## 7.2 Ingenieurbau

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#### Schlagworte

- Fatigue (21)
- Ground vibration (18)
- Monitoring (11)
- Finite element method (10)
- Slab track (10)
- Structural health monitoring (10)
- Offshore wind energy (9)
- Structural Health Monitoring (9)
- Damage characterization (8)
- Impact (8)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (324) (entfernen)

The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to analyze locally (at the element level) the contact behavior of a soil-pile contact problem. Therefore, a 2D shear test is modeled using the Finite Element Method. The formulation of a 4 nodded zero-thickness Interface element of Beer is chosen with a linear interpolation function. Four constitutive contact models adapted for contact problems have been implemented. The Mohr-Coulomb and Clough and Duncan models were chosen initially, due to the ease of implementation and few number of parameters needed. After, more complicated models in the framework of
elasto-plasticity such as: Lashkari and Mortara were implemented for the first time into the finite element code of the shear test problem. They include other phenomena such as:
relative density of soil, the stress level and sand dilatancy. From the results the relation between shear displacement and shear stress has been deduced. Finally, a discussion of the advantages and the drawbacks during computation of each model is given at the end.

The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to analyze locally (at the element level) the contact behavior of a soil-pile contact problem. Therefore, a 2D shear test is modeled using the Finite Element Method. The formulation of a 4 nodded zero-thickness interface element of Beer is chosen with a linear interpolation function. Four constitutive contact models adapted for contact problems have been implemented. The Mohr-Coulomb and Clough and Duncan models were chosen initially, due to the ease of implementation and few number of parameters needed. After, more complicated models in the framework of elasto-plasticity such as: Lashkari and Mortara were implemented for the first time into the finite element code of the shear test problem. They include other phenomena such as: relative density of soil, the stress level and sand dilatancy. From the results the relation between shear displacement and shear stress has been deduced. Finally, a discussion of the advantages and the drawbacks during computation of each model is given at the end.

The response of many geotechnical systems, whose structural behavior depends on shearing effect, is closely related to soil structure interaction phenomenon. Experimentally it is found that the localisation of these effect happens at a narrow soil layer next to the structure. Numerically, this behavior can be modelled through inter-face elements and adequate constitutive models. In this work, a constitutive model in the framework of Gen-eralized Plasticity for sandy soils has been chosen to be adapted for the interface zone. From the direct shear experiments a sandy soil at loose and dense states under different normal pressures is considered. The adapted constitutive model is able to reproduce contraction and dilatation of the soil according to its relative density and it shows a good agreement with the experimental data.

The response of many geotechnical systems, whose structural behavior depends on shearing effect, is closely related to soil structure interaction phenomenon. Experimentally it is found that the localisation of these effect happens at a narrow soil layer next to the structure. Numerically, this behavior can be modelled through interface elements and adequate constitutive models. In this work, a constitutive model in the framework of Generalized Plasticity for sandy soils has been chosen to be adapted for the interface zone.
From the direct shear experiments a sandy soil at loose and dense states under different normal pressures is considered. The adapted constitutive model is able to reproduce contraction and dilatation of the soil according to its relative density and it shows a good agreement with the experimental data.

Driven steel piles are commonly used as deep foundations for a wide range of engineering structures, particularly in the offshore branch. They are also an interesting example among the broad spectrum of geotechnical applications where the fluid-solid interaction at the pore-scale can play a major role for the macromechanical behaviour of the whole system.
In the context of the geotechnical practice for offshore wind-farm structures, both the industrial design and the actual dimensions of the large piles used as foundations in the seabed are often driven by factors such as the soil resistance to driving (SRD), which are still not well understood and often estimated based on mere empirical correlations or overly simplified one-dimensional models. In particular, the role of the micromechanical effects during the installation process (e.g. local dilatancy or contractancy) and their consequences on the pore pressure levels at the pile-tip and on the effective resistance to driving, are generally either disregarded or at most assumed to be covered by the simplified engineering “black-box” solutions.
Here, we propose a general framework to address such local aspects of a geotechnical application involving fluid-saturated soils while retaining the focus on the micro-scale phenomena. We advocate for an approach that combines the relative simplicity of the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for the solid mechanics with the capabilities of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for the fluid dynamics. In this sense, we aim to compile some useful techniques and practical recommendations for an efficient GPU-based implementation of a micromechanical LBM-DEM simulation tool.

The passage of the train is dominated by the impulses of the static axle loads. The response of the regular homogeneous and irregular soils has been calculated by the finite-element method in frequency domain. The superposition of the impulse responses yields the quasi-static component of the ground vibration which is restricted to very low frequencies and to the close near-field of the track. In case of an irregular soil or ballast of which the stiffness varies randomly in space, a mid-frequency ground vibration component is generated by the scattering of the axle impulses. Measurements will be shown which prove the existence of the mid-frequency ground vibration component and the unique explanation by the scattered axle impulses: many international measurements with a raised mid-frequency component, axle-box measurements with a too low mid-frequency dynamic load, amplitude-speed dependencies which are incompatible with irregularity-induced dynamic loads, and ground vibration reductions due to stiff track elements.

This paper presents a three dimensional numerical model which is can be used to
investigate the effects on the track and in its vicinity due to a train passage. The numerical
model for train track interaction is based on a time domain dynamic finite
element model. Due to the unbounded nature of the soil the truncated boundary of the
finite element domain is modelled with the scaled boundary finite element method,
which is a semi-analytical approach. The application for a heterogeneous track along
the track line is exemplified by a track with a bridge structure, where close attention
is paid to the wheel-rail contact force. The results indicate that the wheel-rail contact
force is not symmetrical around the bridge structure and an optimisation in terms of a
backfilling area and under-sleeper-pads can improve such a transition.

This article deals with the relevance and practical feasibility of micromechanical simulations for their application to general geomechanical problems involving fluid-saturated granular assemblies, whether frictional or cohesive. A set of conceptual and numerical tools is here presented, advocating for a parallel computation using graphical processing units (GPUs) to treat large numbers of degrees of freedom with conventional Desktop computers. The fluid phase is here simulated with a particle-resolved approach in the frame of the Lattice Botzmann Method (LBM) while the granular solid phase is modelled as a collection of discrete particles from a Molecular Dynamics DEM perspective. The range of possible material behaviours for the solid granular phase is intended here to cover a broad spectrum from purely frictional to viscous cohesive materials with either brittle or transient debonding features. Specific details of the implementation and some validation cases are put forward.
Finally, some exemplary applications in the fields of soil erosion and geotechnical profile installation are provided along with a discussion on the parallel performance of the presented models. The results show that a micromechanical approach can be feasible and useful in practice, providing meaningful insights into complex engineering problems like the erosion kinetics of a soil under an impinging jet or the penetration resistance of a deep foundation in a layered soil profile.

Die BAM unterstützt das Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrografie bei der bautechnischen Bewertung von Tragstrukturen für Offshore-Windparks. Im Hinblick auf die vielfältigen nationalen Aktivitäten in Forschung und Entwicklung wird in der eingeladenen Präsentation auf Schwerpunkte behördlicher Erfahrungen und Bedenken Bezug genommen um eine Perspektive auf zukünftigen Forschungsbedarf zu eröffnen.