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A continuum damage model for concrete is developed with a focus on fatigue under compressive stresses. This includes the possibility to model stress redistributions and capture size effects. In contrast to cycle based approaches, where damage is accumulated based on the number of full stress cycles, a strain based approach is developed that can capture cyclic degradation under variable loading cycles including different amplitudes and loading frequencies. The model is designed to represent failure under static loading as a particular case of fatigue failure after a single loading cycle. As a consequence, most of the material parameters can be deduced from statictests. Only a limit set of additional constitutive parameters is required to accurately describe the evolution under fatigue loading. Another advantage of the proposed model is the possibility to directly incorporate other multi-physics effects such as creep and shrinkage or thermal loading on the constitutive level. A multiscale approach in time is presented to enable structural computations of fatigue failure with a reduced computational effort. The damage rate within the short time scale corresponding to a single cycle is computed based on a Fourier based approach. This evolution equation is then solved on the long time scale using different implicit and explicit time integration schemes. Their performance and some limitations for speciﬁc loading regimes is discussed.

Lifetime aspects including fatigue failure of concrete structures were traditionally only of minor importance. Because of the growing interest in maxing out the capacities of concrete, its fatigue failure under compression has become an issue. A variety of interacting phenomena such as e.g. loss of prestress, degradation due to chemical reactions or creep and shrinkage influence the fatigue resistance. Failure due to cyclic loads is generally not instantaneous, but characterized by a steady damage accumulation. Therefore, a reliable numerical model to predict the performance of concrete over its lifetime is required, which accurately captures order effects and full three-dimensional stress states.
Many constitutive models for concrete are currently available, which are applicable for specific loading regimes, different time scales and different resolution scales.
However, a key limitation of those models is that they generally do not address issues related to fatigue on a structural level. Very few models can be found in the literature that reproduce deterioration of concrete under repeated loading-unloading cycles. This is due to the computational effort necessary to explicitly resolve every cycle which exceeds the currently available computational resources. The limitation can only be overcome by the application of multiscale methods in time.
The objective of the paper is the development of numerical methods for the simulation of concrete under fatigue loading using temporal multiscale methods.
First, a continuum damage model for concrete is developed with a focus on fatigue under compressive stresses. This includes the possibility to model stress redistributions and capture size effects. In contrast to cycle based approaches, where damage is accumulated based on the number of full stress cycles, a strain based approach is developed that can capture cyclic degradation under variable loading cycles including different amplitudes and loading frequencies. The model is designed to represent failure under static loading as a particular case of fatigue failure after a single loading cycle. As a consequence, most of the material parameters can be deduced from static tests. Only a limit set of additional constitutive parameters is required to accurately describe the evolution under fatigue loading. Another advantage of the proposed model is the possibility to directly incorporate other multi-physics effects such as creep and shrinkage or thermal loading on the constitutive level.
Second, a multiscale approach in time is presented to enable structural computations of fatigue failure with a reduced computational effort. The damage rate within the short time scale corresponding to a single cycle is computed based on a Fourier based approach. This evolution equation is then solved on the long time scale using different implicit and explicit time integration schemes. Their performance and some limitations for specific loading regimes is discussed.
Finally, the developed methods will be validated and compared to experimental data.

