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- Zeitschriftenartikel (38) (entfernen)

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- Englisch (38) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Ground vibration (8)
- Railway track (4)
- Track-soil interaction (4)
- Vehicle-track interaction (4)
- Force transfer (3)
- Layered soil (3)
- Wavenumber integrals (3)
- Field tests (2)
- Finite-element boundary-element method (2)
- Railway (2)
- Rayleigh wave (2)
- Slab track (2)
- Track vibration (2)
- Amplitude-distance law (1)
- Axle box measurements (1)
- Axle-load spectra (1)
- Ballast mat (1)
- Base isolation (1)
- Beam dynamics (1)
- Beam-soil interaction (1)
- Bending waves (1)
- Blasting charge (1)
- Boundary element method (1)
- Components of excitation (1)
- Continuously inhomogeneous soils (1)
- Drop height (1)
- Dynamic pile and pile group stiffness (1)
- Elastic length (1)
- Elastic track elements (1)
- Emission (1)
- Environmental vibrations (1)
- Excitation forces (1)
- Experimental verification (1)
- Explosion (1)
- Filter effect of the soil (1)
- Finite element method (1)
- Finite-element method (1)
- Flexible plate (1)
- Floating slab track (1)
- Foundations (1)
- Frequency-wavenumber method (1)
- Geometric trackbed irregularities (1)
- High-speed trains (1)
- Insertion loss (1)
- Interaction (1)
- Interior load (1)
- Irregularities (1)
- Kinematic and inertial soil-pile-building (1)
- Layered soils (1)
- Mass drop (1)
- Material damping (1)
- Measured railway vibrations (1)
- Measurement campaigns (1)
- Measurements (1)
- Mitigation (1)
- Monitoring (1)
- Moving load (1)
- Multi-beam model (1)
- Multi-beam-on-support model (1)
- Parametric excitation (1)
- Pile bending stiffness (1)
- Pile foundation (1)
- Plate-soil interaction (1)
- Prediction (1)
- Predictions (1)
- Rail pad (1)
- Rail roughness (1)
- Railway forces (1)
- Railway measurement campaign (1)
- Railway track vibration (1)
- Reduction (1)
- Resonance (1)
- Scattering damping (1)
- Sleeper pad (1)
- Soil stiffness (1)
- Soil transfer function (1)
- Soil-building interaction (1)
- Stiffness (1)
- Target stiffness (1)
- Track (1)
- Track alignment (1)
- Track damage (1)
- Track deformation (1)
- Track dynamic (1)
- Track-soil and vehicle-track resonances (1)
- Train induced ground vibration (1)
- Train passage (1)
- Train speed (1)
- Train-induced ground vibration (1)
- Varying track stiffness (1)
- Vehicle-track-soil interaction (1)
- Vibration (1)
- Vibration isolation (1)
- Vibration reduction (1)
- Wave attenuation (1)
- Wave excitation (1)
- Wave propagation (1)
- Wavenumber method (1)
- Wheel out-of-roundness (1)
- Wheelset accelerations (1)
- Wind energy tower (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (17)
- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (17)

The damage detection and repair control have become important tasks for ballast and slab tracks. Measurements which compare the damaged and the repaired status of the same track section at different times, or which compare a damaged and an intact track section at the same time, have been successfully performed at some sites in Germany. The loss of contact between the sleeper and the track plate, between the track plate and the base plate, and between the base plate and the base layer have been analysed. The soil properties of each site have been measured and have been used to establish realistic track-soil models. Theoretical results of the wavenumber domain and the finite-element boundary element method have been compared with the experimental results. The observed experimental and theoretical results, changes in the time histories of displacements and velocities due to train passages and in the transfer functions (receptances) due to hammer impacts, are encouraging that these measurements can be used to detect track damage.

A combined finite-element boundary-element method for the dynamic interaction of the soil with flexible structures such as single piles or complete wind energy towers has been developed. Flexible piles in different soils are analysed in frequency domain. The different parameters such as the stiffness of the soil, the bending stiffness and the radius of the hollow pile are analysed for their influence on the complex compliances. The results have been determined as specific power laws which are different for the different load cases (horizontal, rocking, coupling) and for the different soil models (Winkler, continuum with constant, root-parabolic and proportional-linear stiffness variation). The strongest influence of the soil stiffness can be found for the homogeneous soil and the horizontal component. Winkler soils have a weaker influence than the corresponding continuous soils. An offshore wind energy tower has been modeled and calculated for wind and wave loads.

