## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

### Filtern

#### Erscheinungsjahr

- 2014 (54) (entfernen)

#### Dokumenttyp

- Vortrag (20)
- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (18)
- Zeitschriftenartikel (11)
- Posterpräsentation (3)
- Buchkapitel (1)
- Forschungsbericht (1)

#### Schlagworte

- Damage detection (5)
- Numerical model (3)
- Subspace methods (3)
- Tragfähigkeit (3)
- Assessment criteria (2)
- Bridge transition zone (2)
- Continuous dynamic monitoring (2)
- Crash-material (2)
- Crashkörper (2)
- Cyclic loading (2)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (54) (entfernen)

This paper presents the impact of dynamic loading on the deterioration of ballasted track. Firstly it is discussed which types of loading can be observed at the track. The effects of cyclic and dynamic loading on the ballast assembly are discussed with respect to the different boundary conditions of physical model tests compared to those existing in reality. For dynamic loading, on the one hand, the displacements and rotations of single particles at the surface become more important. On the other hand, the load distribution caused by an impact like loading is different from a quasistatic loading. Finally, large scale tests are presented. When comparing the dynamic loading sequences with the solely cyclic loading, limits are found for a vibration level that is associated with an accelerated accumulation of permanent deformations.

A mechanical structure supported by nonlinear springs subjected to an external load is considered. If all mechanical parameters of the system were known, the displacement of the system subjected to this load could be easily calculated. If not all of the parameters are known, but the load and the displacement are measured at one location, an inverse problem exists. In the presented problem the nonlinear springs are unknown and have to be determined. At first glance a problem needs to be solved, which is underdetermined due to the number of unknown variables. However, evolutionary computing can be applied to solve this inverse, nonlinear and multimodal problem. Sometimes a prior knowledge exists on certain system properties, which is difficult to implement into analytical or numerical solver. This knowledge can play a decisive role in identifying the system properties and it can be easily included as boundary condition when applying evolutionary algorithm. This article examines how and under what conditions the spring resistances can be identified. The procedure is exemplified at a mechanical system of a pile foundation.

A comprehensive numerical model for the analysis of offshore foundations under a general transient loading is presented here. The theoretical basis of the model lies on the Swansea formulation of Biot's equations of dynamic poroelasticity combined with a constitutive model that reproduces key aspects of cyclic soil behaviour in the frame of the theory of generalised plasticity. On the practical side, the adoption of appropriate finite element formulations may prevent the appearance of spurious numerical instabilities of the pore pressure field. In this respect, the use of a coupled enhanced-strain element is here proposed. On the other hand, the practicality of the presented model depends ultimately on its computational efficiency. Some practical recommendations concerning the solution strategies, the matrix storage/handling procedures and the parallel multi-processor computation are here provided. Finally, the performance of the model with a benchmark study case and its practical application to analyse the soil–structure interaction of an offshore monopile under a realistic transient storm loading are discussed.

Vibration of normal apartment, office and production buildings, which are excited by technically induced ground vibrations are considered. Many wavelengths of the Rayleigh waves of the soil fit into the foundation dimensions. The related high discretization effort can nowadays be realized with detailed soil-structure interaction method. The combined finite-element boundary-element method is used here as a detatiled method. Simplified method can be used with less computation time, but these methods must be calibrated by exact results. One simplification is to extent the structure to infinity and to solve the problem by wavenumber domain methods. Another simplification is the use of a Winkler soil instead of the continuous soil. Usually, the Winkler parameters are not only soil parameters but depend also on the rigid or flexible foundation structure. Substructure methods use commercial FEM software for the building part. The contribution will show some detailed and some simplified results on large structural elements such as foundation plates, walls, storey plates on columns as well as results on complete buildings. The reduction of the ground vibration by stiff elements and the amplification due to floor or building resonances are discussed which are the most important phenomena of the soil-building interaction.

