## 5 Werkstofftechnik

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- Vortrag (8)
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#### Schlagworte

- Fatigue (23) (entfernen)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 5 Werkstofftechnik (23)
- 5.2 Experimentelle und modellbasierte Werkstoffmechanik (8)
- 5.3 Mechanik der Polymerwerkstoffe (7)
- 5.0 Abteilungsleitung und andere (4)
- 5.1 Materialographie, Fraktographie und Alterung technischer Werkstoffe (4)
- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (3)
- 5.6 Glas (2)
- 7.0 Abteilungsleitung und andere (2)
- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (1)
- 8 Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung (1)

Fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) are a well established material in lightweight applications, e.g. in automotive, aerospace or wind energy. The FRP components are subjected to multiaxial mechanical as well as hygrothermal loads. Common operation temperatures are in the range of 213 K and 373 K (-60 °C and 100 °C) at a relative humidity of 10% to 90%. In spacecraft applications, the environmental conditions are even more extreme. However, the correlation between multiaxial mechanical loading and harsh environment conditions have to-date not been investigated in detail. The project aims to investigate the fatigue behavior of FRPs dependent on multiaxial mechanical loading, temperature, and humidity. Extensive experimental testing is performed on flat plate and cylindrical tube specimens, accompanied by numerical and analytical calculations.

9-12% Cr ferritic-martensitic stainless steels are widely used as high temperature construction materials in power plants due to their excellent creep and oxidation resistance. The growing share of renewable energy sources in power generation forces many of these plants into more flexible operation with frequent load shifts or shutdowns. These cyclic operation profiles constitute a major lifetime issue. The present contribution reports on current findings obtained in a multidisciplinary project which combines cyclic mechanical and cyclic oxidation testing of different 9-12% Cr grades with detailed microstructural analyses.
Mechanical analyses are carried out on P92 and P91 steel grades to give an overview of softening phenomena and lifetimes obtained in isothermal cyclic loading (low cycle fatigue, LCF), non-isothermal cyclic loading (thermo-mechanical fatigue, TMF), and service-like combinations of creep and fatigue periods.
Complementary microstructural investigations by scanning and transmission electron microscopy plus EBSD are used for phase identification, substrate/oxide interface characterization and quantification of the microstructure evolution under cyclic conditions.

The methods of computational damage mechanics are well-established for the description of degradation of materials under monotone loading. An extension to structural damage induced by cyclic loading is however significantly limited. This is due to enormous computational costs required to resolve each load cycle by conventional temporal incremental integration schemes while a typical fatigue loading history comprises between thousands and millions of cycles. Despite the permanent increase of computational resources and algorithmic performance, a successful approach is rather based on the development of novel multiscale in time integration schemes.
A Fourier transformation-based temporal integration (FTTI) is represented, which takes advantage of temporal scale separation incorporated into the cycle jump method. The response fields are approximated by a Fourier series whose coefficients undergo the evolution on a long-time scale. This is correlated with the evolution of the history variables, including damage, by means of the adaptive cycle jump method of various orders. The necessary extrapolation rates are obtained from the underlying solution of a short-time scale problem, which results from the oscillatory boundary condition and fulfills the global equilibrium of the Fourier coefficients. In this way, a remarkable speedup is achieved because the number of cycles to be fully integrated dramatically decreases.
The key idea behind the FTTI method is that the global in space equilibrium problem is linear since it is decoupled from the evolution equations. The latter are solved in the quadrature points under response fields prescribed throughout the whole load cycle. Consequently, integration of a single load cycle is much more efficient than the conventional single scale integration where the global equilibrium iteration and the local iteration of the evolution equations are coupled. This results in an additional speedup of the FTTI method.
The performance of the FTTI technique is demonstrated for two different constitutive behaviors: a viscoplastic model with a damage variable governed by the local equivalent viscoplastic strain; a quasi-brittle response where the damage variable is driven by a non-local equivalent strain. The latter is implicitly introduced as proposed by Peerlings. Both, the explicit and implicit extrapolation schemes are validated. The FTTI solutions agree very well with the reference cycle-by -cycle solutions, while significantly reducing the computational costs. The adaptive determination of the jump length can properly recognize the particular responses throughout the fatigue loading history (stationary fatigue, acceleration of fatigue damage when approaching failure) as well as stress redistribution phenomena.