Three measurement campaigns of train-induced ground vibrations are evaluated for the vehicle-track-soil interaction. Ground vibrations, track vibrations and vehicle vibrations have been measured for train passages and impulse excitation and compared with theoretical results.
The soil and the track-soil system are calculated by wavenumber integrals. The influence of the vehicle is introduced by a substructure method. By comparing theory and measurement the different components of excitation force and ground vibration can be analysed, the quasi-static excitation, track-alignment errors, the out-of-roundness of wheels, the wheel and rail roughness, and moreover, scattered axle impulses and ineffective high-frequency parts of the wheelset accelerations and forces.

Transfer admittance spectra of technically induced surface wave fields are analyzed in theory and experiments. Theoretical admittance spectra of layered soils are obtained by integration in wavenumber domain and compared with experimental admittances due to hammer or vibrator excitation. The admittance spectra are strongly influenced by the layering and damping of the soil. Deep stiff-soil layers yield a low-frequency cutoff, whereas a strong damping yields a high-frequency cutoff. A sharp cutoff in a narrow frequency band, which is measured at some sites, can be explained by a damping that increases with frequency, such as viscous material or scattering damping.

Measurements on the vehicle-track interaction and the excitation of railway-induced ground vibration
(2017)

Two railway measurement campaigns have been performed in Germany and Switzerland which yield insight in the vehicle-track-soil interaction. The campaign in Germany has included simultaneous measurement of vehicle, track, and soil vibrations during train runs with 16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 100, 125, 140, 160 km/h, and impulse measurements of the passenger car, three track sections and the soil. Two ballast tracks, one on the soil surface and one on a concrete bridge, have been investigated as well as a slab track in a tunnel. Ten different sites in Switzerland have been measured for soil properties and train-induced ground vibrations, which allow to determine the excitation forces of the railway traffic. New axle-box measurements at some of the Swiss sites have been analysed to get further experimental evidence. All these measurements have been evaluated to characterize the excitation processes. Relations between vehicle vibration and ground vibration can be observed. The vehicle vibrations, namely the accelerations of the wheelsets, yield the dynamic forces due to the passage over the irregularities of the vehicle and the track. The ground vibrations are correlated to these dynamic forces to a certain extent. Some mid-frequency ground vibration amplitudes, however, are higher than expected from the dynamic excitation forces. The experimental observations can be explained by an irregular response to the passage of the static loads, that means the passage of the static loads over an irregular ballast or soil. This correct understanding of the excitation processes is important for the prediction as well as for the mitigation of railway induced ground vibrations.

Train passages induce forces on the track, train-induced vibrations propagate through the soil and excite neighbouring buildings. The emission, which is the first part of the prediction of vibrations near railway lines, is presented by focusing on the dynamic axle loads. The calculation of the axle loads is based on the vehicle-track-soil interaction. This interaction calculus utilises the dynamic stiffness of the vehicle (the inertia of the wheelset) and the dynamic stiffness of the track-soil system. Based on various time consuming finite-element boundary-element calculations, an approximate track-soil model has been established. The vehicle-track-soil analysis yields several transfer functions between the various geometric or stiffness irregularities and the axle loads of the train. Geometric irregularities of the vehicle (the wheels) and the track (rail surface and track alignment) are the simplest components. Geometric irregularities of the subsoil (trackbed irregularities) have to be transferred to effective irregularities at rail level. The bending stiffness of the track is filtering out the short-wavelength contribution. Stiffness irregularities occur due to random variations in the ballast or the subsoil, which must also be transferred to effective track irregularities, and due to the discrete rail support on sleepers. All necessary transfer functions for the prediction of axle-load spectra are presented as general formula and as specific graphs for differing vehicle and track parameters. The prediction method is applied to a ballast track and a slab track and compared with corresponding axle-box measurements. Moreover, ground vibration measurements at numerous sites are exploited for the axle-load spectra and the validation of the prediction method. All theoretical and experimental results confirm that the dynamic axle-load spectra have an approximate value of 1 kN per third of octave and increase with train speed, track stiffness and around the vehicle-track resonance.