The main degradation process at bridge transition zones due to traffic loads is the appearance of differential settlements. Abrupt stiffness changes, repeating traffic loads and relative displacements of the superstructure ends on bridges often aggravate this problem. In this contribution, a 3D finite element (FE) model extended with a boundary formulation in the frame of the scaled-boundary finite element method (SBFEM) for a transient analysis of train-track-bridge interaction is presented. This numerical model permits an assessment of bridge transition zone with respect to permanent deformations of the track. The main focus lies on the modeling strategies for the vehicle and their impact on suitable assessment criteria for bridge transition zones. For this purpose, two different modeling strategies for the vehicle, a moving load model and a multibody model, have been compared and discussed on the basis of the assessment criteria. The results indicate that the model of the vehicle has a minor effect for an assessment on the embankment, but that the assessment on the bridge may show significant differences depending on whether the inertial components of the vehicle (multibody model) are considered.

BAW and BAM have performed a large scale comparison and calibration test on static and dynamic load capacity evaluation of bored piles in glacial sandy soil. The test was performed using eight piles at the BAM test site for technical safety at Horstwalde 50 km south of Berlin. The test area has been prepared and investigated in great detail using boreholes, cone penetration tests, pore pressure sensors and geophysical methods to assure controlled conditions for all piles and tests. The piles (10 m length, 0.9 m diameter) are mainly friction piles (low toe resistance) and have been checked by integrity testing. Five piles have been tested by five contractors using the dynamic method in a blind experiment, the other ones piles by static load and/or later on by the dynamic method. Some piles have been equipped with additional fibre optic Instrumentation which proved to be robust and helpful in interpreting the results of static, dynamic and integrity tests. We have experienced a deviation of the dynamic load test results gathered in the blind experiment from the static values of up to 20% in most cases, sometimes even up to 30%. This can be related to the known soil inhomogeneities, interpretation and modelling in CAPWAP and method inherent uncertainties. In cases where the static values were known by the testers for calibration, the deviations were significantly smaller. It has to be taken into account, that the two static load tests showed different results as well. Due to the low toe resistance, use of a big drop weight (11 tons) and large drop heights most piles suffered from cracking, which was clearly seen in follow up integrity tests and confirmed by excavation. The piles are available for further research.

This paper presents the development of a continuous dynamic monitoring System and its applications to different structures, with the purpose of understanding structural real behaviours under operational conditions and detecting early structural modifications. The first part of paper introduces a complete continuous dynamic System, consists of signal acquisition and communication, automated signal processing and management, investigation of the interaction between structures and its environmental/operational conditions, feature extraction and detection of structural modification.
The rest of paper describes the applications of continuous dynamic monitoring System to different structures such as a wind turbine System and a highway bridge.

Durch Schienenverkehr angeregte Wellenausbreitung durch den Boden - Stand der Simulationsmethoden
(2014)

Fault detection and isolation can be handled by many different approaches. This paper builds upon a hypothesis test that checks whether the mean of a Gaussian random vector has become non-zero in the faulty state, based on a chi2 test. For fault isolation, it has to be decided which components in the parameter set of the Gaussian vector have changed, which is done by variants of the chi2 hypothesis test using the so-called sensitivity and minmax approaches. While only the sensitivity of the tested parameter component is taken into account in the sensitivity approach, the sensitivities of all parameters are used in the minmax approach, leading to better statistical properties at the expense of an increased computational burden. The computation of the respective test variable in the minmax test is cumbersome and may be ill-conditioned especially for large parameter sets, asking hence for a careful numerical evaluation. Furthermore, the fault isolation procedure requires the repetitive calculation of the test variable for each of the parameter components that are tested for a change, which may be a significant computational burden. In this paper, dealing with the minmax problem, we propose a new efficient computation for the test variables, which is based on a simultaneous QR decomposition for all parameters. Based on this scheme, we propose an efficient test computation for a large parameter set, leading to a decrease in the numerical complexity by one order of magnitude in the total number of parameters. Finally, we show how the minmax test is useful for structural damage localization, where an asymptotically Gaussian residual vector is computed from output-only vibration data of a mechanical or a civil structure.

