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- Soil-building interaction (3) (entfernen)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (3) (entfernen)

Vibration of normal apartment, office and production buildings, which are excited by technically induced ground vibrations are considered. Many wavelengths of the Rayleigh waves of the soil fit into the foundation dimensions. The related high discretization effort can nowadays be realized with detailed soil-structure interaction method. The combined finite-element boundary-element method is used here as a detatiled method. Simplified method can be used with less computation time, but these methods must be calibrated by exact results. One simplification is to extent the structure to infinity and to solve the problem by wavenumber domain methods. Another simplification is the use of a Winkler soil instead of the continuous soil. Usually, the Winkler parameters are not only soil parameters but depend also on the rigid or flexible foundation structure. Substructure methods use commercial FEM software for the building part. The contribution will show some detailed and some simplified results on large structural elements such as foundation plates, walls, storey plates on columns as well as results on complete buildings. The reduction of the ground vibration by stiff elements and the amplification due to floor or building resonances are discussed which are the most important phenomena of the soil-building interaction.

This contribution presents some principles and some examples of the mitigation of railway-induced ground vibrations. The principles are different for the mitigation measures at the track, in the soil or at the building. Force transfer functions of isolated and un-isolated track-soil systems, reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes at walls and trenches in the soil, and the transfer of the (free-field) vibration amplitudes to the foundation amplitudes of the building are analysed. The mitigation effect can be calculated by exact or simplified formulas. Some examples with 3D (finite-element boundary-element), 2D (beam-on-support), and 1D track models, 2D and 1D soil models, detailed 3D building models and finite or infinite 1D wall-floor models are investigated to find out if simple models can be used for a satisfactory prediction of the mitigation effect. The 1D track examples show that the force transfer of the track without vehicle can be exactly calculated, whereas the total force transfer can be calculated approximately if appropriate wheelset masses per track length are used for the isolated and the un-isolated track. The mitigation effect of a filled trench is calculated by a 2D finite element model and the results compare with simple transmission formula if the stiffness per area rather than the wave impedances are used for the infill material. The base isolation of a building is analysed by a detailed 3D model and the results are similar to the analytic results of a single wall with floors on the soil. Other reduction measures as different floor and column dimensions are usually less effective so that the clearly best mitigation solution at a building is a partly or a complete base isolation.