### Filtern

#### Schlagworte

- EBSD (4)
- Angle measurement (1)
- Crystal orientation (1)
- Electron backscatter diffraction (1)
- Electron energy (1)
- Energy distribution (1)
- Gnomonic projections (1)
- Kikuchi pattern (1)
- Kikuchi patterns (1)
- Orientation refinement (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a technique to obtain microcrystallographic information from materials by collecting large-angle Kikuchi patterns in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). An important fundamental question concerns the scattering-angle dependent electron energy distribution, which is relevant for the formation of the Kikuchi diffraction patterns. Here we review the existing experimental data and explore the effective energy spectrum that is operative in the generation of backscatter Kikuchi patterns from silicon. We use a full pattern comparison of experimental data with dynamical electron diffraction simulations. Our energy-dependent cross-correlation based pattern matching approach establishes improved constraints on the effective Kikuchi pattern energy spectrum, which is relevant for high-resolution EBSD pattern simulations and their applications.

We describe a lattice-based crystallographic approximation for the analysis of distorted crystal structures via Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope. EBSD patterns are closely linked to local lattice parameter ratios via Kikuchi bands that indicate geometrical lattice plane projections. Based on the transformation properties of points and lines in the real projective plane, we can obtain continuous estimations of the local lattice distortion based on projectively transformed Kikuchi diffraction simulations for a reference structure. By quantitative image matching to a projective transformation model of the lattice distortion in the full solid angle of possible scattering directions, we enforce a crystallographically consistent approximation in the fitting procedure of distorted simulations to the experimentally observed diffraction patterns. As an application example, we map the locally varying tetragonality in martensite grains of steel.

Orientation determination does not necessarily require complete knowledge of the local atomic arrangement in a crystalline phase. We present a method for microstructural phase discrimination and orientation analysis of phases for which there is only limited crystallographic information available. In this method, experimental Kikuchi diffraction patterns are utilized to generate a self-consistent master reference for use in the technique of Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). The experimentally derived master data serves as an application-specific reference in EBSD pattern matching approaches. As application examples, we map the locally varying orientations in samples of icosahedral quasicrystals observed in a Ti40Zr40Ni20 alloy, and we analyse AlNiCo decagonal quasicrystals.

A historical tool for crystallographic analysis is provided by the Hilton net, which can be used for manually surveying the crystal lattice as it is manifested by the Kikuchi bands in a gnomonic projection. For a quantitative analysis using the Hilton net, the projection centre as the relative position of the signal source with respect to the detector plane needs to be known. Interplanar angles are accessible with a precision and accuracy which is estimated to be ≤0.3o. Angles between any directions, e.g. zone axes, are directly readable. Finally, for the rare case of an unknown projection-centre position, its determination is demonstrated by adapting an old approach developed for photogrammetric applications.
It requires the indexing of four zone axes [uvw]i in a backscattered Kikuchi diffraction pattern of a known phase collected under comparable geometric conditions.