Energiedissipierende Fassadenverankerung mit Crashmaterial für explosionsbeanspruchte Gebäude
(2014)

Wenn repräsentative Bauwerke wie Botschaften und Flughäfen außergewöhnlichen Lasten aus Explosion ausgesetzt sind, dann kann das Ausmaß des zu erwartenden Schadens aus einer solchen Belastung durch den Einsatz von energiedissipierenden Schutzbauteilen in der Fassadenverankerung begrenzt werden. Bisher ist über das Tragverhalten solcher Schutzbauteile wenig bekannt. In diesem Aufsatz werden Konstruktion und Wirkungsweise einer Verankerung für vorgehängte Fassaden vorgestellt, die in der Lage sind, einen Teil der Stoßenergie über Verformung eines Crashmaterials zu dissipieren. Versuche an einer bauteilähnlichen Konstruktion liefern Informationen über das Tragverhalten der Fassadenverankerung, insbesondere bei dynamischen Belastungen. Aus den Ergebnissen wird ein Konzept für die Vordimensionierung der vorgestellten Schutzbauteile abgeleitet.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In the past few years public awareness of the need to protect structures against blast effects has risen. Blast wave energy is transmitted to the supporting structure by its façade connectors. Energy dissipating protective components placed at the connectors allow protecting people in the building as well as the primary building structure from damage. In this paper we present a protective component that dissipates blast energy by crash material. The report explores the system's fundamentals of operation from an experimental point of view. The results of dynamic tests are the basis of a design concept for the protective components.

Ermittlung von Beanspruchung und Verformungen von Pfahlgründungen - Messverfahren und Applikation
(2014)

Vor dem Hintergrund einer angestrebten größeren Unabhängigkeit der Energieversorgung von fossilen Energieträgern hat die Windenergie in den letzten Dekaden zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. Dabei wird insbesondere die Energiegewinnung offshore in der Deutschen Nordsee, auf Grund dort vorhandener stetiger Winde und sinkender Akzeptanz von Windkraftanlagen an Land, forciert. Im Hinblick auf die Gründung dieser Anlagen wird technisches Neuland betreten.
Angesichts von Wassertiefen bis über 25 m erhalten aufgelöste Gründungsstrukturen wie Tripod und Jacket oft den Vorzug vor Monopiles. Letztere waren wegen der geringen Produktions- und Installationskosten, der bisher am häufigsten angewandte Gründungstyp in flacheren Gewässern.
Monopile- und Mehrpfahlgründung unterscheiden sich wesentlich im Abtrag der Belastung durch Beanspruchungen aus Wind und Wellen in den umgebenden Baugrund. Während beim Monopile die zyklischen Momente über laterale Bettung abgetragen werden, entstehen an den Mehrpfahlgründungen axiale Zug- und Druckbelastungspaare in gegenüberliegenden Pfählen. Die zyklischen Belastungen von Monopiles sind demnach hauptsächlich in lateraler Richtung zu erwarten, während für Mehrpfahlgründungen die zyklische Belastung einen überwiegend axialen Charakter aufweist. Die zyklischen axialen Lasten in den Pfählen der Mehrpfahlgründungen können die axialen Tragfähigkeiten insbesondere am Pfahlmantel reduzieren und damit evtl, zu einem Versagen der Gründung führen.

The bridge design for railway bridges is far more dependent on the interaction with the traffic and the carriageway than for road bridges. This is especially true for the specific demands of the track in highspeed railways. Both maintenance and safety of the track have to be considered. The most relevant sections for the design criteria can be located at the bridge transition zones. Based on experimental investigations it is shown that bridge joint displacements, changes in stiffness and uplifting of the sleeper are causes for an increased degradation and loss in strength of the ballasted track. With respect to high speed vibrations of the bridge deck can have an even more decisive impact. Bridge deck vibrations can lead to destabilization of the bailast. In a numerical study the behavior of the track at the bridge is illustrated.

This paper presents a finite element model of an overhead transmission line using so called cable elements which allow reproducing the cable's nonlinear characteristics accurately employing only a few elements. Aerodynamic damping is considered in the equation of motion by taking into account the relative velocity between the flow of the wind and the moving structure. The wind flow itself is simulated by wave superposition making necessary assumptions on the lateral correlation between the wind velocities along the cable length. As result from the simulation, the following conclusions can be drawn. The first natural frequency of generally used wide spanning cables lies well below 1 Hz where also most of the energy content of the wind excitation is to be expected. Aerodynamic damping is significant for the moving cables holding very low structural damping which leads to a suppression of resonant amplification. This is particularly of interest regarding the support reaction which is dominated by the mean value and the so called background response. The latter is mostly influenced by the randomness of the wind flow, especially lateral to the main wind direction.