### Filtern

#### Erscheinungsjahr

#### Dokumenttyp

- Vortrag (26) (entfernen)

#### Schlagworte

- Physical phenomenology (3)
- Pile foundations (3)
- Design methods (2)
- Erosion (2)
- Micromechanical modelling (2)
- Offshore wind energy (2)
- Offshore wind turbines (2)
- Axial and lateral design (1)
- Design (1)
- Design practice (1)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

- 7 Bauwerkssicherheit (11)
- 7.2 Ingenieurbau (11)

Driven steel piles are commonly used as deep foundations for a wide range of engineering structures, particularly in the offshore branch. They are also an interesting example among the broad spectrum of geotechnical applications where the fluid-solid interaction at the pore-scale can play a major role for the macromechanical behaviour of the whole system.
In the context of the geotechnical practice for offshore wind-farm structures, both the industrial design and the actual dimensions of the large piles used as foundations in the seabed are often driven by factors such as the soil resistance to driving (SRD), which are still not well understood and often estimated based on mere empirical correlations or overly simplified one-dimensional models. In particular, the role of the micromechanical effects during the installation process (e.g. local dilatancy or contractancy) and their consequences on the pore pressure levels at the pile-tip and on the effective resistance to driving, are generally either disregarded or at most assumed to be covered by the simplified engineering “black-box” solutions.
Here, we propose a general framework to address such local aspects of a geotechnical application involving fluid-saturated soils while retaining the focus on the micro-scale phenomena. We advocate for an approach that combines the relative simplicity of the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for the solid mechanics with the capabilities of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for the fluid dynamics. In this sense, we aim to compile some useful techniques and practical recommendations for an efficient GPU-based implementation of a micromechanical LBM-DEM simulation tool.

In this lecture, both the physical behaviour and the general design procedures for deep foundations in the context of the offshore wind energy generation are presented. The first part of the lecture deals with the phenomenology and design of the pile foundations relative to the bearing of axial loads. The second part dwelves on the particularities of the lateral loads as well as on two research topics beyond the current design procedures, namely the hydromechanical coupling and the aging and fatigue phenomena as observed in the course of large-scale field tests.

This presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided in two lectures.
The first lecture presents a brief introduction to the context and peculiarities of such foundations, and then focuses on the particular case of axially loaded piles. This part is most relevant for the relatively slender piles of the multi-pile substructures (i.e. jackets and tripods). A clear distinction between physical phenomenology and practical design is drawn here.
The second lecture continues with the case of lateraly loaded offshore piles, which bears most relevance for the case of the monopile foundations. Here again, a clear separation between physical reality and design methods is intended.
Finally, the last part of the second lecture introduces several advanced topics which lie outside the classical design approaches, namely the cyclic pile fatigue and the so-called pile setup (i.e. the time effects on the axial pile capacity). The relevance of these two topics is illustrated with experimental results from a field testing campaign on real large-scale piles.

This presentation deals with the phenomenology and design of pile foundations for offshore wind turbines, and is divided into two lectures.
The first lecture presents a brief introduction to the context and peculiarities of such foundations, and then focuses on the particular case of axially loaded piles. This part is most relevant for the relatively slender piles of the multi-pile substructures (i.e. jackets and tripods). A clear distinction between physical phenomenology and practical design is drawn here.
The second lecture continues with the case of lateraly loaded offshore piles, which bears most relevance for the case of the monopile foundations. Here again, a clear separation between physical reality and design methods is intended.
Finally, the last part of the second lecture introduces several advanced topics which lie outside the classical design approaches, namely the hydromechanical coupling effects (i.e. the excess pore-pressure generation around the monopiles), the cyclic pile fatigue and the so-called pile Setup (i.e. the time effects on the axial pile capacity). The relevance of the latter two topics is illustrated with experimental results from a field testing campaign on real large-scale piles.

Design challenges for offshore wind-farms. From foundation mechanics to wind-farm aerodynamics
(2018)

This talk provides a brief introduction on general engineering aspects of offshore wind energy production. Then some geomechanical issues for the foundation of OWTs into the seabed are introduced, while the results from experimental investigations and coupled computational analysis are discussed.
In the second part of the seminar, the hydromechanical Wave–Tower interaction is firstly discussed. Then, some general aspects of the windfarm aerodynamics are introduced. On the one hand, some modelling possibilities for the wake analysis of single turbines and turbine groups are discussed. And on the other hand the relevance of such analyses for a proper windfarm layout optimization is pointed out.
Concerning the geomechanical issues the talk shows that: i) The pile’s bearing capacity can degrade under cyclic loading (waves, wind, …). ii) The time effects can be relevant: Capacity improvement can be substantial, but also fragile. iii) There are cyclic PWP effects: Cyclic interaction with pore water may lead to soil softening and an uncoupled analysis (current design practice) is potentially unsafe.
And concerning the hydromechanical and aerodynamical design considerations, this seminar shows that: i) Numerical analysis of turbine’s interaction with wind/waves is useful and affordable. ii) Simplified models can provide insight into windfarm aerodynamics. iii) Turbulent wake analysis is very relevant for the windfarm layout.