The vibrations of soil and foundations are demonstrated for different types of loading. Train-induced ground vibrations are studied in a measurement campaign where a test train has run with regularly varied speeds. The measured train-induced soil vibration at 2 to 100 m distance from the track is compared with the wave propagation due to hammer excitation and with the theoretical wave field. The strong influence of the soil and the train speed on the amplitudes and frequencies of the vibration has been analysed for passages of the locomotive and the carriages. - The generation of ground vibration by strong explosions has been studied on a large testing area with sandy soil. The propagating waves were measured in a regular grid of measuring points in 10 to 1000 m. Therefore, the dominance of certain waves at certain distances and the changes of compressional waves and Rayleigh waves could clearly be observed. The results are compared with impulse hammer measurements in the range of 5 to 50 m. - A drop test facility has been built on the testing area of the Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing (BAM). Heavy masses (containers) of up to 200 t can be dropped from 10 m height on a big reinforced concrete foundation. The foundation was instrumented by accelerometers, strain gauges and pressure cells to give information about the loading condition and by geophones to measure the vibration of the surrounding soil and building. Both excitation processes, the release of the mass and the impact, produce high vibration amplitudes. On a smaller drop foundation, the influence of the drop height and the target stiffness has been studied more systematically.

A complex measuring campaign has been performed including the simultaneous measurement of vehicle, track, and soil vibrations during train runs at 16, 25, 40, 63, 80, 100, 125, 140, 160 km/h, and impulse measurements of the passenger car, three track sections and the soil. A ballast track on the soil surface and on a concrete bridge have been investigated as well as a slab track in a tunnel. The evaluation and comparison of all these data shows a generally good agreement for all components if the strong low- and high-frequency cut-off characteristics of the layered and damped soil are incorporated. There is a strong causal correlation between the vehicle and the soil by the dynamic excitation forces and a weak relation between the track and the soil by the axle-sequence spectrum of the train. However, the similarity between the axle-impulse spectrum observed at the track and the spectra of the ground vibration lead to the special excitation component of “scattered axle impulses” which is pre-dominant at the far-field points of the soil.

Ground vibrations created by running high-speed trains at speeds between 100 and 320 km/h are calculated in detail using transfer functions to model the effects of the moving loads. These transfer functions for layered soils are obtained by integration in the wavenumber domain. The train-induced vibrations in a soil that is considered to consist of single layers of two slightly different soils are analysed for different excitations: for their spectra, attenuation laws and amplitude-speed relations. An important mid-frequency component is shifted through the cut-on region of the layered soil with an increase in the train speed. The cut-on frequency divides the response of the layered soil into a low-frequency low-amplitude range and a high-frequency high-amplitude range. This leads to completely different train speed dependencies for the two soil layers with strongly increasing amplitudes around the cut-on frequency and almost constant amplitudes beyond this frequency. All calculated results closely agree with ground vibration measurements at two corresponding sites, especially if the mid-frequency component is calculated by axle impulses.

This article presents an integrated model for the computation of vehicletrack interaction and the ground vibrations of passing trains. A combined finite element and boundary element method is used to calculate the dynamic compliance of the track on realistic soil whereas multi-body models are used for the vehicle. The dynamic stiffness of the vehicle and that of the track are combined to calculate the dynamic axle loads due to the irregularities of the vehicle and the track as well as those due to sleeper passing excitation. These loads serve as input for the calculation of ground vibration near railway lines in the time and frequency domains.
The theoretical methods and results have been proven by experiments in several respects and at several instances. First, on the occasion of the test and record runs of the Intercity Experimental, there was a very good quality of the vehicle and of the newly built track so that the deterministic parts of the excitationthe static load and the sleeper-passing componentcould clearly be identified, the first being of minor importance apart from the track. Second, simultaneous measurements of the vehicle, the track and the soil at three different track situations were performed where we could verify the different parts of the stochastic excitation and their importance for the ground vibrations. The irregularities of the vehicle are dominant at high frequencies whereas the irregularities of the track are more important at lower frequencies. The comparison of the theory and the measurements also points to the phenomena of the vehicletrack resonance and the scattering of the quasi-static axle impulses by randomly varying soil.

The maintenance of the transport infrastructures and their further development are going to remain focal points for investment and research in Germany in future. According to the latest development forecasts made by both the federal government and Deutsche Bahn, even if rail´s percentage share of the market were to remain unchanged, growth of around 50% would be expected in the next ten years, especially in freight traffic. This growth is necessitating considerable development both in the technical design of the tracks and in the abatement of the noise and vibration caused by railway traffic.