Lifetime aspects including fatigue failure of concrete structures were traditionally only of minor importance. Because of the growing interest in maxing out the capacities of concrete, its fatigue failure under compression has become an issue. A variety of interacting phenomena such as e.g. loss of prestress, degradation due to chemical reactions or creep and shrinkage influence the fatigue resistance. Failure due to cyclic loads is generally not instantaneous, but characterized by a steady damage accumulation. Therefore, a reliable numerical model to predict the performance of concrete over its lifetime is required, which accurately captures order effects and full three-dimensional stress states.
Many constitutive models for concrete are currently available, which are applicable for specific loading regimes, different time scales and different resolution scales.
However, a key limitation of those models is that they generally do not address issues related to fatigue on a structural level. Very few models can be found in the literature that reproduce deterioration of concrete under repeated loading-unloading cycles. This is due to the computational effort necessary to explicitly resolve every cycle which exceeds the currently available computational resources. The limitation can only be overcome by the application of multiscale methods in time.
The objective of the paper is the development of numerical methods for the simulation of concrete under fatigue loading using temporal multiscale methods.
First, a continuum damage model for concrete is developed with a focus on fatigue under compressive stresses [1]. This includes the possibility to model stress redistributions and capture size effects. In contrast to cycle based approaches, where damage is accumulated based on the number of full stress cycles, a strain based approach is developed that can capture cyclic degradation under variable loading cycles including different amplitudes and loading frequencies. The model is designed to represent failure under static loading as a particular case of fatigue failure after a single loading cycle. As a consequence, most of the material parameters can be deduced from static tests. Only a limit set of additional constitutive parameters is required to accurately describe the evolution under fatigue loading. Another advantage of the proposed model is the possibility to directly incorporate other multi-physics effects such as creep and shrinkage or thermal loading on the constitutive level.
Second, a multiscale approach in time is presented to enable structural computations of fatigue failure with a reduced computational effort. The damage rate within the short time scale corresponding to a single cycle is computed based on a Fourier based approach [2]. This evolution equation is then solved on the long time scale using different implicit and explicit time integration schemes. Their performance and some limitations for specific loading regimes is discussed.
Finally, the developed methods will be validated and compared to experimental data.
[1] Vitaliy Kindrachuk, Marc Thiele, Jörg F. Unger. Constitutive modeling of creep-fatigue interaction for normal strength concrete under compression, International Journal of Fatigue, 78:81-94, 2015
[2] Vitaliy Kindrachuk, Jörg F. Unger. A Fourier transformation-based temporal integration scheme for viscoplastic solids subjected to fatigue deterioration, International Journal of Fatigue, 100:215-228, 2017

A key limitation of the most constitutive models that reproduce a Degradation of quasi-brittle materials is that they generally do not address issues related to fatigue. One reason is the huge computational costs to resolve each load cycle on the structural level. The goal of this paper is the development of a temporal Integration scheme, which significantly increases the computational efficiency of the finite element method in comparison to conventional temporal integrations.
The essential constituent of the fatigue model is an implicit gradient-enhanced formulation of the damage rate. The evolution of the field variables is computed as amultiscale Fourier series in time.On a microchronological scale attributed to single cycles, the initial boundary value problem is approximated by linear BVPs with respect to the Fourier coefficients. Using the adaptive cycle jump concept, the obtained damage rates are transferred to a coarsermacrochronological scale associated with the duration of material deterioration. The performance of the developedmethod is hence improved due to an efficient numerical treatment of the microchronological problem in combination with the cycle jump technique on the macrochronological scale. Validation examples demonstrate the convergence of the obtained solutions to the reference simulations while significantly reducing the computational costs.

Using continuum damage mechanics (CDM) for lifetime prediction requires numerical integration of evolving damage until the onset of failure. The primary challenge for the simulation of structural fatigue failure is caused by the enormous computational costs due to cycle-by-cycle temporal integration throughout the whole loading history, which is in the order of 103–107 cycles. As a consequence, most approaches circumvent this problem and use empirical methods such as Wöhler curves. They are well suited for approximating the lifetime, but they are not capable to capture a realistic degradation of the material including redistribution of stresses. The main objective of the paper is to provide a technique for finite element (FE) simulations of structures under fatigue loading while reducing computational costs.
A Fourier transformation-based temporal integration (FTTI) scheme is proposed, which adapts the conventional FE method for modeling the viscoplastic deterioration in a structure subjected to cyclic loading. The response fields are represented by a Fourier series which assumes a temporal scale separation: a microchronological (short time) scale arises from the oscillatory loading and a macrochronological (long time) scale is due to the slow material relaxation resulting from yielding and damage evolution. The original dynamic boundary value problem (BVP) is approximated by the stationary BVP on the microchronological scale. Alternation of the displacement field on the macrochronological scale is correlated with evolution of the history variables by means of a high order adaptive cycle jump method. Performance and significant acceleration of the FE simulations is demonstrated at different loading scenarios for a constitutive damage model where the progressive damage accumulation is driven by viscoplastic yielding.

Additive manufacturing of alkali-activated materials currently attracts a lot of attention, because of the possibility to produce customized high-performance elements for a range of applications, potentially being more resource-efficient than conventionally produced parts. Here, we describe a new additive manufacturing process for alkali-activated materials that is based on selective laser-heating of lithium aluminate/microsilica slurries. The new process-material combination allows to manufacture elements with complex geometries at high building rates and high accuracy. The process is versatile and transferrable to structures of sizes differing by orders of magnitude. The mechanical strength of the obtained materials was in the range of values reported for conventional metakaolin-based geopolymers, and superior to what has been hitherto reported for alkali-activated materials produced by additive manufacturing. This mechanical performance was obtained despite the fact that the degree of reaction of the lithium aluminate and the microsilica was low, suggesting that significant reactions took place only at the surface of the microsilica particles.

