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Quasi-brittle materials exhibit strain softening. Their modeling requires regularized constitutive formulations to avoid instabilities on the material level. A commonly used model is the implicit gradient-enhanced damage model. For complex geometries, it still Shows structural instabilities when integrated with classical backward Euler schemes. An alternative is the implicit–explicit (IMPL-EX) Integration scheme. It consists of the extrapolation of internal variables followed by an implicit calculation of the solution fields. The solution procedure for the nonlinear gradient-enhanced damage model is thus transformed into a sequence of problems that are algorithmically linear in every time step. Therefore, they require one single Newton–Raphson iteration per time step to converge. This provides both additional robustness and computational acceleration. The introduced extrapolation error is controlled by adaptive time-stepping schemes. This paper introduced and assessed two novel classes of error control schemes that provide further Performance improvements. In a three-dimensional compression test for a mesoscale model of concrete, the presented scheme was about 40 times faster than an adaptive backward Euler time integration.

In this paper, a contact problem between two bodies, discretized by finite elements, is solved by adding an auxiliary NURBS layer between the bodies. The advantages of a smooth contact formulation in a NURBS approach are combined with simple mesh generation procedures for the bodies discretized with finite elements. Mesh tying conditions are used to couple the NURBS layer with the finite element discretization. The NURBS layer is the master side for contact and mesh tying. Mesh tying is enforced either using pointwise or mortar type approaches. Frictionless 2D and 3D contact problems are considered using small deformations. The contact problem is discretized with the mortar method and a penalty approach is used to enforce the contact constraints. A robust element-based quadrature is applied for mortar tying and contact discretizations, thus avoiding computationally expensive Segmentation.

The durability of concrete structures and its performance over the lifetime is strongly influenced by many interacting phenomena such as e.g. mechanical degradation due to fatigue loading, loss of prestress, degradation due to chemical reactions or creep and shrinkage. Failure due to cyclic loading is generally not instantaneous, but characterized by a steady damage accumulation.
Many constitutive models for concrete are currently available, which are applicable for specific loading regimes, different time scales and different resolution scales. A key limitation is that the models often do not address issues related to fatigue on a structural level. Very few models can be found in the literature that reproduce deterioration of concrete under repeated loading-unloading cycles.
The objective of this paper is the presentation of numerical methods for the simulation of concrete under fatigue loading using a temporal multiscale method.
First, a continuum damage model for concrete is developed with a focus on fatigue under compressive stresses. This includes the possibility to model stress redistributions and capture size effects. In contrast to cycle based approaches, where damage is accumulated based on the number of full stress cycles, a strain based approach is developed that can capture cyclic degradation under variable loading cycles including different amplitudes and loading frequencies. Second, a multiscale approach in time is presented to enable structural computations of fatigue failure with a reduced computational effort. The damage rate within the short time scale corresponding to a single cycle is computed based on a Fourier based approach. This evolution equation is then solved on the long time scale using different time integration schemes.

Growth of vehicle traffic density can be observed in many countries all over the world. This accretion is caused by world-wide population growth on the one hand, but also by increasing freight volumes and, thus, freight transports on the streets on the other hand.
This increased exposure becomes more and more of a problem for the civil infrastructure such as bridges. Many of these bridges are nowadays stressed to their limits by higher loads than they were originally designed for and/or operating times beyond the initially predicted life span. This raises questions about structural safety and lifetime prediction, of course, and therefore illustrates the need for accurate structural monitoring.
Since the lifetime of bridge structures is primarily influenced by their traffic loading, an accurate identification of load configurations over the whole length of a structure is most desirable.
In this paper, a method for vehicle load identification is proposed. It involves Bayesian Analysis and (quasi-)static importance functions in order to estimate vehicle positions, velocities and weights. The structure is modeled with finite elements in order to generate model predictions for different load configurations. The model predictions are compared to the actual measured data to identify the most probable loading configuration for that measurement. This involves the use of enhanced Monte Carlo simulations such as MCMC to reduce the computational effort. The measured data from different kinds of sensors can (and should) be combined for accuracy gain – in this case a combination of measured displacements and inclinations.
Since the measurements take place over some time during the passage of the vehicle, these estimations are carried out for several time instants for which the estimation is carried out. The advantage of using Bayesian Updating Method is the embodied learning effect leading to an improvement of the estimation when adding new information in a new calculation step.
Using the estimates for the loading conditions of a bridge structure as well as measurements of the structural responses, Bayesian analysis is again used in order to estimate localized structural parameters such as Young's modulus or Moments of Inertia in form of probability density functions yielding most probable values for the parameters.
Considering the difficulties for load identification close to the support poles of the bridge and therefore for the proposed structural parameter identification procedure, it is clear that this problem is ill posed. Bayesian regularization methods also have proven to be very effective when handling ill posed problems.