This presentation provides an overview on general issues related to erosive failures in civil constructions like hydraulic infrastructures and offshore foundations. A brief introduction to the related research activities of BAM in the field of offshore wind energy is first provided, and the general possibilities for micromechanical modelling approaches are outlined. Finally, the ongoing DFG-ANR research project COMET is introduced.

Erosive phenomena at the mesoscale – Perspectives and challenges using coupled LBM-DEM models
(2017)

The physical phenomena related to the erosion of granular materials by a fluid flow are ubiquitous and often present major challenges and threats to a wide range of civil engineering constructions and infrastructures. Catastrophic earth-dam failures and large sinkholes are just some of the possible outcomes of the different forms of erosion (a.o. surface erosion, suffusion, piping, backwards erosion, etc…). However, little is known about the actual mechanical origins of erosion, while the assessment of erodibility is generally performed by means of experimental tests and empirical correlations.
Here we provide a general overview of some current research models aiming to clarify the micromechanical phenomena and their macromechanical consequences taking place in different erosion scenarios. The employed numerical techniques rely on the coupling of two well-stablished particle methods for the fluid and solid phases, namely the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM) respectively. Further ingredients of our numerical models include an elastoplastic cohesion model for intergranular solid bridges and a subcritical debonding model for the simulation of transient damage processes within the soil matrix.

Die Motivation für den hier vorgestellten Forschungsvorhaben liegt in den offenen Fragen bezüglich der Pfahlgründungen für Offshore Windenergieanlagen, die aktuell in zunehmender Zahl in den deutschen Gewässern installiert werden. Aus den unterschiedlichen Gründungsvarianten, die für den Offshore-Bereich normalerweise in Betracht kommen, zeichnen sich die Multi-Pfahl Varianten (also die Tripod- und Jacket-Gründungen) für eine vorwiegende axiale Komponente unter zyklischer Belastung aus. So werden die zyklische Momente aus Wind- und Wellenbelastung als zyklischen Kräftepaare an gegenüberliegenden Pfählen übertragen. Bei extremen Sturmereignissen können die Pfähle sogar aus den Druckbereich gezogen werden, was oft Bemessungsrelevant ist und technisch ein Neuland darstellt. Grundlegende Fragen zum Tragverhalten unter Zuglasten, wie z.B. die Minderung der Mantelreibung auf Zug oder die Möglichkeit einer zyklischen Degradation, bleiben noch offen und werden oft lediglich anhand von Annahmen berücksichtigt, wenn überhaupt.

This talk provides a brief introduction on general engineering aspects of offshore wind energy production. Some geomechanical issues for the foundation of OWTs into the seabed are introduced, while the results from experimental investigations and coupled computational analysis are discussed.
In the second part of the seminar, the hydromechanical Wave–Tower interaction is firstly discussed. Then, some general aspects of the windfarm aerodynamics are introduced. On the one hand, some modelling possibilities for the wake analysis of single turbines and turbine groups are discussed. And on the other hand the relevance of such analyses for a proper windfarm layout optimization is pointed out.
Concerning the geomechanical issues the talk shows that: i) The pile’s bearing capacity can degrade under cyclic loading (waves, wind, …). ii) The time effects can be relevant: Capacity improvement can be substantial, but also fragile. iii) There are cyclic PWP effects: Cyclic interaction with pore water may lead to soil softening and an uncoupled analysis (current design practice) is potentially unsafe.
And concerning the hydromechanical and aerodynamical design considerations, this seminar shows that: i) Numerical analysis of turbine’s interaction with wind/waves is useful and affordable. ii) Simplified models can provide insight into windfarm aerodynamics. iii) Turbulent wake analysis is very relevant for the windfarm layout.

Nuevos aspectos para el diseno estructural de generadores eólicos offshore en el Mar del Norte
(2012)

Pore-Pressure Accumulation and Soil Softening around Pile Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines
(2012)

Relevant Factors for the Liquefaction Susceptibility of Cyclically Loaded Offshore Monopiles in Sand
(2013)

This talk provides a brief introduction on general engineering challenges for the offshore (marine) wind energy production, focusing on material, structural and hydromechanical aspects.
The talk begins with a broad overview on general trends for offshore wind-farms, with insights on some characteristic structural features and their associated loads. Then, some particular open issues for the foundation of the offshore wind turbines into the seabed are introduced. Here, different research approaches are discussed, from experimental investigations to coupled computational analysis at micro- and macroscopic scales.
In the second part of the seminar, both the hydromechanical Wave–Tower interaction and some general aspects of the windfarm aerodynamics (wake analysis) are discussed. Some modelling possibilities in the frame of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) are introduced and the relevance of such analyses for a proper windfarm layout optimization is pointed out.
Summing up, this seminar aims to show that: i) Numerical analysis of the turbine’s interaction with wind/waves and with the seabed is both useful and affordable. ii) Simplified models can provide an insight into windfarm aerodynamics. iii) Turbulent wake analysis is very relevant for the windfarm layout.