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#### Dokumenttyp

- Vortrag (5)
- Zeitschriftenartikel (3)
- Posterpräsentation (1)

#### Schlagworte

- Pulse thermography (5)
- 2D model (4)
- Data reconstruction (4)
- Flat bottom holes (4)
- Notches (4)
- Numerical modelling (4)
- Semitransparent (4)
- Analytical model (3)
- GFRP (3)
- Opaque materials (3)

#### Organisationseinheit der BAM

Iterative numerical 2D-modeling for quantification of material defects by pulsed thermography
(2018)

Pulsed thermography is a well-known non-destructive testing technique and has proven to be a valuable tool for examination of material defects. Typically, analytical 1D models are used to determine the defect depth of flat-bottom holes (FBH), grooves or delamination. However, these models cannot take into account lateral heat flows, or only to a limited extent. They are therefore limited by the FBHs aspect ratio (diameter to remaining wall thickness), to ensure that the heat flow above the defect can still be described one-dimensionally. Here, we present an approach for quantitative determination of the geometry for FBH or grooves. For this purpose, the results of a numerical 2D model are fitted to experimental data, e.g., to determine simultaneously the defect depth of a groove or FBH and its diameter of width. The model takes lateral heat flows into account as well as thermal losses. Figure 1 shows the temperature increase of a pulsed thermography measurement at three different locations on the sample. The numerical model is fitted to the experimental data (red lines) to quantify the groove. The numerical simulation matches the experimental data well.

Pulsed thermography is a well-known non-destructive testing technique and has proven to be a valuable tool for evaluation of material defects. Material defects are often simulated by flat-bottom holes (FBH) or grooves. Typically, analytical 1D models are used to determine the defect depth of FBHs, grooves or delaminations. However, these models cannot take into account lateral heat flows, or only to a limited extent (semi-empirical model). Their applicability is therefore limited by the FBHs aspect ratio (diameter to remaining wall thickness), to ensure that the heat flow above the defect can still be described one-dimensionally. Additionally, the surfaces of semi-transparent materials have to be blackened to absorb the radiation energy on the surface of the material. Without surface coatings, these models cannot be used for semi-transparent materials. Available 1D analytical models for determination of sample or layer thicknesses also do not take into account lateral heat flows.
Here, we present an approach for quantitative determination of the geometry of FBHs or grooves in semi-transparent materials by considering lateral heat flow. For this purpose, the results of a numerical 2D model are fitted to experimental data, e.g., to determine simultaneously the defect depth of a FBH or groove and its diameter or width, respectively. The model considers semi-transparency of the sample within the wavelength range of the excitation source as well as of the IR camera and thermal losses at its surfaces. Heat transport by radiation within the sample is neglected. It supports the use of an arbitrary temporal shape of the heating pulse to properly describe the measurement conditions for different heat sources.

Pulse and flash thermography are experimental techniques which are widely used in the field of non-destructive testing for materials characterization and defect detection. We recently showed that it is possible to determine quantitatively the thickness of semitransparent polymeric solids by fitting of results of an analytical model to experimental flash thermography data, for both transmission and reflection configuration. However, depending on the chosen experimental configuration, different effective optical absorption coefficients had to be used in the model to properly fit the respective experimental data, although the material was always the same. Here, we show that this effect can be explained by the wavelength dependency of the absorption coefficient of the sample material if a polychromatic light source, such as a flash lamp, is used. We present an extension of the analytical model to describe the decay of the heating irradiance by two instead of only one effective absorption coefficient, greatly extending its applicability. We show that using this extended model, the experimental results from both measurement configurations and for different sample thicknesses can be fitted by a single set of parameters. Additionally, the deviations between experimental and modeled surface temperatures are reduced compared to a single optimized effective absorption coefficient.

Pulse thermography (PT) has proven to be a valuable non-destructive testing method to identify and quantify defects in fiber-reinforced polymers. To perform a quantitative defect characterization, the heat diffusion within the material as well as the material parameters must be known. The heterogeneous material structure of glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRP) as well as the semitransparency of the material for optical excitation sources of PT is still challenging. For homogeneous semitransparent materials, 1D analytical models describing the temperature distribution are available.
Here, we present an analytical approach to model PT for laterally inhomogeneous semitransparent materials.We show the validity of the model by considering different configurations of the optical heating source, the IR camera, and the differently coated GFRP sample. The model considers the lateral inhomogeneity of the semitransparency by an additional absorption coefficient. It includes additional effects such as thermal losses at the samples surfaces, multilayer systems with thermal contact resistance, and a finite duration of the heating pulse. By using a sufficient complexity of the analytical model, similar values of the material parameters were found for all six investigated configurations by numerical fitting.

