### Filtern

#### Erscheinungsjahr

#### Dokumenttyp

- Beitrag zu einem Tagungsband (15)
- Vortrag (13)
- Zeitschriftenartikel (10)
- Buchkapitel (3)
- Beitrag zu einem Sammelband (1)
- Posterpräsentation (1)

#### Sprache

- Englisch (43) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Offshore wind turbines (6)
- Pile foundations (6)
- Micromechanical modelling (5)
- Physical phenomenology (5)
- Design methods (4)
- LBM-DEM (4)
- Offshore foundations (4)
- Offshore pile foundation (4)
- Cyclic lateral load (3)
- Erosion (3)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (34)
- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (34)
- 7.4 Baustofftechnologie (2)

Sand densification around the pile has traditionally been regarded as an explanation for the grain migration and soil subsidence that often occur around cyclic laterally loaded piles embedded in sand. Supported by new empirical evidence, this paper proposes that, additionally to some soil densification around the pile, the main cause for the continuous "steady-state" grain migration is a convective cell flow of sand grains in the vicinities of the pile head. Such convective flow would be caused by a ratcheting mechanism triggered by the cyclic low-frequency lateral displacements of the pile. Furthermore, the experimental results suggest that the limit between the convective cell and the static soil is marked by a distinct direct shear surface. This might shed some light into the complex phenomena related to the pile-soil interaction in the upper layers of the bedding, which are normally the main contributor for the lateral load-bearing capacity of piles.

Numerical analysis can be useful for the investigation of important aspects of offshore foundation
prototypes that otherwise could hardly be studied experimentally, like the evolution of pore-water pressure around
the monopile foundation of an offshore wind turbine under extreme loading. A combination of mixed pressuredisplacement
formulations along with a constitutive model for sands based on the Generalized Plasticity Theory
can replicate accurately the soil behaviour in saturated conditions. However, additional issues must be taken into
account in order to perform numerical simulations of offshore piles. Some implications of the Babuska-Brezzi
restriction, as well as considerations about the pile-soil interface and suitable solution strategies are discussed
here. Due to the high cost of the transient analysis, the parallel computation offers a promising perspective, but
can be complex and needs to be implemented carefully in order to avoid a performance deterioration. A brief
overview on current trends and functional software is given here.

The track on bridges is affected by cyclic and dynamic action arising from the train passage and the reaction of the track supporting structure. Concerning the track, the current bridge design procedures include two major engineering tasks: On the one hand the stability of the track supported on the bridge deck has to be satisfied. In order to reduce the deterioration of the track the elasticity of the track has to be adapted for the stiff bridge deck. Furthermore, lateral stability has also to be satisfied. The vibration of the bridge structure has to be taken into account because it can affect the stability of the ballasted track. On the other hand the transition zone between bridge structure, abutment and the track on the subgrade is a matter of permanent concern. The changes in stiffness, in the dynamic behavior arising from the rolling stock and the relative deflection between the bridge structure and the abutment induce a nearly unavoidable problem for the long term behaviour on the track.
BAM has conducted intensive experimental work to study the behaviour of the ballasted track on dynamically excited bridges. The state of the art is a design value for the deck acceleration of 0.35 g as established in the ENV 1991-1. In our experimental investigations the design value was verified. The influence of a frequency content higher than 30 Hz and of single vibration amplitudes on the track deterioration was evaluated. Both vertical and lateral stability were investigated. The influence of vibrations on the lateral stability can be more severe since the lateral stability could involve a sudden failure of the track. Furthermore, a simulation tool was developed to calculate the lateral stability on a vibrating bridge deck. For this simulation tool a parameter study was undertaken [1] where combinations of the curvature of the bridge-track system, the design temperature and the bridge deck vibrations were investigated. Parts of this study are incorporated in this paper.
In a current research project the investigations are extended to the interaction of the train-track-dynamics and the long term behaviour of the transition zone. The main emphasis is on the integration of the possible deterioration of the structural components in the numerical modelling of the relevant structural elements of the vehicle, the bridge and bridge abutment structure. An outlook is given to a complete model for the assessment of the track behaviour at railway bridges.

Pore-pressure accumulation and soil softening around pile foundations for offshore wind turbines
(2012)

Offshore piles have to withstand predominantly cyclic axial loads when they are installed in multi-pile configurations, as in jacket foundations. The dimensions of the pile are governed by both the internal capacity and the fatigue behaviour of the steel cross-section as well as by its external capacity in the pile-soil interaction. Owing to the large numbers of piled foundations required for current and future offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to optimize the dimensions and related costs of single piles. With regard to the pile capacity, two major topics of research are the determination of possible capacity gains due to pile ageing effects and proper consideration of cyclic degradation. In order to investigate both effects, a large-scale testing facility has been constructed at the BAM TTS site in Horstwalde near Berlin. This open-air facility allows large tubular driven piles to be loaded cyclically in both tension and compression while studying the ageing effects by introducing delays between the testing campaigns. First results already show a moderate increase in pile capacity over time. Concerning the anticipated capacity degradation of cyclically loaded piles, preliminary results show an unexpected behaviour. Additional tests are currently being conducted for further clarification.

Relevant factors for the liquefaction susceptibility of cyclically loaded offshore monopiles in sand
(2013)

The offshore foundations may exhibit a relatively high liquefaction susceptibility due to the full saturation of the porous seabed and the cyclic nature of the typical offshore loads. Here, the particular relevance of some of the main factors that affect the liquefaction susceptibility of an offshore monopile will be addressed, focusing on the possibility of a progressive accumulation of residual pore water pressure within the saturated soil around a monopile under cyclic lateral loading. The discussion is based on numerical results obtained with a coupled FE model of the offshore foundation which includes the Biot-Zienkiewicz u-p model. A constitutive model of the Generalized Plasticity type has been used for the soil in order to reproduce important features of its behaviour under cyclic loading. This paper presents the findings derived from a parametric study of the problem and shows that the accumulation of residual pore pressure can produce significant changes of the pile's behaviour under external loading. The paper also investigates the effects caused by the loading from a realistic storm of moderate magnitude and the consequential transient degradation of the foundation's stiffness.

A mechanical structure supported by nonlinear springs subjected to an external load is considered. If all mechanical parameters of the system were known, the displacement of the system subjected to this load could be easily calculated. If not all of the parameters are known, but the load and the displacement are measured at one location, an inverse problem exists. In the presented problem the nonlinear springs are unknown and have to be determined. At first glance a problem needs to be solved, which is underdetermined due to the number of unknown variables. However, evolutionary computing can be applied to solve this inverse, nonlinear and multimodal problem. Sometimes a prior knowledge exists on certain system properties, which is difficult to implement into analytical or numerical solver. This knowledge can play a decisive role in identifying the system properties and it can be easily included as boundary condition when applying evolutionary algorithm. This article examines how and under what conditions the spring resistances can be identified. The procedure is exemplified at a mechanical system of a pile foundation.