Cyclic fatigue behavior of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin at ambient and elevated temperatures
(2018)

The fatigue behavior of ±45° glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin under cyclic mechanical and constant thermal loading is investigated in this study. Tests at three different temperature levels in the range 296 K to 343 K have been performed in order to create S-N curves for each temperature level. The specimen damage is measured in-situ using optical grayscale analysis. The characteristic damage state (CDS) is evaluated for each specimen. It is shown that the point of CDS is suitable as a failure criterion to compare the resulting S-N curves. With micromechanical formulations, the temperature-dependent matrix effort is calculated for each stress-temperature level. In terms of matrix effort, the longest fatigue life is reached at high temperatures, while, in terms of stress, the lowest fatigue life is reached at the highest temperatures.

Cyclic fatigue behavior of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin at ambient and elevated temperatures
(2018)

In this study, quasi-static material tests on unidirectional and multi-angle glass fiber reinforced epoxy laminates at ambient temperatures from -213 K to 353 K (-60 °C to +80 °C) are performed. In addition, neat resin is investigated under tension and compression loads at different temperatures. The coefficient of thermal expansion is determined for neat resin and unidirectional reinforced specimens. The dependence of the resin’s thermomechanical properties on the ambient temperature is shown. The point of damage onset at which first cracks appear within the matrix under quasi-static loading is investigated by means of optical grey scale analysis. The correlation between damage onset and effective matrix stress at different ambient temperatures is identified. An approach for the calculation of thermomechanical loads and the prediction of the damage onset by means of inverse calculations is presented. The impact of the strain blocking effect of the matrix is considered as well as residual thermal stresses due to curing and resin shrinkage.

Potential of martensitic stainless steel X5CrNiCuNb 16-4 as pipe steel in corrosive CCS environment
(2017)

Pipe steels suitable for carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) require resistance against the corrosive environment of a potential CCS-site (heat, pressure, salinity of the aquifer, CO2-partial pressure). X5CrNiCuNb16-4 has been proven to be sufficient resistant in corrosive environments, but shows rather unusual corrosion behaviour in CCS environment. Therefore differently heat treated coupons of 1.4542 were kept at T=60 °C and ambient pressure as well as p=100 bar for 700 h - 8000 h in an a) water saturated supercritical CO2 and b) CO2-saturated synthetic aquifer environment similar to on-shore CCS-sites in the Northern German Basin. Additionally fatigue tests were performed via push-pull tests with a series of 30 specimens was tested at stress amplitudes between 150 MPa and 500 MPa (sinusoidal dynamic test loads, R=-1; resonant frequency ~ 30 Hz). Best corrosion resistance in the liquid phase is achieved via normalizing prior to exposure and hardening+tempering at 670 °C leads to lowest corrosion rates in the supercritical phase. With no regard to atmosphere discontinuously ellipsoidal surface corrosion regions appear after exposure of 4000 h and more. The endurance limit of X5CrNiCuNb16-4 measured in air is reduced by more than 50% when exposed to CCS environment (maximum number of cycles (10 x 106) at a stress amplitude of 150 MPa) The scatter range TN = 1:34 is disproportionately large contributing to an overall unusual corrosion behaviour.

Using continuum damage mechanics (CDM) for lifetime prediction requires numerical integration of evolving damage until the onset of failure. The primary challenge for the simulation of structural fatigue failure is caused by the enormous computational costs due to cycle-by-cycle temporal integration throughout the whole loading history, which is in the order of 103–107 cycles. As a consequence, most approaches circumvent this problem and use empirical methods such as Wöhler curves. They are well suited for approximating the lifetime, but they are not capable to capture a realistic degradation of the material including redistribution of stresses. The main objective of the paper is to provide a technique for finite element (FE) simulations of structures under fatigue loading while reducing computational costs.
A Fourier transformation-based temporal integration (FTTI) scheme is proposed, which adapts the conventional FE method for modeling the viscoplastic deterioration in a structure subjected to cyclic loading. The response fields are represented by a Fourier series which assumes a temporal scale separation: a microchronological (short time) scale arises from the oscillatory loading and a macrochronological (long time) scale is due to the slow material relaxation resulting from yielding and damage evolution. The original dynamic boundary value problem (BVP) is approximated by the stationary BVP on the microchronological scale. Alternation of the displacement field on the macrochronological scale is correlated with evolution of the history variables by means of a high order adaptive cycle jump method. Performance and significant acceleration of the FE simulations is demonstrated at different loading scenarios for a constitutive damage model where the progressive damage accumulation is driven by viscoplastic yielding.