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- Axial force (3)
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- Truss structures (3)
- Modal parameters (2)
- Model updating (2)
- Optimization technique (2)
- Strain (2)
- Achsfolgespektren (1)
- Automated operational modal analysis (1)
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#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (9)
- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (9)

A strain-based automated operational modal analysis algorithm is proposed to track the long-term dynamic behavior of a horizontal wind turbine under operational conditions.
This algorithm is firstly validated by a scaled wind turbine model, and then it is applied to the dynamic strain responses recorded from a 5 MW wind turbine system. We observed variations in the fundamental frequency and 1f, 3f excitation frequencies due to the mass imbalance of the blades and aerodynamic excitation by the tower dam or tower wake. Inspection of the Campbell diagram revealed that the adverse resonance phenomenon and Sommerfeld effect causing excessive vibrations of the wind tower.

This paper proposes a novel method to estimate the lateral displacement of high-rise structures under wind loads. The coefficient β(x) is firstly derived, reflecting the relation between the structural lateral dynamic displacement and the inclination angle at the height x of a structure. If the angle is small, it is the ratio between the structural fundamental mode shape and its first-order derivative without influence of external loads. Several dynamic experiments of structures are performed based on a laser remote sensing vibrometer and an inclinometer, which shows that the fundamental mode is dominated in the structural displacement response under different types of excitations. Once the coefficient β(x) is curve-fitted by measuring both the structural lateral dynamic displacement and the inclination angle synchronously, the real-time structural lateral displacement under operational conditions is estimated by multiplying the coefficient β(x) with the inclination angle. The advantage of the proposed method is that the coefficient β(x) can be identified by lateral dynamic displacement measured in high resolution by the remote sensing vibrometer, which is useful to reconstruct the displacement accurately by the inclination angle under operational conditions

The implementation of continuous dynamic monitoring systems in two bridges, in Portugal, is enabled to detect the occurrence of very significant environmental and operational effects on the modal properties of these bridges, based on automated processing of massive amounts of monitoring data collected by a set of accelerometers and thermal sensors over several years.
In order to remove or mitigate such environmental/operational effects with the purpose of damage detection, two different statistical methods have been adopted. One of them is the multiple linear regression by performing nonlinear correlation analysis between measured modal properties and environmental/operational variables. Another one is principal component regression based on the identification of the linear subspace within the modal properties without using measured values of environmental and operational variables.
This paper presents a comparison of the performance of these two alternative approaches on the basis of continuous monitoring data acquired from two instrumented bridges and simulated damage scenarios. It is observed that different methods show similar capacity in removing environmental effects, and the multiple linear regression method is slightly more sensitive to structural damage.

Vibration-based model updating and identification of multiple axial forces in truss structures
(2017)

Safety assessment of existing iron and steel truss structures requires the determination of the axial Forces and corresponding stresses in truss structural members. The results of the axial force determination can be integrated as part of a structural health Monitoring scheme for existing trusses. In this work, a methodology is proposed to identify multiple axial forces in members of a truss structure based on the modal parameters. Vibration test allows the identification of the natural frequencies and mode shapes, globally of the truss structure as well as locally of the individual bars. The method calibrates the numerical model of the truss structure using a genetic algorithm and strategic validation criteria. The validation criteria are based on the identified natural frequencies and global mode shapes of the truss structure as well as information of the axial forces in the individual bars of the truss, which are estimated from the natural frequencies and five amplitudes of the corresponding local mode shapes of the single bars based on an analytical-based algorithm. The calibration allows the identification of the axial forces in all bars of the truss structure. For mode pairing strategy, a technique makes use of the enhanced modal assurance criteria with the calculation of the modal strain energies.
Moreover, the modal strain energies are also used to select the relevant local mode shape of the individual bars. The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed methodology is verified by laboratory experiments on several truss structures. In situ tests on existing trusses are intended. The results from one of the laboratory tested structures, i.e. a two-bar system, are included in this paper.

