## 5 Werkstofftechnik

### Filtern

#### Erscheinungsjahr

- 2019 (3) (entfernen)

#### Referierte Publikation

- nein (3) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Breakdown strength (1)
- Ceramic spring (1)
- Ceramics (1)
- Dielectric strength (1)
- Hard machining (1)
- Spring constant (1)
- alumina (1)
- ceramics (1)
- volume resistivity (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 5.5 Technische Keramik (3) (entfernen)

Ceramic springs offer versatile possibilities for load bearing or sensor applications in challenging environments. Although it may appear unexpected, a wide range of spring constants can be implemented by material selection and especially by the design of the spring. Based on a rectangular cross-section of the windings, it is possible to design a spring geometry that generates the desired spring constant simply by choosing appropriate diameter, height, widths, and number of windings. In a recent research project the calculation of helical compression springs made of rectangular steel (German standard DIN 2090) was applied for the design of ceramic springs. A manufacturing technology has been worked out to fabricate such springs from hollow cylinders of several highly dense technical ceramics by milling. Ceramic springs with precise rectangular section, without edge damage, and mean surface roughness smaller than 0.2 µm were produced after parameter optimization. Tolerances of less than 10 µm were achieved regarding spring diameter, height, and width of cross section. It is shown that the calculations outlined in the standard are valid for a variety of ceramic materials as well. Demonstrator springs with a wide range of spring constants have been fabricated, including zirconia springs with 0.02 N/mm, alumina springs with 1 N/mm and Si3N4 springs with 5 N/mm. A reproducibility study of six zirconia springs with a constant of 0.3 N/mm showed a relative difference in spring constants of less than +/- 1 %. This combination of a valid calculation approach for spring geometry and a reliable manufacturing technology allows for purposeful development and fabrication of ceramic springs with precise mechanical properties and superior chemical stability.

The ProboStat is a multi-purpose measurement cell suitable for various electrical and physical measurements under different atmospheres and at high temperatures. Disc and bar shaped samples are sandwiched between platinum electrodes at the top of the tubular cell. The gas tight assembly can be inserted into a furnace. Different gases can be flushed through the tube. For this study, a ProboStat was adapted to measure volume resistivity of ceramic insulators at high temperatures according to standards.
The standardized measurement of volume resistivity of ceramic insulators requires the consideration of many specifications including sample diameter, thickness, electrode design, and the proportion of these characteristics. Measurements are ideally performed in a state of dielectric equilibrium. The time-related slope of resistivity of a specific sample follows a power function. Thus, care must be taken when choosing a charge time or defining the duration of a measurement. As fringing of the guarded electrode occurs under high voltage, the effective electrode area for evaluation of the results should be corrected with respect to sample thickness and electrode design. The demands of effective standards on sample geometry and electrode design are stricter for room temperature measurements than for high temperature measurements.
To perform high temperature measurements on ceramic samples that also fulfill the demands on room temperature measurements, a ProboStat was equipped with a dedicated large sample setup for discs with diameters of up to 60 mm. The volume resistivity of different alumina samples was first measured at room temperature in a standard test fixture and then compared to results obtained with the ProboStat. All measurements were performed for at least 100 min using a 26 mm guarded electrode. High temperature measurements at 500 °C were performed using the same samples. Room temperature values obtained with the standard test fixture are in the order of 10^17 Ohm·cm. The quantitative effect of electrode area correction is presented. Practical issues related to the use of the multi-purpose cell are addressed. These include electrode material selection, application of electrodes, and compensation of leakage currents. High temperature results of volume resistivity of the different alumina samples are presented. The validity is discussed with respect to the suitability of the multi-purpose cell for such measurements.

Dielectric breakdown of ceramics is widely believed to originate from microstructural defects. Still, there is no commonly accepted model for the origin and process of dielectric failure that covers all observed phenomena and dependencies. In analogy to mechanical strength, the Weibull distribution is commonly used to evaluate dielectric strength data. This works well for a given group of specimens with constant geometry. But unlike mechanical strength, dielectric strength scales with the inverse square root of sample thickness. This cannot be explained by the classic Weibull concept. The Griffith type energy release rate model of dielectric breakdown proposed by Schneider is based on space charge injection and conducting filaments from the sample surface. This model incorporates the distinct thickness dependence and the pronounced influence of surface defects. Based on this model and the classic Weibull probability of failure, Schneider’s group theoretically derived a probability of breakdown that predicts an increase of failure probability with increasing electrode area. In our study we tested this model with dielectric strength data measured on dense alumina samples using different electrode areas. Weibull modulus and characteristic dielectric strength (scale parameter) were determined for a set of measurements using small electrodes. These values were used to calculate the failure probability under large electrodes according to the model. The calculated data excellently fits the measured values. Thus, our experiments substantiate the assumptions made in the breakdown model and the significance of surface defects for dielectric failure.