, field tests at and near railway tracks with and without under sleeper pads have been performed. To determine the reduction effect of the isolated track, the ground vibrations excited by trains or artificial sources have been measured. The soil properties at the different sites have also been measured so that the comparison of the isolated and un-isolated track can take into account possible differences of the soil parameters. The contribution shows how the different (numerical, laboratory and field) methods and results can be combined to achieve an improved mitigation solution with soft under sleeper pads and heavy sleepers for ballasted and slab tracks.

Vibration of normal apartment, office and production buildings, which are excited by technically induced ground vibrations are considered. Many wavelengths of the Rayleigh waves of the soil fit into the foundation dimensions. The related high discretization effort can nowadays be realized with detailed soil-structure interaction method. The combined finite-element boundary-element method is used here as a detatiled method. Simplified method can be used with less computation time, but these methods must be calibrated by exact results. One simplification is to extent the structure to infinity and to solve the problem by wavenumber domain methods. Another simplification is the use of a Winkler soil instead of the continuous soil. Usually, the Winkler parameters are not only soil parameters but depend also on the rigid or flexible foundation structure. Substructure methods use commercial FEM software for the building part. The contribution will show some detailed and some simplified results on large structural elements such as foundation plates, walls, storey plates on columns as well as results on complete buildings. The reduction of the ground vibration by stiff elements and the amplification due to floor or building resonances are discussed which are the most important phenomena of the soil-building interaction.

The main degradation process at bridge transition zones due to traffic loads is the appearance of differential settlements. Abrupt stiffness changes, repeating traffic loads and relative displacements of the superstructure ends on bridges often aggravate this problem. In this contribution, a 3D finite element (FE) model extended with a boundary formulation in the frame of the scaled-boundary finite element method (SBFEM) for a transient analysis of train-track-bridge interaction is presented. This numerical model permits an assessment of bridge transition zone with respect to permanent deformations of the track. The main focus lies on the modeling strategies for the vehicle and their impact on suitable assessment criteria for bridge transition zones. For this purpose, two different modeling strategies for the vehicle, a moving load model and a multibody model, have been compared and discussed on the basis of the assessment criteria. The results indicate that the model of the vehicle has a minor effect for an assessment on the embankment, but that the assessment on the bridge may show significant differences depending on whether the inertial components of the vehicle (multibody model) are considered.

The bridge design for railway bridges is far more dependent on the interaction with the traffic and the carriageway than for road bridges. This is especially true for the specific demands of the track in highspeed railways. Both maintenance and safety of the track have to be considered. The most relevant sections for the design criteria can be located at the bridge transition zones. Based on experimental investigations it is shown that bridge joint displacements, changes in stiffness and uplifting of the sleeper are causes for an increased degradation and loss in strength of the ballasted track. With respect to high speed vibrations of the bridge deck can have an even more decisive impact. Bridge deck vibrations can lead to destabilization of the bailast. In a numerical study the behavior of the track at the bridge is illustrated.

Overhead transmission lines are very sensitive structures in regards to wind action. The cables, spanning over a few hundred meters contribute in particular to the overall action on the suspension towers. These slender structures incorporate both structural nonlinearities from the large deformation of the cables and aerodynamic nonlinearities which need to be accounted for when it is to estimate the system response to strong wind events. In this work, a finite element procedure is presented to model an existing power line section using nonlinear cable elements. The wind force is assumed quasi-steady with force coefficients determined in wind tunnel test on a conductor section. Further, aerodynamic damping is incorporated by considering the relative velocity between cable nodes and oncoming wind flow. The results are compared with on-site measurements of the cables support reaction. The results show a significant effect of damping since almost no resonant amplification is visible both in observation and simulation. In addition, wind tunnel tests approved aerodynamic damping to be large for the system of sagging cables, but nonlinear in its nature. It is concluded, that the dynamic response of overhead transmission line cables has to be modeled with care, considering all sources of nonlinearities. That is of particular interest in case of random excitation such as wind because the peak response depends on the probability distribution of the system's response.

