## 5 Werkstofftechnik

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#### Dokumenttyp

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- Englisch (795) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Corrosion (34)
- Glass (33)
- Additive manufacturing (30)
- Microstructure (28)
- Fatigue (25)
- EBSD (24)
- Coarsening (22)
- Creep (22)
- Electron backscatter diffraction (21)
- CCS (20)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 5 Werkstofftechnik (795)
- 5.1 Materialographie, Fraktographie und Alterung technischer Werkstoffe (239)
- 5.2 Experimentelle und modellbasierte Werkstoffmechanik (138)
- 5.3 Mechanik der Polymerwerkstoffe (132)
- 5.6 Glas (107)
- 5.0 Abteilungsleitung und andere (93)
- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (72)
- 5.4 Keramische Prozesstechnik und Biowerkstoffe (71)
- 5.5 Technische Keramik (71)
- 6 Materialschutz und Oberflächentechnik (69)

Dielectric breakdown of ceramics is widely believed to originate from microstructural defects. Still, there is no commonly accepted model for the origin and process of dielectric failure that covers all observed phenomena and dependencies. In analogy to mechanical strength, the Weibull distribution is commonly used to evaluate dielectric strength data. This works well for a given group of specimens with constant geometry. But unlike mechanical strength, dielectric strength scales with the inverse square root of sample thickness. This cannot be explained by the classic Weibull concept. The Griffith type energy release rate model of dielectric breakdown proposed by Schneider is based on space charge injection and conducting filaments from the sample surface. This model incorporates the distinct thickness dependence and the pronounced influence of surface defects. Based on this model and the classic Weibull probability of failure, Schneider’s group theoretically derived a probability of breakdown that predicts an increase of failure probability with increasing electrode area. In our study we tested this model with dielectric strength data measured on dense alumina samples using different electrode areas. Weibull modulus and characteristic dielectric strength (scale parameter) were determined for a set of measurements using small electrodes. These values were used to calculate the failure probability under large electrodes according to the model. The calculated data excellently fits the measured values. Thus, our experiments substantiate the assumptions made in the breakdown model and the significance of surface defects for dielectric failure.

Lifetime aspects including fatigue failure of concrete structures were traditionally only of minor importance. Because of the growing interest in maxing out the capacities of concrete, its fatigue failure under compression has become an issue. A variety of interacting phenomena such as e.g. loss of prestress, degradation due to chemical reactions or creep and shrinkage influence the fatigue resistance. Failure due to cyclic loads is generally not instantaneous, but characterized by a steady damage accumulation. Therefore, a reliable numerical model to predict the performance of concrete over its lifetime is required, which accurately captures order effects and full three-dimensional stress states.
Many constitutive models for concrete are currently available, which are applicable for specific loading regimes, different time scales and different resolution scales.
However, a key limitation of those models is that they generally do not address issues related to fatigue on a structural level. Very few models can be found in the literature that reproduce deterioration of concrete under repeated loading-unloading cycles. This is due to the computational effort necessary to explicitly resolve every cycle which exceeds the currently available computational resources. The limitation can only be overcome by the application of multiscale methods in time.
The objective of the paper is the development of numerical methods for the simulation of concrete under fatigue loading using temporal multiscale methods.
First, a continuum damage model for concrete is developed with a focus on fatigue under compressive stresses [1]. This includes the possibility to model stress redistributions and capture size effects. In contrast to cycle based approaches, where damage is accumulated based on the number of full stress cycles, a strain based approach is developed that can capture cyclic degradation under variable loading cycles including different amplitudes and loading frequencies. The model is designed to represent failure under static loading as a particular case of fatigue failure after a single loading cycle. As a consequence, most of the material parameters can be deduced from static tests. Only a limit set of additional constitutive parameters is required to accurately describe the evolution under fatigue loading. Another advantage of the proposed model is the possibility to directly incorporate other multi-physics effects such as creep and shrinkage or thermal loading on the constitutive level.
Second, a multiscale approach in time is presented to enable structural computations of fatigue failure with a reduced computational effort. The damage rate within the short time scale corresponding to a single cycle is computed based on a Fourier based approach [2]. This evolution equation is then solved on the long time scale using different implicit and explicit time integration schemes. Their performance and some limitations for specific loading regimes is discussed.
Finally, the developed methods will be validated and compared to experimental data.
[1] Vitaliy Kindrachuk, Marc Thiele, Jörg F. Unger. Constitutive modeling of creep-fatigue interaction for normal strength concrete under compression, International Journal of Fatigue, 78:81-94, 2015
[2] Vitaliy Kindrachuk, Jörg F. Unger. A Fourier transformation-based temporal integration scheme for viscoplastic solids subjected to fatigue deterioration, International Journal of Fatigue, 100:215-228, 2017

