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#### Dokumenttyp

- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (11)
- Zeitschriftenartikel (3)
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- Posterpräsentation (1)

#### Schlagworte

- Debonding (5)
- Energy release rate (4)
- Fracture mechanics (4)
- Interface (4)
- Laminate (3)
- Composites (2)
- Einkristalllegierung (2)
- Kristallplastizität (2)
- composites (2)
- failure mechanisms (2)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

An improved diffusion model is proposed for pore annihilation during HIP of single-crystal nickel-base superalloys. The model assumes the pore dissolution by emission of vacancies and their sink to the low angle boundaries. Calculation, considering distribution of the pore sizes, predicts the kinetics of pore annihilation similar to the experimental one.

The energy release rate delivered during the debonding of a fiber inside a composite ply is analysed using a representative volume element. Two different fiber volume fractions are studied by a linear elastic fracture mechanical analysis by using the finite element method.
The dependency of the mixed mode energy release rate on the length of the crack increment is analysed. It is shown that the same general behaviour found in case of a straight Interface crack is valid also for circular cracks. As a result the discrimination of the energy release rate into mode I and mode II portions is questionable.

For the design of laminates the knowledge of the failure behaviour of plies under multiaxial stresses is a necessary precondition. The strength of plies under multiaxial stresses commonly is determined by standard off-axis tests using fixed clamps. By varying the off axis angle the ratio of shear to normal stresses can be prescribed. However, by preventing the rotation a complex stress field develops which strongly varies with the off axis angle as well. While these effects are not crucial when determining the elastic material parameters since the stress state in the center of the specimen is not far from the ideal uniaxial stress state they have a great influence on the failure behaviour.

The failure of fiber reinforced composites under transverse loading is investigated on a
representative volume element. The volume element is composed of a twelve fiber hexagonal
array. The debonding of the central fiber is studied under transverse shear as well as under
transverse compressive loading by calculating the mode I and mode II part of the energy
release rate. The initiation of failure is assumed to take place at the location of maximum
tensile or maximum shear stresses, respectively. In order to determine the failure initiation
point, the stress field in the interface before crack initiation is calculated.

The investigation of creep behavior of the single crystal superalloy CMSX-4 at 1288°C is important for the understanding of deformations mechanisms under hot isostatic pressing (HIP). This treatment is used to increase the lifetime of single crystal superalloys by reducing the number of cavities. The understanding of the internal processes during this treatment is still limited due to the material being not single-phase at room temperature, the extreme conditions of HIP and the complexity of the material.
The result of predicting the pore shrinkage rate using classical crystal plasticity was not satisfying. A more complex model has been implemented, now taking the heterogeneity of dislocation sources into account. By introducing a dislocation density, one can describe the transport, nucleation and interaction of dislocations.

The premise for the development of improved failure criteria for fiber reinforced composites is the understanding of the failure processes on microscale. On microscale the local behaviour of the matrix polymer is crucial. It significantly differs from that found in macroscopic measurements. The present study is focused on the plastic material behaviour of a standard epoxy resin. Local plastic strains are measured in tensile test by using digital image correlation. A multilinear plastic law is implemented by the experimental data. The stress field arising in an idealised representative volume element of a unidirectional ply is analysed by finite element calculations. The change of the stress and strain field due to plastic deformation according to the multilinear plastic law is shown. The change leads to a shift of the critical locations where failure is likely to initiate. In addition, the failure type changes from stress based to strain based failure. The dominant role of the shear strains is shown.

The failure of composites is initiated by imperfections on microscale. The interface between fiber and matrix is a key parameter concerning failure initiation. In order to get an improved understanding of local failure processes a fracture mechanical analysis of interfacial failure in a composite ply under transverse stresses is performed. The mixed mode energy release rate is calculated. In addition the failure of interfaces under cyclic loading is studied on a single fiber model. The quasistatic debonding process is compared with the interfacial failure under fatigue loading. It is shown that the tan delta can be used as an indicator for the damage propagation.

The failure behaviour of unidirectional plies tested under off-axis loading is studied. The stress distribution occurring in standard off-axis tests is briefly discussed. The different failure modes, this is, pure fiber breakage, pure inter fiber failure as well as a superposition of both is analysed based on test data and fracture patterns. The large difference of the failure load depending on the failure mode at small off-axis angles is studied by comparison of a short and a long 3° off-axis angle specimen.

Off-axis tests are widely used for the determination of the anisotropic mechanical properties of composite materials, this is, the longitudinal E-modulus and the strength. The mechanical properties are evaluated from the test data under idealising assumptions such as homogeneity of the material as well as a homogeneous stress distribution. In real off-axis tests, however, significant deviations from the idealising assumptions are present. The reduction of the accuracy of the results strongly depends on the off-axis angle.
In this paper a series of off-axis tests is analysed. The stresses on potential failure plane are calculated by finite element analyses. By varying the geometrical parameters it is shown how small deviations from the ideal case influence the measured elastic constants and the strength. Especially at low off-axis angles the mechanical properties strongly vary with the angle. In addition, fracture surfaces for different shear/normal stress combinations are studied and typical phenomena are identified.