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- Short cracks (6) (entfernen)

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- 9.1 Betriebsfestigkeit und Bauteilsicherheit (6) (entfernen)

The work presents the procedure developed within the German research project IBESS, which allows for the fracture mechanics-based prediction of the fatigue strength of welded joints under constant amplitude loading. Based on the experimental observations of the crucial failure mechanisms, the approach focuses on the short crack propagation, where elastic-plastic fracture mechanics and the build-up of closure effects must be considered as well as the variability of the local geometry at the weld toe and the modelling of multiple crack interaction. Analytical solutions are provided for the approximation of the through-thickness stress profiles at the weld toe and for the determination of the crack driving force in the form of a plasticity-corrected stress intensity factor range ∆K_p. Proposals for the determination of the initial crack size and the crack closure factor are also included.
The approach is validated against a large number of experimental data, which comprises fatigue tests on individual cracks monitored by heat tinting and beach-marking techniques, as well as stress life curves. Three kinds of welded joints, two steels of significant different strengths and three stress ratios are considered. The results show that the procedure provides good estimations of the statistical distribution of the fatigue strength of welded joints both for the finite and infinite life regime. Furthermore, the predictions are compared with available benchmark data for structural steels.

The cyclic J-integral (∆J-integral) is a crack tip parameter of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics which can be used as governing parameter for the description of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in metallic structures. In this contribution, it is applied for modelling FCG in weldments. The ∆J-integral is determined by means of analytical approximation formulas as well as numerical methods. An analytical solution, which takes into account effects of the local ligament plasticity, was derived. This solution is based on well established methods such as R6, BS7910 and SINTAP which were modified for cyclic loading. It incorporates methods for the description of short crack closure behaviour as well as the well known analytical (long) crack closure function of Newman. A specific code was written to evaluate the ∆J-integral numerically in the course of finite element based crack growth simulations. The code was first validated for an infinite plate with centre crack by applying elastic and elastic-plastic material behaviour. Next, the ∆J-integral was calculated for cracks in various butt and cruciform welded joints. The results were compared with the results of the derived analytical approximation formula. A good accordance was achieved between the results.

In a number of previous papers, the authors have proposed a model for fracture mechanics based prediction of the S-N characteristics of metallic components with large microstructural defects. Here, an extension to materials that do not show large defects onto the fracture surfaces is provided. In such cases, an approach based on a so-called cyclic R-curve analysis is proposed for the determination of the initial flaw size, which has to be used in the calculation of fatigue crack propagation. The principle is explained and demonstrated by a first application to a welded joint.

An analytical fracture mechanics model for predicting the finite life fatigue strength of components is presented which Combines a number of well established and newly developed approaches such as Murakami’s and McEvily's approach for describing the transient behaviour of crack closure of short cracks, the analytical (long) crack closure function of Newman, the R6 procedure modified by a method for improving the ligament yielding correction proposed by the authors and other elements. Basic assumption is the preexistence of initial flaws such that the crack initiation or nucleation stage is small and can be neglected. The application of the model is demonstrated for small tension plates of aluminium Al 5380 H321 with artificial initial defects generated by FIB technology, the size of which was fixed on the basis of fractographic investigations on broken, smooth specimens.

Recently two of the authors of the present paper proposed a model for a fracture mechanics
based prediction of the S–N characteristics of metallic components with large microstructural
defects and supported this by a validation exercise on tensile plates made of an aluminium
alloy AL5380 H321. Here the authors extend the study using a number of further
data sets from the literature for which data were available at different R ratios. These data
include two aluminium alloys, Al 2024-T3 and Al 7075-T6, and a ductile cast iron, EN-GJS-
400-18-LT. Despite of necessary assumptions for the compensation of partially missing
input information the results were fairly reasonable with the exception of one data set.
The authors identify high applied stress levels in combination with potential multiple crack
initiation as the probable root of the problem and propose a scheme how the model can be
extended for taking into account crack initiation.

The determination of the fatigue life in technical alloys containing large and small defects must rely on a propagation model which accounts for short and long crack growth. Recently an analytical model which incorporates propagation in the short crack regime and plastic correction for the crack driving force has been presented by two of the authors.
This work is intended to show further validation of the model, taking into account data sets for different materials with different testing conditions.
Despite the assumptions about missing parameters, the value of which had to be taken from the literature, the predictions showed a fairly good approximation of the fatigue lives. A possible interpretation of the results in terms of multiple crack initiation and propagation at higher loads is proposed.