Lifetime aspects including fatigue failure of concrete structures were traditionally only of minor importance. Because of the growing interest in maxing out the capacities of concrete, its fatigue failure under compression has become an issue. A variety of interacting phenomena such as e.g. loss of prestress, degradation due to chemical reactions or creep and shrinkage influence the fatigue resistance. Failure due to cyclic loads is generally not instantaneous, but characterized by a steady damage accumulation. Therefore, a reliable numerical model to predict the performance of concrete over its lifetime is required, which accurately captures order effects and full three-dimensional stress states.
Many constitutive models for concrete are currently available, which are applicable for specific loading regimes, different time scales and different resolution scales.
However, a key limitation of those models is that they generally do not address issues related to fatigue on a structural level. Very few models can be found in the literature that reproduce deterioration of concrete under repeated loading-unloading cycles. This is due to the computational effort necessary to explicitly resolve every cycle which exceeds the currently available computational resources. The limitation can only be overcome by the application of multiscale methods in time.
The objective of the paper is the development of numerical methods for the simulation of concrete under fatigue loading using temporal multiscale methods.
First, a continuum damage model for concrete is developed with a focus on fatigue under compressive stresses. This includes the possibility to model stress redistributions and capture size effects. In contrast to cycle based approaches, where damage is accumulated based on the number of full stress cycles, a strain based approach is developed that can capture cyclic degradation under variable loading cycles including different amplitudes and loading frequencies. The model is designed to represent failure under static loading as a particular case of fatigue failure after a single loading cycle. As a consequence, most of the material parameters can be deduced from static tests. Only a limit set of additional constitutive parameters is required to accurately describe the evolution under fatigue loading. Another advantage of the proposed model is the possibility to directly incorporate other multi-physics effects such as creep and shrinkage or thermal loading on the constitutive level.
Second, a multiscale approach in time is presented to enable structural computations of fatigue failure with a reduced computational effort. The damage rate within the short time scale corresponding to a single cycle is computed based on a Fourier based approach. This evolution equation is then solved on the long time scale using different implicit and explicit time integration schemes. Their performance and some limitations for specific loading regimes is discussed.
Finally, the developed methods will be validated and compared to experimental data.

If the particle size decreases, the ratio of surface area to volume increases considerably. This provides benefits for all surface-driven processes that run faster or at lower temperatures than larger particles. However, handling and characterization of the nanopowders are much more difficult. Particularly polydisperse powders with irregular shape, as grinding products, represent a challenge. Granulometry in the submicron and nanoscale often leads to incorrect results without knowledge of particle morphology.
This presentation demonstrates potentials of using the volume-specific surface area (SV or VSSA) in the granulometric characterization of nanopowders, for instance, correlations between the volume-specific surface area and the median particle size are discussed considering the particle morphology and the model of the logarithmic normal distribution.
Moreover, the presentation deals with the optimal dispersion of nanopowders during sample preparation. Indirect ultrasound device with defined cooling was developed to prevent both contamination by sonotrode abrasion and sample changes by heat.
Successful granulometric characterization of nanopowders demands both improved dispersion technology and very often an effective combination of two or more measurement methods.

The precise analysis of cation diffusion profiles through corrosion scales is an important aspect to evaluate corrosion phenomena under multicomponent chemical load, as during high‐temperature corrosion under deposits and salts. The present study shows a comprehensive analysis of cation diffusion profiles by electron microprobe analysis and microbeam X‐ray absorption near edge structure (µ‐XANES) spectroscopy in mixed oxide/sulfide scales grown on Fe–Cr model alloys after exposing them to 0.5% SO2. The results presented here correspond to depth‐dependent phase identification of oxides and sulfides in the corrosion scales by µ‐XANES and the description of oxidation‐state‐dependent diffusion profiles. Scales grown on low‐ and high‐alloyed materials show both a well‐pronounced diffusion profile with a high concentration of Fe3+ at the gas and a high concentration of Fe2+ at the alloy interface. The distribution of the cations within a close‐packed oxide
lattice is strongly influencing the lattice diffusion phenomena due to their different oxidation states and therefore different crystal‐field preference energies. This issue is discussed based on the results obtained by µ‐XANES analysis.