The dynamics of un-isolated and isolated ballast tracks have been analysed by multi-beam models for the track and by a layered half-space model for the soil. The solution is calculated in frequency-wavenumber domain and transformed back to space domain by a wavenumber integral. This is a faster method compared to other detailed track-soil interaction methods and almost as fast as the widely used Winkler-soil method, especially if the compliances of the soil have been stored for repeated use. Frequency-dependent compliances and force transfer functions have been calculated for a variety of track and soil parameters. The ballast has a clear influence on the high-frequency behaviour whereas the soil is dominating the low-frequency behaviour of the track. A layering of the soil may cause a moderate track-soil resonance whereas more pronounced vehicle-track resonances occur with elastic track elements like rail pads, sleeper pads and ballast mats. Above these resonant frequencies, a reduction of the excitation forces follows as a consequence. The track deformation along the track has been analysed for the most interesting track systems. The track deformation is strongly influenced by the resonances due to layering or elastic elements. The attenuation of amplitudes and the velocity of the track-soil waves change considerably around the resonant frequencies. The track deformation due to complete trains have been calculated for different continuous and Winkler soils and compared with the measurement of a train passage showing a good agreement for the continuous soil and clear deviations for the Winkler soil model.

Ballast mats are an efficient measure to reduce the vibrations near railway lines. The vehicle-track system gets a low eigenfrequency due to the insertion of an elastic ballast mat under the ballast. For frequencies higher than this low vehicle-track eigenfrequency, the forces, which are generating the vibration of the soil, are considerably reduced. In this contribution, a combined finite-element boundary-matrix method is used to calculate a number of completely three-dimensional track models with and without ballast mats. The influence of the important parameters such as the stiffness of the ballast mat, the unsprung vehicle mass, the mass of the track, and the stiffness of the subsoil is investigated. The numerical results are presented as the transfer functions of the total force that is acting on the soil and generating the vibration of the environment. The effectiveness of ballast mats is achieved by division of two of these force functions. The general tendencies for this insertion loss are discussed and a comparison with measurements is given. To come to an improved practical tool for the design of ballast-mat tracks, the finite-element method results are approximated by a simple two-dimensional model of which the solution is given explicitly.

The reduction of train-induced ground vibration by elastic elements such as rail pads and sleeper pads has been analyzed by a combined finite-element boundary-element method. The dynamic compliance of the track, the transfer function of the total force on the ground and the ground vibration ratios have been calculated for a variety of isolated and un-isolated track systems. It has been found that the soil force transfer, which describes the excitation force of the soil, is an appropriate quantity to predict the reduction of the ground vibration and the effectiveness of isolated tracks. All force transfer functions of isolated tracks display a vehicletrack resonance where the wheelset on the compliant track is excited by wheel and track irregularities. At higher frequencies, considerable reductions of the amplitudes are observed as the benefit of the resilient element. The influence of the stiffness of the rail or sleeper pads, the ballast and the soil, and the mass of the sleeper and the wheelset on the resonance frequency and the reduction has been investigated. Sleeper pads are advantageous due to the higher mass that is elastically supported compared to the rail-pad track system. The combination of elastic rail and sleeper pads has been found to be disadvantageous, as the second resonance occurs in the frequency range of intended reduction.

Train-induced ground vibration can be excited by wheel and track irregularities and by two kinds of irregularities of the soil, by geometric irregularities or by the spatially varying soil stiffness. For both types of irregularities, the effective track irregularity on top of the track is calculated in wavenumber domain and with wavenumber integrals. For a general multi-beam track model, the wavenumber integrals are solved numerically. The irregularities of the soil are filtered by the track when transferred from the bottom to the top of the track. The high-wavenumber irregularities are strongly reduced due to the bending stiffness of the track and the compliance of the support. In addition, soft track elements reduce directly the stiffness variation of the support. Therefore, the mitigation effect of elastic track elements for these excitation components seems to be important. For under-sleeper pads and slab tracks, calculation and measurements are presented including additional excitation components and the dynamic vehicle–track interaction, and the relevance of the excitation mechanisms is discussed based on the dynamic forces which are acting on the ground. Due to the restricted amplitudes, the parametric excitation by the stiffness variation seems to be less important than the geometric irregularities. The calculations yield the correct trends of the measurements and many details of the measured ballast, slab, and under-sleeper-pad tracks.

