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#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

In the last decades, numerical simulations of fresh concrete flow have gained importance in concrete industry. They showed a potential to become a tool for prediction of concrete casting and to help engineers to avoid expensive mistakes on site. A promising field for application of numerical modelling is casting of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC), since the main area of application of SCC are complex and highly-reinforced building elements. Simulations of fresh concrete flow involve complex mathematical models and time-consuming computations. In case of casting simulations, the simulation time is additionally significantly increased because each reinforcement bar occurring in succession has to be considered one by one. This is particularly problematic in case of SCC casting, since this type of concrete is typically used for heavily-reinforced structural members. With the aim to decrease simulation time and to come closer to a practical simulation tool, we proposed an innovative modelling approach that models a zone with arrays of the reinforcement bars as a porous medium (PM). By defining characteristic parameters of the PM, its influence on the flow can be defined. This approach simplifies the geometry to be modelled and significantly decreases the computational time. The present contribution provides a brief description the proposed numerical model and of the conducted validation studies. The applicability of the model on fresh concrete is verified through the comparison between experimental measurements and numerical simulations.

The one-phase methods described in Chapter 2 were shown to be able to predict casting to some extent, but could not depict segregation, sedimentation and blockage occurring during flow. On the other hand, the distinct element methods described in Chapter 3 did not take into account the presence of two phases in the system and describes concrete as distinct elements interacting through more or less complex laws. A reliable numerical model of a multiphase material behaviour shall take into account both phases (solid and liquid). From the numerical point of view, concrete flow shall be seen therefore as the free surface flow of a highly-concentrated suspension of rigid grains.

Computational modeling of fresh SCC flow is a comprehensive and time consuming task. The computational time is additionally increased when simulating casting of reinforced sections, where each single reinforcement bar has to be modeled. In order to deal with this issue and to decrease the computational time, an innovative approach of treating a reinforcement network as a porous medium is applied. This contribution presents the model for concrete flow through reinforced sections, based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), coupling a single-phase flow model for SCC and a continuum macroscopic model for porous medium. In the last part of this paper, numerical simulations are compared with experimental results obtained on model fluids.

Numerical simulations of concrete castings are complex and time consuming. In order to decrease simulation time and to simplify simulation procedure, an innovative modelling approach, which treats reinforced sections in a formwork as porous media, was proposed. In the previous studies, this numerical model was proved suitable to simulate casting of model yield-stress fluids through reinforced elements. This article focuses on the experimental validation of the proposed model at the concrete scale. For this purpose, a large-scale laboratory casting of a highly reinforced beam is performed. The casting process is numerically simulated and the numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements.

Although being a very promising area of concrete technology, computational modeling of fresh concrete flow is a comprehensive and time consuming task. The complexity and required computation time are additionally increased when simulating casting of heavily reinforced sections, where each single reinforcement bar has to be modeled. In order to improve the computation speed and to get closer to a practical tool for simulation of casting processes, an innovative approach to model reinforced sections is proposed here. The basic idea of this approach is to treat the reinforcement zone as a porous medium in which a concrete is propagating. In the present paper, the numerical implementation of this concept is described. A methodology allowing for the computation of the equivalent permeability of the steel bars network is suggested. Finally, this numerical technique efficiency is evaluated by a comparison with experimental results of model fluids casting in model formworks.

This study focuses on concrete flow in presence of obstacles and develops a mathematical model and a computational approach for SCC flow through reinforced formworks. In order to decrease high computational times needed to simulate castings through reinforced elements, an innovative approach to model the reinforced sections as porous media is proposed here. In the previous work, this numerical model is proved able to simulate the free-surface flow of non-Newtonian fluids through the reinforcement networks. In the present study, the applicability of the model on the concrete flow will finally be proved. The large-scale form-filling experiments with SCC will be conducted and the experiments will be simulated using the proposed numerical model. The numerical model will then be validated through the comparison of the experimental results and the results of the numerical simulations.