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Numerical simulations are essential in predicting the behavior of systems in many engineering fields and industrial sectors. The development of accurate virtual representations of actual physical products or processes (also known as digital twins) allows huge savings in cost and resources. In fact, digital twins would allow reducing the number of real, physical prototypes, tests, and experiments, thus also increasing the sustainability of production processes and products’ lifetime. Standard numerical methods fail in providing real time simulations, especially for complex processes such as additive manufacturing applications.
This work aims to use a reduced order model for efficient wire arc additive manufacturing simulations, calibrations and real-time process control. Model reduction, e.g. the proper generalized decomposition [1,2] method, is a popular concept to decrease the computational effort. A new mapping approach [3] was applied to simulate a moving heat source with the proper generalized decomposition. Using this procedure even complex models can be simulated in real-time. The physical model is later on calibrated with the use of a stochastic model updating process and the reduced order model, leading to an optimized real-time simulation.
In this contribution, a proper generalized decomposition model for a bead-on-plate wire arc additive manufacturing is presented. It is also coupled with a stochastic model updating process identifying the heat source characteristics as well as the boundary conditions of the transient thermal problem, whereas the heat source shape is simulated using a Goldak heat source

PGD model with domain mapping of Bead-on-Plate weld simulation for wire arc additive manufacturing
(2022)

Numerical simulations are essential in predicting the behavior of systems in many engineering fields and industrial sectors. The development of accurate virtual representations of actual physical products or processes allows huge savings in cost and resources. In fact, digital twins would allow reducing the number of real, physical prototypes, tests, and experiments, thus also increasing the sustainability of the production processes and products’ lifetime. Standard numerical methods fail in providing real time simulations, especially for complex processes such as additive manufacturing applications.
This work aims to build up a reduced order model for efficient wire arc additive manufacturing simulations by using the proper generalized decomposition (PGD) [1,2] method. Model order reduction is a popular concept to decrease the computational effort, where each evaluation of the reduced forward model is faster than evaluations using classical methods, even for complex models. The simulation of a moving heat source leads to a hardly separable parametric problem, which is solved by a new mapping approach [3]. Using this procedure, it is possible to create a simple separated representation of the forward model.
In this contribution, a PGD model is derived for the first part of wire arc additive manufacturing: bead-on-plate weld. An excellent agreement with a standard finite element method is shown. The reduced model is further used in a model calibration set up, speeding up calibrations and ultimately leading to an optimized real-time simulation.

Additive manufacturing (AM) has revolutionized the manufacturing industry, offering a new paradigm to produce complex geometries and parts with customized properties. Among the different AM techniques, the wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process has gained significant attention due to its high deposition rate and low equipment cost. However, the process is characterized by a complex thermal history, dynamic metallurgy, and mechanical behaviour that make it challenging to simulate it in real-time for online process control and optimization.
In this context, a reduced order model (ROM) using the proper generalized decomposition (PGD) method is proposed as a powerful tool to overcome the limitations of conventional numerical methods and enable the real-time simulation of the temperature field of WAAM processes. Though, the simulation of a moving heat source leads to a hardly separable parametric problem, which is handled by applying a novel mapping approach. Using this procedure, it is possible to create a simple separated representation of the model, also allowing to simulate multiple layers.
In this contribution, a PGD model is derived for the WAAM procedure simulating the temperature field. A good agreement with a standard finite element method is shown. The reduced model is further used in a stochastic model parameter estimation using Bayesian inference, speeding up calibrations and ultimately leading to a calibrated real-time simulation.