A survey of the phenomena and methods for floor vibrations is presented. Experimental results of floor vibrations are shown for many floors in six different buildings. The signals have been evaluated for waves and modes by simple procedures. General rules have been established between the material and the area of a specific floor, and its local eigenfrequency. The damping values of the floor vibrations have been found between D = 1 and 10 % where somewhat higher values have been measured for wooden floors, and a weak correlation with the eigenfrequency has been established. The velocities of bending waves propagating in a storey and the attenuation with distance in the building have been analysed. A considerable transfer of vibration from one room to far away parts of the building has been found in the studied buildings with concrete and wooden floors. An example building has been analysed for modes of coupled floor bays. The strong coupling of similar neighbouring floor bays would yield a wide band of global resonance frequencies. The measured wooden floor exhibits a weak coupling of the neighbouring floor bays and a narrower band of eigenfrequencies. A special method has been tested with the impulse measurements to estimate the coupled eigenmodes in presence of the high damping. From the ambient measurement, a low-frequency vibration mode has been detected which includes the vibration of the whole building and the soil. The coupling of floors to other floors and the whole building is an important phenomenon of structural dynamics which should be observed for the prediction of vibration due to internal and external sources.

Train-induced ground vibrations are generated by static and dynamic axle loads which can be calculated by vehicle-track-soil models and the vehicle and track irregularities. A fast prediction method has been developed which uses approximate transfer functions of layered soils. In the present contribution, this prediction method is used for the inverse calculation of the axle-load spectra from the measured ground vibration. The layered soils of some measuring sites show very differing ground vibration spectra in the amplitude range of 0.0001–1.0 mm/s as a consequence of the soft layer and stiff half-space, differing layer frequencies, as well as the far- and near-field measuring points. The back-calculation, however, yields axle-load spectra within a single order of magnitude around 1 kN. Axle-box measurements confirm the amplitude level of the axle loads. This standard axle-load spectrum can be used for a basic prediction at a new site. The separation of train and site-specific components allows a better evaluation of railway vibrations, for example, of different trains and different tracks. By eliminating the effects of differing soil characteristics, an important mid-frequency component has been found which lies between 8 and 32 Hz depending on the train speed. The origin of this dominant mid-frequency component is discussed using advanced prediction methods like moving constant loads, scattered axle impulses and axle-sequence spectra.

Ground vibrations due to different technical sources are analysed in theory and experiment for the dispersion of Rayleigh waves and the admittance spectra. Both tasks are theoretically based on the same concept: The admittance function in frequencywavenumber domain yields the dispersion as its maxima, and the admittance function in space domain is obtained by integrating it over the wavenumbers. On the experimental side, many signal processing methods have been applied to many sites and have been developed by the authors in the last 35 years, i.e., time-domain methods, including the cross-correlation method, and frequency-domain methods such as the spectral analysis of surface waves with two or multiple sensors, the wavenumber-transform method, and the spatial autocorrelation method. All methods are presented by their basic formula and by at least one example site. Different sensor arrays and deterministic and stochastic sources have been tested for the spatial autocorrelation method and the wavenumber-transform method at several sites. In addition, all frequency-domain methods are presented for a specific layered site comparing their quality. The evaluated dispersion curves are very similar, but a somewhat higher frequency range has been found for the fastest method, i.e., the multi-sensor spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves method. The theoretical solutions have been used for the inversion of the measured dispersion to the soil profile of the specific layered soil. The theoretical soil model has subsequently been used to predict the ground vibration spectra of hammer and railway excitation that exhibit a good agreement with the corresponding measurements. Thus, the contribution shows the benefit of active and passive seismic methods for the prediction of railway vibration, including a new version of the spatial autocorrelation method for technical vibrations. On the other hand, technical and namely railway vibrations are considered a seismic source for the exploration of near surface soils.