This work examined the factors that influence the droplet corrosion of CO2 pipeline steels caused by oxyfuel flue gases in dense phase CO2 at 278 K, simulating the underground transport conditions. The wetting properties were studied by contact angle measurement, revealing pH and time dependency on the reactive wetting behaviors of carbon steel X70. Exposure tests with CO2 saturated water droplet on steel surface showed that the impurities (220 ppmv SO2 and 6700 ppmv O2) diffused into the droplet and then reacted with metal surfaces in dense phase condition, forming the corrosion products. The corrosion rate was confirmed strongly depending on the droplet volume as well as the SO2 concentration. Condensation experiments carried out on freshly polished coupons in CO2 with 200 ppmv H2O, 220 ppmv SO2 and 6700 ppmv O2, showed that the formation and aggregation of droplets is time and temperature dependent. At 278 K, condensation happened stronger and the corrosion products, mainly consisted of dense hydrated FeSO3/FeSO4. While at 288 K, more fluffy corrosion products consisting of iron oxide/hydroxide and hydrated FeSO3/FeSO4 were found. Further exposure tests on carbon steel coupons with different surface roughness did not reveal the difference in weight loss/gain and therefore the corrosion rate.

Recent studies have shown that even at a very low concentration of impurities (less than 100 ppmv of SO2, NO2, O2 and H2O) the droplet formation and condensation of sulfuric and nitric acids in dense phase CO2 are possible and observable. To reveal the mechanism of droplet corrosion in dense phase CO2 at high pressure and low temperature, further studies on factors that affect wettability and resulting corrosion behaviors of transport pipeline steels are needed. In this study, effects of surface morphology were investigated by varying surface roughness of carbon steel coupons exposed to CO2 stream containing impurities to measure the wettability by contact angle and to observe the condensation as well as possible droplet corrosion that followed. Other considered factors were: pH of the droplet, temperature, droplet volume, and exposure time.

Considerations for nanomaterial identification of powders using volume-specific surface area method
(2019)

The EC’s recommendation for a definition of nanomaterial (2011/696/EU) should allow the identification of a particulate nanomaterial based on the number-based metric criterion according to which at least 50% of the constituent particles have the smallest dimension between 1 and 100 nm. However, it has been recently demonstrated that the implementation of this definition for regulatory purposes is conditioned by the large deviations between the results obtained by different sizing methods or due to practical reasons such as high costs and time-consuming.
For most measurement methods for particle size determination it is necessary to initially disperse the particles in a suitable liquid. However, as the particle size decreases, the adhesion forces increase strongly, making it more difficult to deagglomerate the particles and to assess accurately the result of this process. Therefore, the success of the deagglomeration process substantially determines the measurement uncertainty and hence, the comparability between different methods.
Many common methods such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) or ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy (US) can give good comparable results for the size of nanoparticles, if they are properly separated and stabilized (e.g. in reference suspensions).
In order to avoid the use of hardly available and expensive methods such as SEM / TEM for all powders, an agglomeration-tolerant screening method is useful.
One of the measurement methods well suited to probe the size of particulate powder is the determination of the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) by means of gas adsorption as well as skeletal density. The value of 60 m2/cm3 corresponding to spherical, monodisperse particles with a diameter of 100 nm constitutes the threshold for decisioning if the material is a nano- or non-nanomaterial. The identification of a nanomaterial by VSSA method is accepted by the EU recommendation.
However, the application of the VSSA method was associated also with some limitations. The threshold of 60 m2/cm3 is dependent on the particle shape, so that it changes considerably with the number of nano-dimensions, but also with the degree of sphericity of the particles. For particles containing micro-pores or having a microporous coating, false positive results are induced. Furthermore, broad particle size distributions made necessary to additionally correct the threshold. Based on examples of commercially available ceramic powders, the applicability of the VSSA approach was tested in relation with SEM and TEM measurements. The introduction of a correction term for deviations from sphericity and further additions improved the applicability of VSSA as a screening method.

Powder bed -based technologies are amongst the most successful Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. "Selective laser sintering/melting" (SLS/SLM) and "binder jetting 3D printing" (3DP) especially are leading AM technologies for metals and polymers, thanks to their high productivity and scalability. In this context, the "layerwise slurry deposition" (LSD) has been developed as a layer deposition method which enables the use of SLS/SLM and 3DP technologies for advanced ceramic materials. LSD consists in the layer-by-layer deposition of a ceramic slurry by means of a doctor blade. Each layer is deposited and dried to achieve a highly packed powder layer, which can be used for SLM or for 3DP. This technique offers high flexibility in the ceramic feedstock used, especially concerning material and particle size, and is capable of producing parts with physical and mechanical properties comparable to traditionally shaped parts. In this presentation, the LSD technique will be introduced and several examples of application to porcelain, SiC and alumina products will be reported.