## 5 Werkstofftechnik

### Filtern

#### Erscheinungsjahr

- 2018 (84) (entfernen)

#### Dokumenttyp

- Vortrag (84) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Additive Manufacturing (7)
- Glass (6)
- Additive manufacturing (5)
- Alloy 2618A (4)
- Aluminium (4)
- CCUS (4)
- Coarsening (4)
- Crack growth (4)
- Creep (4)
- DCB (4)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 5 Werkstofftechnik (84) (entfernen)

Dislocations are the carriers of plastic deformation. As such, their characterization offers important information on the properties they affect. In this contribution, a new tool is presented, which is incorporated in Amira ZIB Edition and allows for three-dimensional (3D) imaging and quantification of dislocations substructures from thick regions an electron-transparent specimen. In the tool, the dislocation segments are traced on diffraction contrast images that are obtained in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The uncertainties related to the experimental setup and to the proposed method are discussed on the base of a tilt series.

A continuum damage model for concrete is developed with a focus on fatigue under compressive stresses. This includes the possibility to model stress redistributions and capture size effects. In contrast to cycle based approaches, where damage is accumulated based on the number of full stress cycles, a strain based approach is developed that can capture cyclic degradation under variable loading cycles including different amplitudes and loading frequencies. The model is designed to represent failure under static loading as a particular case of fatigue failure after a single loading cycle. As a consequence, most of the material parameters can be deduced from statictests. Only a limit set of additional constitutive parameters is required to accurately describe the evolution under fatigue loading. Another advantage of the proposed model is the possibility to directly incorporate other multi-physics effects such as creep and shrinkage or thermal loading on the constitutive level. A multiscale approach in time is presented to enable structural computations of fatigue failure with a reduced computational effort. The damage rate within the short time scale corresponding to a single cycle is computed based on a Fourier based approach. This evolution equation is then solved on the long time scale using different implicit and explicit time integration schemes. Their performance and some limitations for speciﬁc loading regimes is discussed.

Lifetime aspects including fatigue failure of concrete structures were traditionally only of minor importance. Because of the growing interest in maxing out the capacities of concrete, its fatigue failure under compression has become an issue. A variety of interacting phenomena such as e.g. loss of prestress, degradation due to chemical reactions or creep and shrinkage influence the fatigue resistance. Failure due to cyclic loads is generally not instantaneous, but characterized by a steady damage accumulation. Therefore, a reliable numerical model to predict the performance of concrete over its lifetime is required, which accurately captures order effects and full three-dimensional stress states.
Many constitutive models for concrete are currently available, which are applicable for specific loading regimes, different time scales and different resolution scales.
However, a key limitation of those models is that they generally do not address issues related to fatigue on a structural level. Very few models can be found in the literature that reproduce deterioration of concrete under repeated loading-unloading cycles. This is due to the computational effort necessary to explicitly resolve every cycle which exceeds the currently available computational resources. The limitation can only be overcome by the application of multiscale methods in time.
The objective of the paper is the development of numerical methods for the simulation of concrete under fatigue loading using temporal multiscale methods.
First, a continuum damage model for concrete is developed with a focus on fatigue under compressive stresses. This includes the possibility to model stress redistributions and capture size effects. In contrast to cycle based approaches, where damage is accumulated based on the number of full stress cycles, a strain based approach is developed that can capture cyclic degradation under variable loading cycles including different amplitudes and loading frequencies. The model is designed to represent failure under static loading as a particular case of fatigue failure after a single loading cycle. As a consequence, most of the material parameters can be deduced from static tests. Only a limit set of additional constitutive parameters is required to accurately describe the evolution under fatigue loading. Another advantage of the proposed model is the possibility to directly incorporate other multi-physics effects such as creep and shrinkage or thermal loading on the constitutive level.
Second, a multiscale approach in time is presented to enable structural computations of fatigue failure with a reduced computational effort. The damage rate within the short time scale corresponding to a single cycle is computed based on a Fourier based approach. This evolution equation is then solved on the long time scale using different implicit and explicit time integration schemes. Their performance and some limitations for specific loading regimes is discussed.
Finally, the developed methods will be validated and compared to experimental data.