The methods of computational damage mechanics are well-established for the description of degradation of materials under monotone loading. An extension to structural damage induced by cyclic loading is however significantly limited. This is due to enormous computational costs required to resolve each load cycle by conventional temporal incremental integration schemes while a typical fatigue loading history comprises between thousands and millions of cycles. Despite the permanent increase of computational resources and algorithmic performance, a successful approach is rather based on the development of novel multiscale in time integration schemes.
A Fourier transformation-based temporal integration (FTTI) is represented, which takes advantage of temporal scale separation incorporated into the cycle jump method. The response fields are approximated by a Fourier series whose coefficients undergo the evolution on a long-time scale. This is correlated with the evolution of the history variables, including damage, by means of the adaptive cycle jump method of various orders. The necessary extrapolation rates are obtained from the underlying solution of a short-time scale problem, which results from the oscillatory boundary condition and fulfills the global equilibrium of the Fourier coefficients. In this way, a remarkable speedup is achieved because the number of cycles to be fully integrated dramatically decreases.
The key idea behind the FTTI method is that the global in space equilibrium problem is linear since it is decoupled from the evolution equations. The latter are solved in the quadrature points under response fields prescribed throughout the whole load cycle. Consequently, integration of a single load cycle is much more efficient than the conventional single scale integration where the global equilibrium iteration and the local iteration of the evolution equations are coupled. This results in an additional speedup of the FTTI method.
The performance of the FTTI technique is demonstrated for two different constitutive behaviors: a viscoplastic model with a damage variable governed by the local equivalent viscoplastic strain; a quasi-brittle response where the damage variable is driven by a non-local equivalent strain. The latter is implicitly introduced as proposed by Peerlings. Both, the explicit and implicit extrapolation schemes are validated. The FTTI solutions agree very well with the reference cycle-by -cycle solutions, while significantly reducing the computational costs. The adaptive determination of the jump length can properly recognize the particular responses throughout the fatigue loading history (stationary fatigue, acceleration of fatigue damage when approaching failure) as well as stress redistribution phenomena.

For the additive manufacturing of large components typically powder-based methods are used. A powder is deposited layer by layer by means of a recoater, then, the component structure is printed into each individual layer. We introduce here the new method of local laser drying, which is a suspension-based method specially developed for the manufacturing of large voluminous ceramic parts. The structure information is directly written into the freshly deposited layer of suspension by laser drying. Initially, the technology was developed for ceramic suspensions, however, first experiments with geopolymers reveal a high potential for this class of materials. Metakaolin, fly ash and lithium aluminate-based one-part geopolymers were used in first experiments. The local annealing of the geopolymer slurry results in a drying and crosslinking reaction and, thus, in a local consolidation of the material. First parts made are introduced and their properties are discussed.

Additive manufacturing (3D printing) of ceramics and other materials offers significant advantages compared to conventional production processes for several applications. While ceramics have been extensively investigated in this regard, additive manufacturing of geopolymers have received much less attention to date. In the present contribution we study a ‘standard’ metakaolin-based geopolymer, a fly ash-based geopolymer and a silica-based one-part geopolymer regarding their suitability for additive manufacturing via selective laser curing. Model geometries such as bars and cuboids could be produced by this route. After selective laser curing the specimens were additionally cured at 80 °C for 24 h. The specimens were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM showed that the precursors in all geopolymers had reacted partially and geopolymeric gel had formed. XRD confirmed these results and additionally revealed that the crystalline byproducts (zeolites) in the one-part geopolymer differed from the byproducts observed in conventionally produced samples. This indicates that also the geopolymerization reactions differ between the two synthesis routes. The mechanical strength after selective laser curing and 80 °C-curing appeared to be highest for the metakaolin-based geopolymer. However, SEM also showed that a significant volume of macropores remained in most regions of all specimens, while some regions in the metakaolin-based geopolymer appeared to be significantly denser. These preliminary results demonstrate that selective laser curing offers potential for the production of geopolymers, but more research has to be undertaken to optimize the process.