This paper presents the impact of dynamic loading on the deterioration of ballasted track. Firstly it is discussed which types of loading can be observed at the track. The effects of cyclic and dynamic loading on the ballast assembly are discussed with respect to the different boundary conditions of physical model tests compared to those existing in reality. For dynamic loading, on the one hand, the displacements and rotations of single particles at the surface become more important. On the other hand, the load distribution caused by an impact like loading is different from a quasistatic loading. Finally, large scale tests are presented. When comparing the dynamic loading sequences with the solely cyclic loading, limits are found for a vibration level that is associated with an accelerated accumulation of permanent deformations.

Overhead transmission line cables under wind gust loading - measurements and numerical simulations
(2014)

Overhead transmission lines with conductor cables spanning over a few hundred meters are highly
sensitive to the action of wind. Particularly wind acting on the cables signifies a major load on the
suspension towers. In order to identify critical loading parameters and the load-response
mechanism of those structures, measurements are carried out along a high voltage overhead
transmission line capturing the acting wind field as well as the structural response of the cables. A
finite element model of the structure is built and used to simulate the system's response. A method
is presented which allows generating a complete wind field for all the models nodes
incorporating measured wind velocities and estimated parameters of the acting wind. The full
scale measurements of both action and reaction will be compared to the numerical results.

Ermittlung von Beanspruchung und Verformungen von Pfahlgründungen - Messverfahren und Applikation
(2014)

Vor dem Hintergrund einer angestrebten größeren Unabhängigkeit der Energieversorgung von fossilen Energieträgern hat die Windenergie in den letzten Dekaden zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. Dabei wird insbesondere die Energiegewinnung offshore in der Deutschen Nordsee, auf Grund dort vorhandener stetiger Winde und sinkender Akzeptanz von Windkraftanlagen an Land, forciert. Im Hinblick auf die Gründung dieser Anlagen wird technisches Neuland betreten.
Angesichts von Wassertiefen bis über 25 m erhalten aufgelöste Gründungsstrukturen wie Tripod und Jacket oft den Vorzug vor Monopiles. Letztere waren wegen der geringen Produktions- und Installationskosten, der bisher am häufigsten angewandte Gründungstyp in flacheren Gewässern.
Monopile- und Mehrpfahlgründung unterscheiden sich wesentlich im Abtrag der Belastung durch Beanspruchungen aus Wind und Wellen in den umgebenden Baugrund. Während beim Monopile die zyklischen Momente über laterale Bettung abgetragen werden, entstehen an den Mehrpfahlgründungen axiale Zug- und Druckbelastungspaare in gegenüberliegenden Pfählen. Die zyklischen Belastungen von Monopiles sind demnach hauptsächlich in lateraler Richtung zu erwarten, während für Mehrpfahlgründungen die zyklische Belastung einen überwiegend axialen Charakter aufweist. Die zyklischen axialen Lasten in den Pfählen der Mehrpfahlgründungen können die axialen Tragfähigkeiten insbesondere am Pfahlmantel reduzieren und damit evtl, zu einem Versagen der Gründung führen.

MOSYTRAF - Monitoringsystem zur Tragverhaltensstudie von Freileitungen unter Böenbeanspruchung
(2014)

Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens MOSYTRAF (Monitoringsystem zur Tragverhaltensstudie von Freileitungen unter Böenbeanspruchung)
werden seit Ende 2011 kontinuierlich Windgeschwindigkeiten entlang eines insgesamt 800 m langen Freileitungsabschnitts gemessen. Gleichzeitig wird die resultierende Windkraft aus Wind auf Leiterseile an den Isolatoren erfasst. Dadurch soll der Zusammenhang zwischen Einwirkung und Bauwerksreaktion möglichst zuverlässig ermittelt werden. Dabei ist besonderes Augenmerk auf die kurzzeitigen
Windgeschwindigkeitsspitzen, die Böen gerichtet. Diese erfassen anders als die konstante mittlere Windgeschwindigkeit, nicht die gesamte Länge des Freileitungsabschnitts, sondern nur einen eingeschränkten Bereich. Aus diesem Grund erfolgen die Windmessungen an insgesamt 13 Stellen entlang des Abschnitts und geben ein fein aufgelöstes Bild des Windfeldes. In dem Beitrag werden Messergebnisse beispielhaft präsentiert und einige Plausibilitätskontrollen vorgestellt, da dies einen unerlässlichen Schritt bei Naturmessungen darstellt. Ausgehend von einem Übersichtsdiagramm der bisherigen Messergebnisse wird die Aufgabenstellung und die Zielsetzung der Messkampagne erörtert.