The methods of computational damage mechanics are well-established for the description of degradation of materials under monotone loading. An extension to structural damage induced by cyclic loading is however significantly limited. This is due to enormous computational costs required to resolve each load cycle by conventional temporal incremental integration schemes while a typical fatigue loading history comprises between thousands and millions of cycles. Despite the permanent increase of computational resources and algorithmic performance, a successful approach is rather based on the development of novel multiscale in time integration schemes.
A Fourier transformation-based temporal integration (FTTI) is represented, which takes advantage of temporal scale separation incorporated into the cycle jump method. The response fields are approximated by a Fourier series whose coefficients undergo the evolution on a long-time scale. This is correlated with the evolution of the history variables, including damage, by means of the adaptive cycle jump method of various orders. The necessary extrapolation rates are obtained from the underlying solution of a short-time scale problem, which results from the oscillatory boundary condition and fulfills the global equilibrium of the Fourier coefficients. In this way, a remarkable speedup is achieved because the number of cycles to be fully integrated dramatically decreases.
The key idea behind the FTTI method is that the global in space equilibrium problem is linear since it is decoupled from the evolution equations. The latter are solved in the quadrature points under response fields prescribed throughout the whole load cycle. Consequently, integration of a single load cycle is much more efficient than the conventional single scale integration where the global equilibrium iteration and the local iteration of the evolution equations are coupled. This results in an additional speedup of the FTTI method.
The performance of the FTTI technique is demonstrated for two different constitutive behaviors: a viscoplastic model with a damage variable governed by the local equivalent viscoplastic strain; a quasi-brittle response where the damage variable is driven by a non-local equivalent strain. The latter is implicitly introduced as proposed by Peerlings. Both, the explicit and implicit extrapolation schemes are validated. The FTTI solutions agree very well with the reference cycle-by -cycle solutions, while significantly reducing the computational costs. The adaptive determination of the jump length can properly recognize the particular responses throughout the fatigue loading history (stationary fatigue, acceleration of fatigue damage when approaching failure) as well as stress redistribution phenomena.

A constitutive model for the mechanical behaviour of single crystal Ni-base superalloys under high temperature conditions has been developed in the framework of a Cooretec project in cooperation with Siemens AG, MTU Aero Engines AG and University Bayreuth. In addition to the conventional material properties e.g. elastic constants, the model requires the parameters of the initial microstructure as an input. Thus, the γ’-precipitate size and the channel width of the γ-matrix were obtained from SEM micrographs. The model uses the slip system theory and describes the movement, multiplication and annihilation of dislocations in the channels. Furthermore, the cutting of precipitates is another mechanism contributing to the plastic flow. The evolution of the morphology due to rafting and its effects on the deformation have been implemented according to. The kinematic hardening is introduced as a stress tensor to realistically represent the strain hardening of arbitrary oriented single crystals.
The mechanical behaviour of single crystal specimens has been experimentally investigated in tension tests at different strain rates and in creep tests under various loads. The constitutive model has been calibrated based on the experimental data for temperatures of 950°C and 850°C and the [001] and [111] crystallographic orientations.
Finally, a micromechanical model was created to simulate the creep response of additive manufactured polycrystalline structures. An EBSD image is taken to obtain the grain geometry and their respective orientation. The grain boundaries are discretised using cohesive elements, whereas the single crystal model was applied to each grain in the representative volume. The polycrystal model is generated using Dream3D, NetGen and other software previously developed at the BAM.

Most additive manufacturing processes which produce dense ceramics are nowadays limited in size because of inevitable post-processing steps like for example binder removal in stereolithography. The additive manufacturing of voluminous ceramic parts is realized by powder bed based processes which, however, generate parts with residual porosity. Via infiltration these parts can be processed to dense parts like for example SiC but this is not possible for all ceramics like for example Si3N4. There is a lack of methods for the additive manufacturing of dense voluminous parts for most ceramics.
We have developed a new additive manufacturing technology, the Laser Induced Slip casting (LIS), based on the layerwise deposition of slurries and their local drying by laser radiation. Laser Induced Slip casting generates ceramic green bodies which can be sintered to dense ceramic components like traditional formed ceramic powder compacts. We will introduce the LIS technology, green bodies and sintered parts will be shown and their microstructure and mechanical properties will be discussed.

The possibility to produce dense monolithic ceramic parts with additive manufacturing is at the moment restricted to small parts with low wall thickness. Up to now, the additive manufacturing of voluminous ceramic parts is realized by powder bed based processes which, however, generate parts with residual porosity. Via infiltration these parts can be processed to dense parts like for example SiC but this is not possible for all ceramics like for example Si3N4. There is a lack of methods for the additive manufacturing of dense voluminous parts for most ceramics.
We have developed a new additive manufacturing technology, the Laser Induced Slip casting (LIS), based on the layerwise deposition of slurries and their local drying by laser radiation. Laser Induced Slip casting generates ceramic green bodies which can be sintered to dense ceramic components like traditional formed ceramic powder compacts. We will introduce the LIS technology, green bodies and sintered parts will be shown and their microstructure and mechanical properties will be discussed.

For the additive manufacturing of large components typically powder-based methods are used. A powder is deposited layer by layer by means of a recoater, then, the component structure is printed into each individual layer. We introduce here the new method of local laser drying, which is a suspension-based method specially developed for the manufacturing of large voluminous ceramic parts. The structure information is directly written into the freshly deposited layer of suspension by laser drying. Initially, the technology was developed for ceramic suspensions, however, first experiments with geopolymers reveal a high potential for this class of materials. Metakaolin, fly ash and lithium aluminate-based one-part geopolymers were used in first experiments. The local annealing of the geopolymer slurry results in a drying and crosslinking reaction and, thus, in a local consolidation of the material. First parts made are introduced and their properties are discussed.