PGDrome
(2023)

Thermal transient problems, essential for modeling applications like welding and additive metal manufacturing, are characterized by a dynamic evolution of temperature. Accurately simulating these phenomena is often computationally expensive, thus limiting their applications, for example for model parameter estimation or online process control. Model order reduction, a solution to preserve the accuracy while reducing the computation time, is explored. This article addresses challenges in developing reduced order models using the proper generalized decomposition (PGD) for transient thermal problems with a specific treatment of the moving heat source within the reduced model. Factors affecting accuracy, convergence, and computational cost, such as discretization methods (finite element and finite difference), a dimensionless formulation, the size of the heat source, and the inclusion of material parameters as additional PGD variables are examined across progressively complex examples. The results demonstrate the influence of these factors on the PGD model’s performance and emphasize the importance of their consideration when implementing such models. For thermal example, it is demonstrated that a PGD model with a finite difference discretization in time, a dimensionless representation, a mapping for a moving heat source, and a spatial domain non-separation yields the best approximation to the full order model.

Despite the advances in hardware and software techniques, standard numerical methods fail in providing real-time simulations, especially for complex processes such as additive manufacturing applications. A real-time simulation enables process control through the combination of process monitoring and automated feedback, which increases the flexibility and quality of a process. Typically, before producing a whole additive manufacturing structure, a simplified experiment in the form of a beadon-plate experiment is performed to get a first insight into the process and to set parameters suitably. In this work, a reduced order model for the transient thermal problem of the bead-on-plate weld simulation is developed, allowing an efficient model calibration and control of the process. The proposed approach applies the proper generalized decomposition (PGD) method, a popular model order reduction technique, to decrease the computational effort of each model evaluation required multiple times in parameter estimation, control, and optimization. The welding torch is modeled by a moving heat source, which leads to difficulties separating space and time, a key ingredient in PGD simulations. A novel approach for separating space and time is applied and extended to 3D problems allowing the derivation of an efficient separated representation of the temperature.
The results are verified against a standard finite element model showing excellent agreement. The reduced order model is also leveraged in a Bayesian model parameter estimation setup, speeding up calibrations and ultimately leading to an optimized real-time simulation approach for welding experiment using synthetic as well as real measurement data.

Despite the advances in hardware and software techniques, standard numerical methods fail in providing real-time simulations, especially for complex processes such as additive manufacturing applications. A real-time simulation enables process control through the combination of process monitoring and automated feedback, which increases the flexibil- ity and quality of a process. Typically, before producing a whole additive manufacturing structure, a simplified experiment in form of a bead-on- plate experiment is performed to get a first insight into the process and to set parameters suitably. In this work, a reduced order model for the transient thermal problem of the bead-on-plate weld simulation is devel- oped, allowing an efficient model calibration and control of the process. The proposed approach applies the proper generalized decomposition (PGD) method, a popular model order reduction technique, to decrease the computational effort of each model evaluation required multiple times in parameter estimation, control and optimization. The welding torch is modeled by a moving heat source, which leads to difficulties separating space and time, a key ingredient in PGD simulations. A novel approach for separating space and time is applied and extended to 3D problems allowing the derivation of an efficient separated representation of the tem- perature. The results are verified against a standard finite element model showing excellent agreement. The reduced order model is also leveraged in a Bayesian model parameter estimation setup, speeding up calibrations and ultimately leading to an optimized real-time simulation approach for welding experiment using synthetic as well as real measurement data.

Additive manufacturing (AM) has revolutionized the manufacturing industry, offering a new paradigm to produce complex geometries and parts with customized properties. Among the different AM techniques, the wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process has gained significant attention due to its high deposition rate and low equipment cost. However, the process is characterized by a complex thermal history making it challenging to simulate it in real-time for online process control and optimization.
In this context, a reduced order model (ROM) using the proper generalized decomposition (PGD) method [1] is proposed as a powerful tool to overcome the limitations of conventional numerical methods and enable the real-time simulation of the temperature field of WAAM processes. These simulations use a moving heat source leading to a hardly separable parametric problem, which is handled by applying a novel mapping approach [2]. This procedure makes it possible to create a simple separated representation of the model, which allows to simulate multiple layers.
In this contribution, a PGD model is derived for the temperature field simulation of the WAAM process. A good agreement with a standard finite element method is shown. The reduced model is further used in a stochastic model parameter estimation using Bayesian inference, speeding up calibrations and ultimately leading to a calibrated real-time simulation.