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- Interface (6)
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- Thermoplaste (4)
- Adhesion (3)
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#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

The breakage of a fiber and its effect on the strain energy is studied in a model composite, this is, a single fiber embedded in a dogbone specimen. The fracture process is recorded by an acoustic emission device, the crack patterns are monitored under a microscope. A finite element analysis is performed in order to estimate the energy released by different failure scenarios. The abilities and limitations of the acoustic emission analysis in characterizing different failure types in fiber reinforced composites are evaluated.

A mathematical model for the description of the overall crystallization of polymers has been developed which separates the pure geometric spreading of the semicrystalline superstructures from the increasing crystallinity inside these entities. The model uses the Avrami theory for the geometric part and a freely optional function for the increasing local crystallinity. The two functions are combined by a mathematical procedure called convolution. The free option of the local crystallinity function enables this model to permit calculation of this function, which is not accessible to direct measurement. Thus with given Avrami parameters and measured values of the time-dependent overall crystallinity, this function of the local crystallinity (secondary crystallization function) can be calculated. The model has been applied to test data produced by computer simulations.

Characterisation of the fibre/matrix interface in reinforced polymers by the push-in technique
(1997)

The push-in test is the only micromechanical test method that is not restricted to artificial fibre/matrix arrangements, but allows the in situ characterisation of interfaces in composites fabricated and stressed under realistic conditions. However, with the application of this method to reinforced polymers some problems arise both in the mathematical model for evaluating test data and in the practical performance of the test. Because in some cases the deformation of the relatively compliant polymeric matrices cannot be neglected, an extension of the existing model is required. For this purpose, the elastic energy of the material around the debonded part of the fibre is estimated and included in the energy-balance analysis. Because of the small diameter of the fibres usually used for reinforcing polymers, a test apparatus was designed which ensures a high positioning accuracy in the xy plane as well as in the z direction. In order to minimise thermal and mechanical influences, the microscope for fibre selection and the force sensor/indenter are directly connected together and the apparatus is designed to be stiff in all components. A solid-state bending joint guarantees very precise control of the axial movement. Three examples of the application of this easy-to-handle and low-cost test apparatus are presented briefly in the paper: assess fibre/matrix combinations, measures to improve the interfacial adhesion and the influence of water on the interface.

The strength of composite reinforcement fibres is normally measured on samples of much greater length than the actual residual fibre lengths found in many composite materials. This is due to a number of limitations of the standard techniques which are employed. We present a description of a technique which enables values for the tensile strength of composite reinforcement fibres at short gauge lengths to be obtained. The technique is based on an adaptation of a micro-mechanical test apparatus for fibre pullout measurements. Data is presented which was obtained at gauge lengths of 180380 µm on E-glass and S-2 glass® fibres taken from different chopped reinforcement products. The technique can be used at gauge lengths as short as 20 µm. The data indicates that the values of average fibre strength in these products are significantly below the pristine glass strength values.

The effect of transcrystallinity in carbon fiber reinforced poly(p-phenylene sulfide (PPS) composites on the apparent shear strength was investigated with the single fiber pull-out test. Transcrystalline zones around the reinforcing fibers do not seem to improve the adhesion level significantly. Neighbor fibers hinder the formation of the transcrystalline zone and a ductile fracture behavior can be observed. However, the apparent strength level is slightly higher for composites containing such reinforcing neighbor fibers compared with single fiber composite samples. During annealing a brittle interface can be formed in the multifiber composite yielding a higher level of the apparent shear strength.

The interaction between direct fluorinated carbon fibres and various fluoropolymers (ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene, poly vinylidene fluoride, fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer and tetrafluoroethylene-perfluoro alkoxy vinyl ether copolymer) was studied by means of direct wetting measurements between fibres and the polymer melts and single fibre pull-out tests. The results of both techniques allow the adhesion behaviour between the fibres and the matrices to be predicted. The results obtained show that a low degree of surface fluorination of carbon fibres leads to an improved wettability between the fibres and fluoropolymer melts and this is an indicator for an improved thermodynamic work of adhesion. The apparent interfacial shear strength as measure of practical adhesion, determined by the single fibre pull-out test, increases with increasing degree of surface fluorine content up to a maximum, which depends on the degree of fluorination of the matrix used. The improved interaction between the fibre and the matrix is due to an enhanced compatibility at the fibre/matrix interface.

Atmospheric-plasma fluorination was used to introduce fluorine functionalities onto the surface of carbon fibers without affecting their bulk properties. The interfacial adhesion between atmospheric-plasma-fluorinated carbon fibers and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was studied by means of direct wetting measurements and single fiber pullout tests. Measured contact angles of PVDF melt droplets on modified carbon fibers show that short exposure times of carbon fibers to atmospheric-plasma fluorination (corresponding to a degree of surface fluorination of F/C = 0.01 (1.1%)) leads to improved wettability of the fibers by PVDF melts. The apparent interfacial shear strength as a measure of practical adhesion, determined by the single-fiber pullout test, increases by 65% under optimal treatment conditions. The improved practical adhesion is not due to the formation of transcrystalline regions around the fibers or a change of the bulk matrix crystallinity or to an increased surface roughness; it seems to be due to the compatibilization of the interface caused of the atmospheric-plasma fluorination of the carbon fibers.