### Filtern

#### Erscheinungsjahr

- 2017 (4) (entfernen)

#### Dokumenttyp

- Zeitschriftenartikel (4) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Fracture mechanics (4)
- Fatigue strength (3)
- Initial crack size (3)
- Multiple crack propagation (3)
- Short crack propagation (3)
- Crack driving force (1)
- Notches (1)
- Structural integrity (1)
- Weldments (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 9.1 Betriebsfestigkeit und Bauteilsicherheit (4) (entfernen)

The additive manufacturing technology of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) experiences a rapid development within an increasing marked of quite different application fields. The properties of SLM materials and structures are influenced by a number of tech-nological parameters such as the metal powder (particle size, homogeneity, cleanliness), the laser tool (power, beam diameter, pulse lengths), the scanning operation (speed, sequence and orientation of melting paths), parameters of the over-all equipment (design and preheating of the base plate, currents and turbulence in the protective gas atmosphere) and, last not least, the hatching strategy including the build-up direction of the structure with respect to the loading direction of the component.
For the perspective use of SLM structures as load carrying, safety-relevant components the knowledge of their mechanical properties is necessary. It is essential to understand these in the context of the manufacturing-related features and at the back-ground of the basic characteristics of metallic materials: crystal lattice, microstructure and material defects. The paper provides an overview on factors which affect the mechanical parameters stiffness, strength, ductility, toughness, fatigue crack propagation and fatigue strength in the context of selective laser melting.

The paper provides an overview on the results of a German cluster project on the use of fracture mechanics to the determination of the fatigue strength of weldments with fatigue cracks originating at the weld toes. The approach includes (a) a concept for short crack propagation for which the common ΔK concept is not applicable and the crack closure effects are still being gradually build-up, (b) a method for determining fatigue life relevant initial crack sizes as they are needed in any fracture mechanics analysis and (c) multiple cracking and crack coalescence at load levels higher than the endurance limit. The analyses are stochastically performed. Both, the endurance limit and the finite life branch of the S-N curve are determined.
Besides a brief introduction into the approach, validation examples are presented. These comprise different weldment types (butt welds, cross joints and longitudinal stiffened plates), two steels (S355NL and S960QL) of quite different strengths, different weld geometries due to different welding techniques (WIG, MAG), as-welded and stress relieved welds and different stress ratios varying from R = -1 to R = 0.5.

If fracture mechanics shall be applied to the total lifetime respectively the fatigue limit of components (within the meaning of the S-N curve approach) it has to address four challenges:
(a) It has to adequately describe so-called short crack propagation, which cannot be based on the common long crack concepts for principle reasons. Since the crack size is in the order of the plastic zone size, the modelling of short crack propagation cannot be based on the common linear elastic Delta K concept. Instead, an elastic-plastic parameter such as the cyclic J integral has to be applied. A second point is that the crack closure concept has to be modified in that the crack opening stress is not a constant, crack size- independent parameter but shows a transient behaviour with increasing short crack size.
(b) It has to provide a meaningful definition of the initial crack dimensions as the starting point for an S-N curve relevant (residual) lifetime analysis. This can be based either on the (statistical) size of material defects which can be treated as cracks or by the size of the crack which would arrest subsequent to early crack propagation, whatever is larger.
(c) It has to cope with the problem of multiple cracks for load levels higher than the fatigue limit such as it occurs in many applications in the absence of very large initial defects.
(d) This requires consequent statistical treatment taking into account variations in the local geometry of the area where crack initiation has to be expected as well as the scatter in the initial crack size and in the material data used for the analyses.

Approximation of the crack driving force for cracks at notches under static and cyclic loading
(2017)

The work deals with the efficient calculation of the elastic-plastic crack driving force (J-integral for monotonic loading andΔJ-integral under cyclic loading) for short cracks at notches as essential parameter for the reliable static and fatigue assessment of notched structures. The J- or ΔJ-integral is calculated based on analytical solutions for stress intensity factors, estimated by means of well-known weight function solutions in the case of cracks under power-law stress distributions. A plasticity-correction function is applied to the stress intensity factors to obtain the final expression of the crack driving force. The comparison between analytical solutions and finite element calculations in case of cracks at the weld toe in welded joints shows good agreement.