This paper is concerned with the inverse identification of the stress state in axially loaded slender members of iron and steel truss structures using measured dynamic data. A methodology is proposed based on the finite element model updating coupled with nature-inspired optimization techniques, in particular the particle swarm optimization. The numerical model of truss structures is calibrated using natural frequencies and mode shapes from vibration tests, as well as additional information of the axial forces in selected truss members based on the experimentally identified modal parameters. The results of the identification are the axial forces or corresponding stresses in truss structures and the joint rigidity in relation to pinned and rigid conditions. Attention is given to several examined aspects, including the effects of the axial tensile and compressive forces on the dynamic responses of trusses, mode pairing criteria, as well as modeling assumptions of joints and the use of a joint rigidity parameter. Considering the pairing of modes, it is performed by adapting an enhanced modal assurance criterion that allows the selection of desired clusters of degrees-of-freedom. Thus, information extracted from the measurements related to specific modes is utilized in a more beneficial way. For modeling of joints, the numerical model of a truss structure includes rotational springs of variable stiffness to represent semi-rigid connections. Moreover, a fixity factor is introduced for practical estimation of the joint flexibility. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by case studies involving simulated and laboratory experimental data.

This paper describes the experimental calibration of an existing Wiegmann–Polonceau roof truss based on modal parameters. Dynamic tests allowed the determination of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the global truss and of individual truss members. The global and local modal configurations as well as coupled vibration of truss members are discussed. In addition, as truss members are axially loaded, the effect of stress stiffening on the modal parameters is considered. Moreover, several finite element models with different modelling assumptions for the details of the connections and member geometrical characteristics such as gusset plates and turnbuckles were developed. A suitable numerical model was chosen to represent the truss structural behavior. This paper focuses on the local measurement and analysis strategies applied to single truss members. The possibility of using a local analysis method, namely methods that consider individual members as part of a structure, is demonstrated to assess the behavior of the global truss structure. The comparison of the results after calibration reveals a very good correlation between the experimentally identified and numerically estimated modal parameters of the historic truss.

The Westend Bridge is located on the A100 Highway in Berlin. An integrated continuous dynamic monitoring system, composed of 20 velocity sensors, 5 temperature sensors, 3 strain gauges, 1 crack sensor and 2 inclination sensors, was implemented by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing in 2000. The system runs continuously with occasional intermittence and led to a huge amount of data over a 14-year span. In this article, variations of the strain, crack and inclination measurements during the last 14 years are presented. It is noted that the observed crack and inclination of the bridge are strongly influenced by seasonal temperature variation. It further induces change in the relationship between the strains measured in both concrete and prestressed tendon. Application of k-means cluster Analysis technique in both the crack and strain measurements can partition them into different seasonal phases by identifying ‘turning points’ that indicate annual periodical bridge change. In the period of these two ‘turning points’, a strong linear relation of the strains in two materials is observed. In the rest of the year, a nonlinear relationship between the strains recorded in both the concrete and the prestressed tendon is noted. The possible reason is the additional thermal load due to the change in temperature difference between the bridge’s surface and soffit. Finally, a health index in a Framework of regression model and process control theory is proposed by investigating the linear relationship between the strains in concrete and prestressed tendon. The tendency of the health index in the 14 years may suggest the long-term bridge change during that time frame.

This paper addresses operational modal analysis (OMA) and continuous dynamic monitoring (CDM) of two bridges. One of them is installed with Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) while another one is a normal bridge. Two ambient vibration tests were performed on these two bridges respectively. It is observed that not only installation of TMDs but also environmental factors influence the variations of structural frequencies, which may mask the subtle change induced by small structural changes. As a result, continuous dynamic monitoring systems were implemented on these two bridges, in order to evaluate efficiency of the TMD system, remove the environmental effects and build reliable damage indices that are only sensitive to structural changes. The results of CDM of these two bridges during several years are presented. Software systems developed for OMA and CDM are also introduced.

In the last three decades, the vibrations of many floors and bridges have been measured. The contribution shows some evaluation methods, experimental results and some modelling and theoretical results. Simple evaluation methods have been developed for single and coupled floors. Two coupled beams have been measured in good agreement with the theory. A more complex coupling model has been found for a large wooden floor in a castle consisting of six floor bays which correlates well with the measurements. Damaged and intact poles have been tested by their natural frequencies and damping values, and a fair correlation between the degree of damage and the shift of the frequency. Road bridges have been analysed in detail and some examples are presented. Railway bridges and trains are studied for resonant excitation. The risk of resonance can be estimated in frequency domain by using axle-sequence spectra of the train and the natural frequencies of the bridge. A measurement example shows the amplification, but even stronger the cancellation of the subsequent axle responses. Several high-speed trains and freight trains have been analysed for their potential resonance amplification.