Lifetime aspects including fatigue failure of concrete structures were traditionally only of minor importance. Because of the growing interest in maxing out the capacities of concrete, its fatigue failure under compression has become an issue. A variety of interacting phenomena such as e.g. loss of prestress, degradation due to chemical reactions or creep and shrinkage influence the fatigue resistance. Failure due to cyclic loads is generally not instantaneous, but characterized by a steady damage accumulation. Therefore, a reliable numerical model to predict the performance of concrete over its lifetime is required, which accurately captures order effects and full three-dimensional stress states.
Many constitutive models for concrete are currently available, which are applicable for specific loading regimes, different time scales and different resolution scales.
However, a key limitation of those models is that they generally do not address issues related to fatigue on a structural level. Very few models can be found in the literature that reproduce deterioration of concrete under repeated loading-unloading cycles. This is due to the computational effort necessary to explicitly resolve every cycle which exceeds the currently available computational resources. The limitation can only be overcome by the application of multiscale methods in time.
The objective of the paper is the development of numerical methods for the simulation of concrete under fatigue loading using temporal multiscale methods.
First, a continuum damage model for concrete is developed with a focus on fatigue under compressive stresses. This includes the possibility to model stress redistributions and capture size effects. In contrast to cycle based approaches, where damage is accumulated based on the number of full stress cycles, a strain based approach is developed that can capture cyclic degradation under variable loading cycles including different amplitudes and loading frequencies. The model is designed to represent failure under static loading as a particular case of fatigue failure after a single loading cycle. As a consequence, most of the material parameters can be deduced from static tests. Only a limit set of additional constitutive parameters is required to accurately describe the evolution under fatigue loading. Another advantage of the proposed model is the possibility to directly incorporate other multi-physics effects such as creep and shrinkage or thermal loading on the constitutive level.
Second, a multiscale approach in time is presented to enable structural computations of fatigue failure with a reduced computational effort. The damage rate within the short time scale corresponding to a single cycle is computed based on a Fourier based approach. This evolution equation is then solved on the long time scale using different implicit and explicit time integration schemes. Their performance and some limitations for specific loading regimes is discussed.
Finally, the developed methods will be validated and compared to experimental data.

In der aktuellen Projektphase liegt der Fokus auf der Datenaufnahme, -bearbeitung und -speiche-rung mit dem Ziel, automatisierte Auswerteverfahren einsetzen zu können. Aktuell wurden primär punktuelle Messungen an ausgewählten Messtagen aufgenommen. Die Systeme sollen so weiter-entwickelt werden, dass sie sich auch für kontinuierliche Messungen im Rahmen von Monitoring-aufgaben eignen.
Ein wichtiger Fokus bei der Auswertung ist die Kombination mit numerischen Modellen, die mithilfe von Bayesian Update Verfahren und den aufgenommenen Messdaten kalibriert und im Verlauf der Monitoringaufgabe angepasst werden sollen. Insbesondere sollen auch zeitabhängige Modelle, die eine zeitliche Entwicklung von Struktureigenschaften beinhalten (Kriechen, Schwinden, Ermüdung, Korrosion) dazu verwendet werden, die zukünftige Performance der Struktur bewerten zu können. Basierend darauf werden dann Konzepte zur Planung von Inspektion und Wartung erstellt.

In this work an approach for smoothing the oscillations of normal contact is presented. On the other side a higher order time discretization scheme in association with a higher order spatial discretization, like the spectral element method, is used. The contact constraints are reformulated in order to get an explicit equation for the motion.

In this work an approach for smoothing the oscillations of normal impact is presented. In addition, a higher order time discretization scheme in association with a higher order spatial discretization, like the spectral element method, is investigated regarding its convergence rates.

In this paper, a new methodology based on the Hill–Mandel lemma in an FE² sense is proposed that is able to deal with localized deformations. This is achieved by decomposing the displacement field of the fine scale model into a homogeneous part, fluctuations, and a
cracking part based on additional degrees of freedom (X¹)—the crack opening in normal and tangential directions. Based on this decomposition, the Hill–Mandel lemma is extended to relate coarse and fine scale energies using the assumption of separation of scales such
that the fine scale model is not required to have the same size as the corresponding
macroscopic integration point. In addition, a procedure is introduced to mimic periodic
boundary conditions in the linear elastic range by adding additional shape functions for the boundary nodes that represent the difference between periodic boundary conditions and pure displacement boundary conditions due to the same macroscopic strain. In order to decrease the computational effort, an adaptive strategy is proposed allowing different
macroscopic integration points to be resolved in different levels on the fine scale.