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Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is an important part of buildings surveillance and maintenance to detect material failure as early as possible and to contribute in protection of structures and their users.
The implementation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) sensor systems without cable connection and battery into building components offers innovative possibilities to enable long-term in-situ SHM of addressed structures, bridges. The objectives of the presented study are complete embedding of RFID sensors systems in concrete, full passive communication with the systems, at best for the whole life span of structures. One challenge for this task is the highly alkaline environment in concrete, which requires non-degrading and robust encapsulation. Further Requirements are passive communication and energy supply, appropriate antenna design, placement and fixation in concrete, and the selection and implementation of sensors and connections. The concept is to develop and optimize a simple and robust system, which meets the requirements, as well as comprehensive validation in concrete specimen and real world applications. Two different systems were developed (HF and UHF RFID, respectively).
First tasks were the implementation of analog sensors using the superposition principle for the signal adaption. Investigation of suitable materials for robust encapsulation and sensor protection against basic environments.
Four materials were investigated in pH 13 solution for 14 days
- 3D-Printer-Polymer was completely resolved
- PVC has no noticeable decrease in weight
- (VitaPro) glass filter for the sensor protector, has weight loss 2.7 %
- The epoxy resin has increased by 1.8 % due to moisture expansion
Different concrete samples were prepared for the validation of the systems.
RFID sensors were embedded in different integration depths. Investigate the energy- and data transfer through concrete, also with varying moisture content. Additionally, signal strength data was used to optimize and validate the antenna characteristics in concrete. Next steps are to guarantee a sufficient energy supply for UHF RFID systems embedded in different concrete mixtures and further embedding the HF and UHF RFID systems in real bridges and buildings to validate the long term monitoring.

Der Fokus des Arbeitsfelds ist die messtechnisch fundierte Anwendung der 3D-Verfahrenskombination zur Lösung vielfältiger Messaufgaben mit optimaler Datenqualität für interne und externe Kunden.
Das setzt insbesondere eine jeweils problembezogene Messmethodik voraus. Dazu setzen wir kameragestützte 3D-Koordinatenmessverfahren ein, die auf dem fotogrammetrischen Prinzip der Bildtriangulation beruhen. Darunter fallen folgende miteinander flexibel kombinierbare Verfahrensmodifikationen: Mehrbildfotogrammetrie, Messadapter für Geometriemerkmale, Streifenprojektionsverfahren, statische bis hochdynamische Stereofotogrammetrie auf Punktebasis oder aufgabenangepasster Oberflächenmuster und mechanisch-optische Taster.

By means of a small-scale truss bridge, the ability of the Measurement- and Model-based Structural Analysis to detect and localize damage was examined. Although there was no noteworthy difficulty in detecting damage, it turned out that damage localization responds sensitively to systematic influences, i.e. non-modelled properties of the mechanical model. Therefore, another experiment is being conducted to re-examine the Measurement- and Model-based Structural Analysis. For this purpose, the bending test is carried out as it has been already theoretically respectively numerically discussed. In this attempt, the systematic influences such as residual stress are kept as low as possible.

The present work is intended to make a contribution to the monitoring of civil engineering structures. The detection of damage to structures is based on the evaluation of spatially and temporally distributed hybrid measurements. The acquired data can be evaluated purely geometrically or physically. It is preferable to do the latter, since the cause of damage can be determined by means of geometrical-physical laws in order to be able to intervene in time and ensure the further use of the structures. For this reason, the continuum mechanical field equations in conjunction with the finite element method and hybrid measurements are combined into a single evaluation method by the adjustment calculation. This results in two challenges.
The first task deals with the relationship between the finite element method and the method of least squares. The finite element method solves certain problem classes, which are described by a system of elliptical partial differential equations. Whereas the method of least squares solves another class of problems, which is formulated as an overdetermined system of equations. The striking similarity between both methods is known since many decades. However, it remains unresolved why this resemblance exists. The contribution is to clarify this by examining the variational calculus, especially with regard to its methodological procedure. Although the well-known Gauss-Markov model within the method of least squares and the finite element method solve inherently different problem classes, it is shown that both methods can be derived by following the same methodological steps of the variational calculus. From a methodical viewpoint, this implies that both methods are not only similar, but actually the same. In addition, it is pointed out where a possible cross-connection to other methods exists.
The second task introduces a Measurement- and Model-based Structural Analysis (MeMoS) by integrating the finite element method into the adjustment calculation. It is shown in numerical examinations how this integrated analysis can be used for parameter identification of simple as well as arbitrarily shaped structural components. Based on this, it is examined with which observation types, with which precision and at which location of the structure these measurements must be carried out in order to determine the material parameters as precisely as possible. This serves to determine an optimal and economic measurement set-up. With this integrated analysis, a substitute model of a geometrically complex structure can also be determined. The issue of the detection and localisation of damage within a structure is studied by means of this structural analysis. The Measurement and Model-based Structural Analysis is validated using two different test setups, an aluminum model bridge and a bending beam.

To examine the capability to detect and localise damage using the Measurement- and Model-based Structural Analysis (MeMoS), a small-scale truss bridge (1520 mm × 720 mm × 720 mm) made of aluminium profiles is built as a test specimen for this purpose. The truss frame of the test bridge is made of aluminium profiles with a sophisticated design of the cross-sectional area. In comparison, with solid profiles, only a fraction of the material is needed to produce the profiles, while their bending resistance decreases slightly. The profiles are built into a truss frame by connecting them by means of fastening sets made of steel. The bridge model is mounted on four steel bearings which each of them consist of a cylinder arranged between two plates. Fixed bearings are made by holding onto one end of the bridge. The bridge is subjected by an external load by placing a heavy object beneath it. At the same time, measurements can be conducted below the bridge. Therefore, the bridge specimen is elevated by attaching it on a pedestal with four columns. Damages can be induced by loosening the fastening pieces.

Within the presented research project, experimental and numerical investigations were performed to develop a thin-shelled, modular, mobile element system made of a micro-reinforced ultra-high-performance ductile concrete (DUCON®). Material parameters were experimentally determined to adapt the material model within the numerical analysis applying the Drucker-Prager relationship. Afterwards, for validation of the numerical models, quasi-static and high-velocity impact tests were performed on plate-like structures. Finally, a suitable geometry of transportable barrier elements will be designed, which provides a maximum of resistance against impact by a minimum of weight and a maximum of mobility.

Leaking methane (CH4) from infrastructures, such as pipelines and landfills, is critical for the environment but can also pose a safety risk. To enable a fast detection and localization of these kind of leaks, we developed a novel robotic platform for aerial remote gas sensing. Spectroscopic measurement methods for remote sensing of selected gases lend themselves for use on mini-copters, which offer a number of advantages for inspection and surveillance over traditional methods. No direct contact with the target gas is needed and thus the influence of the aerial platform on the measured gas plume can be kept to a minimum. This allows to overcome one of the major issues with gas-sensitive mini-copters. On the other hand, remote gas sensors, most prominently Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) sensors have been too bulky given the payload and energy restrictions of mini-copters. Here, we present the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Remote Gas Sensing (UAV-REGAS), which combines a novel lightweight TDLAS sensor with a 3-axis aerial stabilization gimbal for aiming on a versatile hexacopter. The proposed system can be deployed in scenarios that cannot be addressed by currently available robots and thus constitutes a significant step forward for the field of Mobile Robot Olfaction (MRO). It enables tomographic reconstruction of gas plumes and a localization of gas sources. We also present first results showing its performance under realistic conditions.