The soilstructure interaction of elastic plates on homogeneous or layered soils excited by horizontally propagating waves is analysed. Large plates are modelled by a combined finite-element boundary-element method (FEBEM), whereas the response of infinitely long plates is calculated by a numerical integration in the frequencywavenumber domain. The finite-element boundary-element method yields the complete soilplate transfer function of frequency and distance whereas the frequencywavenumber solution of the infinitely long plate can serve as an approximation for long distances on a finitely long plate. The soilplate transfer function starts to decrease strongly at the coincidence frequency, where the bending stiffness equals the plate inertia. A strong decrease follows at mid frequencies and a strong reduction of less than 0.1 of the ground vibration is reached at high frequencies. Rules for the characteristic frequencies are derived from the numerical results clearly indicating the strongest influence of the soil stiffness and the weaker influence of the bending stiffness of the plate. The influence of the mass, length and width of the plate are shown to be limited in case of realistic parameters, but it should be noted that the reduction effects are less effective for layered soils and for nearer observation points.

The attenuation of technically induced surface waves is studied theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, nineteen measurements of ground vibrations induced by eight different technical sources including road and rail traffic, vibratory and impulsive construction work or pile driving, explosions, hammer impulses and mass drops are described, and it is shown that the technically induced ground vibrations exhibit a power-law attenuation ν ~ r -q where the exponents q are in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 and depend on the source types. Comparisons performed demonstrate that the measured exponents are considerably higher than theoretically expected. Some potential effects on ground vibration attenuation are theoretically analyzed. The most important effect is due to the material or scattering damping. Each frequency component is attenuated exponentially as exp(-kr), but for a broad-band excitation, the sum of the exponential laws also yields a power law but with a high exponent. Additional effects are discussed, for example the dispersion of the Rayleigh wave due to soil layering, which yields an additional exponent of 0.5 in cases of impulsive loading.

Construction work, such as pile driving and soil compaction, or road and railway traffic excite nearby buildings, and the perceptible or audible vibration can be a nuisance for nearby inhabitants. A simplified building model has been created for these situations, which includes the effects of soil-structure interaction, the low-frequency amplification along the height of the building as well as the high-frequency reduction and the floor resonances. The model consists of one wall for all supporting structures (walls and columns) and one floor for each storey. The effect of different floor resonance frequencies is included in a stochastic procedure. The soil is modelled by a spring and a viscous damper, and the free-field amplitudes of the soil are applied under this soil element.
The model can be calculated by transfer matrices or in a continuous wave-type version where an analytical solution can be evaluated numerically. The building response in the high-frequency (acoustic) region is calculated as mean values over wider frequency bands. The approach to an infinite building model can be found for these high frequencies and the corresponding soil-structure transfer can be described by the ratio of impedances at foundation level.
The rules for choosing the parameters to obtain realistic results are derived from complex calculations for example, for the stiffness and damping of building foundations and many measurements as for the damping of floor resonances. The influences on the floor resonance from the soil (damping) and the supporting structure (detuning) are important. Some more effects will be discussed by the simplified and detailed models and by measurements to establish a good understanding of ground-induced building vibrations.

Excitation force spectra are necessary for a realistic prediction of railway-induced ground vibration. The excitation forces cause the ground vibration and they are themselves a result of irregularities passed by the train. The methods of the related analyses - the wavenumber integration for the wave propagation in homogeneous or layered soils, the combined finite-element boundary-element method for the vehicle-track-soil interaction - have already been presented and are the base for the advanced topic of this contribution. This contribution determines excitation force spectra of railway traffic by two completely different methods. The forward analysis starts with vehicle, track and soil irregularities, which are taken from literature and axle-box measurements, calculates the vehicle-track interaction and gets theoretical force spectra as the result. The second method is a backward analysis from the measured ground vibration of railway traffic. A calculated or measured transfer function of the soil is used to determine the excitation force spectrum of the train. A number of measurements of different soils and different trains with different speeds are analysed in that way. Forward and backward analysis yield the same approximate force spectra with values around 1 kN for each axle and third of octave.

This contribution presents some principles and some examples of the mitigation of railway-induced ground vibrations. The principles are different for the mitigation measures at the track, in the soil or at the building. Force transfer functions of isolated and un-isolated track-soil systems, reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes at walls and trenches in the soil, and the transfer of the (free-field) vibration amplitudes to the foundation amplitudes of the building are analysed. The mitigation effect can be calculated by exact or simplified formulas. Some examples with 3D (finite-element boundary-element), 2D (beam-on-support), and 1D track models, 2D and 1D soil models, detailed 3D building models and finite or infinite 1D wall-floor models are investigated to find out if simple models can be used for a satisfactory prediction of the mitigation effect. The 1D track examples show that the force transfer of the track without vehicle can be exactly calculated, whereas the total force transfer can be calculated approximately if appropriate wheelset masses per track length are used for the isolated and the un-isolated track. The mitigation effect of a filled trench is calculated by a 2D finite element model and the results compare with simple transmission formula if the stiffness per area rather than the wave impedances are used for the infill material. The base isolation of a building is analysed by a detailed 3D model and the results are similar to the analytic results of a single wall with floors on the soil. Other reduction measures as different floor and column dimensions are usually less effective so that the clearly best mitigation solution at a building is a partly or a complete base isolation.

