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#### Schlagworte

- Fatigue strength (16)
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#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 9 Komponentensicherheit (52)
- 9.1 Betriebsfestigkeit und Bauteilsicherheit (45)
- 9.4 Integrität von Schweißverbindungen (6)
- 9.0 Abteilungsleitung und andere (4)
- 5 Werkstofftechnik (3)
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- 8.5 Mikro-ZfP (2)

In diesem Aufsatz wird eine analytische Prozedur zur bruchmechanischen Beschreibung des Schwingverhaltens von Schweißverbindungen beschrieben, die im Rahmen des DFG-AiF-Clusters IBESS entwickelt wurde. Es wurden drei Verbindungen untersucht (Stumpfstöße, Kreuzstöße und Längssteifen), die aus warmgewalzten Stahlplatten produziert wurden. Die analytische Modellierung basierte auf drei wichtigen Aspekten: Quantitative Beschreibung der Rissausbreitung mechanisch-kurzer Risse; Statistische Effekte infolge der Variabilität der lokalen Schweißnahtgeometrie; Modellierung der Mehrfachrissinitiierung und des Mehrfachrisswachstums. Im Folgenden wird die Methodik vorgestellt und ihre Validierung an einem ausgewählten Beispiel diskutiert.

This book provides a comprehensive and thorough guide to those readers who are lost in the often-confusing context of weld fatigue. It presents straightforward information on the fracture mechanics and material background of weld fatigue, starting with fatigue crack initiation and short cracks, before moving on to long cracks, crack closure, crack growth and threshold, residual stress, stress concentration, the stress intensity factor, J-integral, multiple cracks, weld geometries and defects, microstructural parameters including HAZ, and cyclic stress-strain behavior. The book treats all of these essential and mutually interacting parameters using a unique form of analysis.

The acronym IBESS stands for "Integrale Bruchmechanische Ermittlung der Schwingfestigkeit von Schweißverbindungen" which, translated from German, means "integral fracture mechanics determination of the fatigue strength of welds". the method introduced in this study is the outcome of a German Research cluster in which eight partners were involved. A list of them is found at the end this study. The IBESS method is characterized by a number of partially novel aspects and elements of fracture mechanics applied to the evaluation of fatigue stength of welds. The most important ones are: (a) Determination of fatigue crack propagation for mechanically/physically short and long cracks. (b) Determination of an elastic-plastic crack driving force for the treatment of mechanically short cracks. To that purpose an analytical expression for the cyclic J-integral was developed and validated against finite element results. (c) The gradual build-up of the crack closure phenomenon is determined by using cyclic R-curves which describe the crack size dependency of the fatigue crack propagation threshold in the physically short crack growth regime. (d) A physically meaningful initial crack size is defined for total life consideration. It is based on a two-criteria approach. Based on a cyclic R-curve analysis, the crack size at crack arrest is determined as a lower bound. If, however, a pre-existing crack-like defect is larger than this, its dimensions define the initial crack size. (e) Multiple crack propagation at the weld toe is considered. (f) In conjunction with this, the variation of the weld toe geometry is considered in a stochastic model. (g) As a result, both the fatigue limit (defined for 107 loading cycles) and the finite life (high cycle) fatigue S-N curve are obtained statistically. (h) At various analysis steps, parametric equations have been developed which allow for analytical calculations instead of complete stochastic analyses based on finite elements which are unrealistic even at present. (i) The method has been validated with a large number of S-N curves including two materials, three weldment types with two geometries, each referring to differnt manufacturing technologies and the as-welded and stressrelieved state. (j) Althrough not finally solved, an extended discussion is provided on the issue of welding residual stresses including their redistribution under cyclic loading. (k) A number of simplifications is proposed at lower analyses levels which, however, partly lack complete validation by now.

The cyclic J-integral (∆J-integral) is a crack tip parameter of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics which can be used as governing parameter for the description of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in metallic structures. In this contribution, it is applied for modelling FCG in weldments. The ∆J-integral is determined by means of analytical approximation formulas as well as numerical methods. An analytical solution, which takes into account effects of the local ligament plasticity, was derived. This solution is based on well established methods such as R6, BS7910 and SINTAP which were modified for cyclic loading. It incorporates methods for the description of short crack closure behaviour as well as the well known analytical (long) crack closure function of Newman. A specific code was written to evaluate the ∆J-integral numerically in the course of finite element based crack growth simulations. The code was first validated for an infinite plate with centre crack by applying elastic and elastic-plastic material behaviour. Next, the ∆J-integral was calculated for cracks in various butt and cruciform welded joints. The results were compared with the results of the derived analytical approximation formula. A good accordance was achieved between the results.

This invited plenary lecture is aimed at giving a General overview about the assessment of the fatigue strength of metallic components under constant Amplitude loading based on fracture mechanics. A particular Focus is put on the Evaluation of the fatigue crack driving force and material resistance to fatigue crack Propagation in the Regime of physically/mechanically short cracks. The potential of the methodolody is demonstrated on case studies dealing with the fatigue life prediction of welded joints.

The topic of the presentation consists in some basic considerations on the application of fracture mechanics to fatigue live and strengh prediction of metallic componends manufatured by additive manufacturing. These are based on an approach developed at BAM which comprises elements such as the elastic-plastic modelling of the cyclic crack driving force, a physically meaningfull determination of the initial crack size and multipile crack initiation and propagation due to variations of the local geometry and material charactaristics. Spezial emphasis is put to spezific aspects of materials composed by selectiv laser melting such as surface roughness, porosity and gradiants in the microstructure.

IBESS Methology for the fracture mechanics-based determination of the fatigue strength of weldments
(2018)

The presentation provides a brief overview on the results of a German cluster project on the use of fracture mechanics to the determination of the fatigue strength of weldments with fatigue cracks originating at the weld toes. The approach includes (a) a concept for short crack propagation for which the common K concept is not applicable and the crack closure effects are still being gradually build-up, (b) a method for determining fatigue life relevant initial crack sizes as they are needed in any fracture mechanics analysis and (c) multiple cracking and crack coalescence at load levels higher than the endurance limit. The analyses are stochastically performed. Both, the endurance limit as defined for 107 loading cycles and the finite life branch of the S-N curve are determined.

If fracture mechanics shall be applied to the total lifetime respectively the fatigue limit of components (within the meaning of the S-N curve approach) it has to address four challenges:
(a) It has to adequately describe so-called short crack propagation, which cannot be based on the common long crack concepts for principle reasons. Since the crack size is in the order of the plastic zone size, the modelling of short crack propagation cannot be based on the common linear elastic Delta K concept. Instead, an elastic-plastic parameter such as the cyclic J integral has to be applied. A second point is that the crack closure concept has to be modified in that the crack opening stress is not a constant, crack size- independent parameter but shows a transient behaviour with increasing short crack size.
(b) It has to provide a meaningful definition of the initial crack dimensions as the starting point for an S-N curve relevant (residual) lifetime analysis. This can be based either on the (statistical) size of material defects which can be treated as cracks or by the size of the crack which would arrest subsequent to early crack propagation, whatever is larger.
(c) It has to cope with the problem of multiple cracks for load levels higher than the fatigue limit such as it occurs in many applications in the absence of very large initial defects.
(d) This requires consequent statistical treatment taking into account variations in the local geometry of the area where crack initiation has to be expected as well as the scatter in the initial crack size and in the material data used for the analyses.