Impulsthermografie ist ein bekanntes zerstörungsfreies Prüfverfahren, welches sehr gut geeignet ist, um geometrische Eigenschaften von Materialfehler, thermische Materialparameter sowie die Dicke von Objekten zu bestimmen. Die Anwendung auf semitransparente Materialien ist jedoch recht neu und anspruchsvoll, insbesondere für semitransparente Mehrschichtmaterialien wie glasfaserverstärkte Kunststoffe (GFK). Um die Dicke beschichteter und unbeschichteter semitransparenten Proben mittels Impuls-Thermografie bestimmen zu können, verwenden wir ein analytisches Modell, welches auf der Quadrupol-Methode basiert.
Unser 1D-Modell berücksichtigt:
• die Semitransparenz der Probe,
• die Wärmeverluste an den Seitenflächen,
• beliebige zeitlichen Form des Heizimpulses (um die Messbedingungen für verschiedene Wärmequellen korrekt zu beschreiben),
• mögliche Flächenabsorption an der Vorder- oder Rückseite (für beschichtete Proben),
• und Mehrschichtsysteme.
Durch Anpassung der Ergebnisse des analytischen Modells an experimentelle Daten ist es möglich, die Dicke der Probe zu bestimmen, sofern die thermischen Materialparameter bekannt sind. Diese können z.B. durch Kalibrierungsmessungen an Proben desselben Materials mit bekannter Dicke bestimmt werden.

Pulsed thermography is a well-known non-destructive testing technique and has proven to be a valuable tool for examination of material defects. Material defects are often simulated by flat-bottom holes (FBH) or grooves. Typically, analytical 1D models are used to determine the defect depth of FBHs, grooves or delaminations. However, these models cannot take into account lateral heat flows, or only to a limited extent (semi-empirical model). They are therefore limited by the FBHs aspect ratio (diameter to remaining wall thickness), to ensure that the heat flow above the defect can still be described one-dimensionally. Here, we present an approach for quantitative determination of the geometry of FBH or grooves. For this purpose, the results of a numerical 2D model are fitted to experimental data, e.g., to determine simultaneously the defect depth of a FBHs or groove and its diameter or width, respectively. The model takes lateral heat flows into account as well as thermal losses. Figure 1 shows the temperature increase of a pulsed thermography measurement at three different locations on the sample. The numerical model is fitted to the experimental data (red lines) to quantify the groove. The numerical simulation matches the experimental data well.

Thickness determination in active thermography for one and multilayer semitransparent materials
(2017)

Flash thermography is a well-known non-destructive testing technique and has proven to be a valuable tool to examine material defects and to determine thermal material parameters and the thickness of test specimens. However, its application to semitransparent materials is quite new and challenging, especially for semitransparent multilayer materials like glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP). Here, in order to deduce the thickness of coated and uncoated semitransparent specimens as well as the depth of defects in such specimens by means of flash thermography, we apply an analytical model based on the quadrupole method by Maillet et al. to calculate the temperature development during the flash thermography experiment.
The model considers semitransparency of the sample and thermal losses at its surface. It supports the use of an arbitrary temporal shape of the heating pulse to properly describe the measurement conditions for different heat sources. By fitting the results of the analytical model to experimental data it is possible to determine the thickness of the specimen, provided the thermal material parameters are known, e.g., by calibration experiments with samples of the same material with known thickness.
We will show that thickness determination of semitransparent test specimens is possible both for transmission and reflection configuration, with and without a blackened sample surface at either front or back side of the sample. As an example, Figure 1 shows the experimentally obtained temperature differences of the surface of a blackened GFRP sample in transmission configuration with the coating facing the flash lamp (usual configuration, (a)) or the infrared camera (unusual configuration, (b)). Using the proposed method, the thickness of the sample can be determined for both configurations.

Iterative numerical 2D-modelling for quantification of material defects by pulsed thermography
(2019)

This paper presents a method to quantify the geometry of defects such as flat bottom holes (FBH) and notches in opaque materials by a pulse thermography (PT) experiment and a numerical model. The aim was to precisely describe PT experiments in reflection configuration with a simple and fast numerical model in order to use this model and a fit algorithm to quantify defects within the material. The algorithm minimizes the difference between the time sequence of a line shaped region of interest (ROI) on the surface (above the defect) from the PT experiment and the numerical data. Therefore, the experimental data can be reconstructed with the numerical model. In this way, the defect depth of a notch or FBH and its width or diameter was determined simultaneously. A laser was used for heating which was widened to a top hat spatial profile to ensure homogeneous illumination (rectangular impulse profile in time). The numerical simulation considers heating conditions and takes thermal losses due to convection and radiation into account. We quantified the geometry of FBH and notches in steel and polyvinyl chloride plasticized (PVC-U) materials with an accuracy of < 5 %.

Pulsed thermography is a well-known non-destructive testing technique and has proven to be a valuable tool for examination of material defects, to determine thermal material parameters, and the thickness of test specimens through calibration or mathematical models. However, the application to semitransparent materials is quite new and demanding, especially for semitransparent materials like epoxy, polyamide 12, or glass fiber reinforced polymers with epoxy or polyamide matrix.
In order to describe the temporal temperature evolution in such materials, which are recorded with an infrared camera during pulse thermography experiments, much more influences have to be considered, compared to opaque materials:
• The wavelength of the excitation source and the spectral range of the infrared camera
• The angles between the specimen, the excitation source and the infrared camera
• The area behind the specimen
• The roughness of the material surface
• The scattering mechanism within the material
Here, we will consider all these influences and describe how they can be treated mathematically in analytical or numerical models (using COMSOL Multiphysics software). These models describe the temperature development during the pulse thermography experiment in reflection and transmission configuration. By fitting the results of the mathematical models to experimental data it is possible to determine the thickness or the optical and thermal properties of the specimen.