The layered soil is calculated in the frequency wavenumber domain and the solutions for fixed or moving point or track loads follow as wavenumber integrals. The resulting point load solutions can be approximated by simple formula. Measurements yield the specific soil parameters for the theoretical or approximate solutions, but they can also directly provide the point-load solution (the transfer function of that site). A prediction method for the train-induced ground vibration has been developed, based on one of these site-specific transfer functions. The ground vibrations strongly depend on the regular and irregular inhomogeneity of the soil. The regular layering of the soil yields a cut-on and a resonance phenomenon, while the irregular inhomogeneity seems to be important for high-speed trains. The attenuations with the distance of the ground vibration, due to point-like excitations such as vibrator, hammer, or train-track excitations, were investigated and compared. All theoretical results were compared with measurements at conventional and high-speed railway lines, validating the approximate prediction method.

The dynamics of slab tracks and floating slab tracks are analyzed by multibeam models for the track and by integration in the wave-number domain for the soil, which is modeled as a layered half-space. Frequency-dependent compliances and force transfers are calculated for a great variety of track and soil parameters. The distribution of the load and the displacements along the track is investigated as well as the wave propagation perpendicular to the track and the ground vibration amplitudes. The floating slab track has a dominating plate-mat resonance and a strong high-frequency reduction. A track-soil resonance can also be recognized for an unisolated slab track in the case of layered soils. Generally, there is a strong damping of the track by the soil. The reduction effect of the slab mat is mainly owing to the elimination of this strong damping. The continuous soil yields slightly different rules for the displacements and force densities than those of a Winkler support. The total force transfer from the rail to the soil is the best criterion to judge the effectiveness of a floating slab track in reducing the ground vibration at some distance from the railway line. The total force transfer is easier to calculate than the double Fourier integrals of the ground vibration amplitudes, namely in the far field, and it has the best correlation with the reduction of the ground vibration.

The propagation of waves through homogeneous or layered soil is calculated based on half-space theory. The moving dynamic loads of a train are approximated by fixed dynamic loads and the wave field can be calculated if the spectrum of the dynamic train loads is known. In addition to this dynamic wave field, there are three different components at three different frequency ranges which are caused by the passage of the static loads:
the regular static component at low frequencies,
the irregular static component at medium frequencies,
the sleeper-passing component at high frequencies.
For each of these components, an approximate solution is presented. The calculated wave field is compared with measurements of different trains at different sites. The measurement of impulse and harmonic point load excitation verifies the soil dynamic base of the method.

An integral method to calculate the solution of a homogeneous or layered soil due to a harmonic point load is described. An infinite plate at the surface of the soil can be introduced in this integration in wavenumber domain, too. Finite structures on the soil are calculated by a combined finite element and boundary element method, which makes use of the point load solution of the soil. The compliance functions for a vertical point load and some vibration modes are calculated for realistic parameters of the plate and the soil and for a wide range of frequencies. The influence of the stiffness of the soil and the foundation is investigated, showing that the soil mainly affects the low-frequent response whereas the structural properties are more important at higher frequencies. A rigid approximation of flexible plates is only found at low frequencies, if the elastic length is used as the radius of a rigid disk. At higher frequencies, a characteristic behaviour of the flexible plate of approximately is observed, what is in clear contrast to the compliance of rigid foundations. A plate on a visco-elastic support (Winkler soil) shows similar displacements as a plate on a homogeneous half-space, but the maximal stresses between the plate and the soil are considerably smaller which is found to be more realistic for a plate on a layered soil. For practical applications, a normalized diagram and some explicit formulas of the exact and the approximate solutions of an infinite plate on a homogeneous half-space are given, which is a useful model to represent the soil-structure interaction of flexible foundations.

The effect of critically moving loads on the vibrations of soft soils and isolated railway tracks
(2008)

The dynamic response of the railway track is strongly influenced by the underlying soil. For a soft soil and very high train speeds or for a very soft soil and regular train speeds, the train speed can be close to the speed of elastic waves in the soil. This paper presents a detailed study of the so-called moving-load effect, i.e. an amplification of the dynamic response due to the load movement, for the tracks on soft soil. The analysis is carried out by evaluating the related integrals in the wavenumber domain. The influence of the load speed is quantified for a large set of parameters, showing that the effect on the soil vibration is reduced with increase of the frequency, track width and inverse wave velocity. Therefore, the moving-load effect associated with vibratory train loads is negligible whereas the amplification associated with the moving dead weight of the train can be significant. The strong moving-load effect on a perfectly homogeneous soil, however, can be strongly diminished by a layered or randomly varying soil situation. This theoretical result is affirmed by measurements at a test site in Germany where the trains run on a very soft soil at a near-critical speed. The results for soft soils are compared with experimental and theoretical results for a stiff soil. It is found that the influence of the stiffness of the soil is much stronger than the moving-load effect. This holds for the soil vibration as well as for the track vibration which both show a minor dependence on the load speed but a considerable dependence on the soil stiffness in theory and experiment.
Railway tracks can include soft isolation elements such as rail pads, sleeper shoes and ballast mats. For these types of isolation elements and normal soil conditions, the influence of the load speed is usually negligible. There is only one isolation measure for which the moving load may be effective: a track which is constructed as a heavy massspring system. The resonance of this track system is shifted to lower frequencies and amplitudes for increasing train speed. A critical train speed can be reached if the massspring system has a marginal bending stiffness along the track.

The aim of this contribution is a practice-oriented prediction of environmental building vibrations. A Green's functions method for layered soils is used to build the dynamic stiffness matrix of the soil area that is covered by the foundation. A simple building model is proposed by adding a building mass to the dynamic stiffness of the soil. The vertical soil-building transfer functions with building-soil resonances are calculated and compared with a number of measurements of technically induced vibrations of residential buildings. In a parametrical study, realistic foundation geometries are modeled and the influence of incompressible soil, deep stiff soil layering, soft top layers, and increasing soil stiffness with depth is analyzed. All these special soil models reduce the resonant frequency compared to a standard homogeneous soil. A physically motivated model of a naturally sedimented soil has a stiffness increasing with the square root of the depth and yields a foundation stiffness that decreases with foundation area considerably stronger than the relatively insensitive homogeneous soil. This soil model is suited for the Berlin measuring sites and reproduces satisfactorily the experimental results.

A method is presented which allows to calculate the wave-field in a homogeneous or layered soil in case of a dynamic interior load. The wave propagation along the surface, the distribution of the response over the depth, the horizontal propagation at different depths and the vertical downward propagation are shown and compared with the simpler surface solution of the half-space and the interior solution of the full-space. The complete wave-field (Green's function) is applied to the dynamic behaviour of piles and pile groups by use of a boundary element formulation. The stiffness, damping and – typically for piles – mass of different groups of piles are presented. Different group effects occur for lines, circles, grids, parallels and crosses of piles, which can be regarded as oscillations around average values. Moreover, the piles and pile groups behave almost like a damper for most of the frequencies. A building on a pile group that is excited by ground vibration due to surface or interior loads shows a reduction of the wave-field due to kinematic and inertial soil–building interaction effects. The results presented lead to simplified descriptions of the wave-field due to interior loads and of the soil–pile–building interaction which can be used for the prediction of technically induced vibration.

The attenuation of the amplitudes with distance of technically induced surface wave fields is analyzed in theory and experiments. Experimental results of technically induced ground vibration are presented and collected from literature, which show a power-low attenuation A ~ r–q of amplitudes A with distance r and exponents q > 0.5 higher than for elastic surface waves. Additional attenuation effects are analyzed theoretically. The most important effect is due to the material or scattering damping. Each frequency component is attenuated exponentially as A ~ exp(–kr), but for a broadband excitation, the sum of the exponential laws yields a power law with a higher exponent. Some more effects are discussed, for example the dispersion of the Rayleigh wave due to the layering of the soil, which yields a stronger attenuation A ~ r–q–dq, including an additional exponent of dq = 0.5 in case of an impulsive loading.