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Ein neuartiger Modellierungsansatz für die Berechnung des transienten Temperaturfeldes beim Laserstrahlschweißen mit einer äquivalenten Wärmequelle wurde vorgestellt. Das numerische Modell wurde in zwei Studien unterteilt. Im ersten Teil wurde der Laserstrahlschweißprozess in einer stationären Schmelzbadsimulation untersucht. Die lokale Schmelzbadgeometrie und das Temperaturfeld wurden unter Berücksichtigung der Effekte der thermokapillaren und freien Konvektion, der latenten Wärme und der temperaturabhängigen Materialeigenschaften bis hin zur Verdampfungstemperatur ermittelt. Die Ergebnisse wurden benutzt, um eine äquivalente volumetrische Wärmequelle zu definieren. In der folgenden Studie wurde damit das transiente Temperaturfeld im geschweißten Bauteil berechnet. Die numerischen Ergebnisse wurden durch parallel laufende Experimente validiert.

Transient process simulation of heat transfer in laser beam welding with an equivalent heat source
(2017)

A multi-physics modelling framework developed for the prediction of the three-dimensional transient temperature field of the laser welding process is presented. The numerical model consists of two studies. In the first study, a steady-state CFD process simulation of full-penetration keyhole laser beam welding was performed. Considering the effects of latent heat, natural and thermo-capillary convection and temperature-dependent material properties up to evaporation temperature the local weld pool geometry and temperature field were obtained. These results were used in the second subsequent study, as an equivalent volumetric heat source, by the prediction of the transient thermal cycle during and after fusion welding. Here the energy input and the movement of the heat source were realized by a novel technique, making use of pointwise constraints and a moving mesh provided with helper lines and additional remeshing condition. The numerically calculated results were compared to experimentally observed weld pool shapes and time-temperature curves and show a very good agreement.

Der vorgestellte Modellierungsprozess dient zur Abschätzung einer geeigneten äquivalenten Wärmequelle und Berechnung des thermischen Verhaltens beim Laserstrahlschweißen. Die Methode Kombiniert die Vorteile von gägngigen Simulationsverfahren und reduziert die berücksichtigte Anzahl an physikalischen Aspekten und Kalibrierungsparameter. Durch die modellierten physikalischen Phänomene konnten die Informationen über die Strömung im Schmelzbad und dessen Einfluss auf die resultierende lokale Temperaturverteilung und folglich auf das transiente Temperaturfeld gewonnen werden. Dadurch wurde die Simulatioszeit(inkl. Kalibrierungsaufwand) auf weniger als einen Tag Rechenzeit verringert.

Transient Process Simulation of Heat Transfer in Laser Beam Welding with an Equivalent Heat Source
(2017)

This paper presents a multiphysics modelling framework developed for the prediction of the three-dimensional transient temperature field of the laser welding process. The numerical model consists of two studies. In the first study, a steady-state CFD process simulation of full-penetration keyhole laser beam welding was performed. Considering the effects of, thermo-capillary and natural convection, latent heat of fusion and temperature-dependent material properties up to evaporation temperature the local weld pool geometry and temperature field were obtained. These results were used in the second subsequent study as an equivalent volumetric heat source by the prediction of the transient thermal cycle during and after fusion welding. Here the energy input and the movement of the heat source were realized by a novel technique, making use of pointwise constraints and a moving mesh provided with helper lines and additional remeshing condition. The numerically calculated results were compared to experimentally observed weld pool shapes and time-temperature curves showing a very good agreement.

A three-dimensional multi-physics numerical model was developed for the calculation of an appropriate equivalent volumetric heat source and the prediction of the transient thermal cycle during and after fusion welding. Thus the modelling process was separated into two studies. First, the stationary process simulation of full-penetration keyhole laser beam welding of a 15 mm low-alloyed steel thick plate in flat position at a welding speed of 2 m/min and a laser power of 18 kW was performed. A fixed keyhole with a right circular cone shape was used to consider the energy absorbed by the workpiece and to calibrate the model. In the calculation of the weld pool geometry and the local temperature field, the effects of phase transition, thermo-capillary convection, natural convection and temperature-dependent material properties up to evaporation temperature were taken into account. The obtained local temperature field was then used in a subsequent study as an equivalent heat source for the computation of the transient thermal field during the laser welding process and the cooling stage of the part. The system of partial differential equations, describing the stationary heat transfer and the fluid dynamics, were strongly coupled and solved with the commercial finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0. The energy input in the transient heat transfer simulation was realised by prescription of the nodes temperature. The prescribed nodes reproduced the calculated local temperature field defining the equivalent volumetric heat source. Their translational motion through the part was modelled by a moving mesh approach. An additional remeshing condition and helper lines were used to avoid highly distorted elements. The positions of the elements of the polygonal mesh were calculated with the Laplace’s smoothing approach. Good correlation between the numerically calculated and the experimentally observed weld bead shapes and transient temperature distributions was found.

A transient simulation including the impact of the laser energy, the melting of the metal and the development of the weld pool was conducted to observe the evolution of the vapor capillary and the solidification of the melt in pulsed laser beam welding of AISI 304 steel. The phase field method was implemented to investigate the evolution and behavior of the liquid-gas interface during welding and to describe the condensed and vapor phases. The effects of phase transition, recoil pressure, thermo-capillary and natural convection, vaporization and temperature dependent material properties were taken into account. A Gaussian-like heat source under consideration of the Fresnel absorption model was used to model the energy input of the laser beam. The heat source model was extended by a newly developed empirical approach of describing multiple beam reflections in the keyhole. To validate this new model, the numerical results were compared to experimental data and good agreement regarding the size and shape of the weld pool was observed.

The geometry of the melt pool in laser beam welding plays a major role to understand the dynamics of the melt and its solidification behavior. In this study, a butt configuration of 15 mm thick structural steel and transparent quartz glass was used to observe the weld pool geometry by means of high-speed camera and an infrared camera recording. The observations show that the dimensions of the weld pool vary depending on the depth. The areas close to the weld pool surface take a teardrop-shape. A bulge-region and its temporal evolution were observed approximately in the middle of the depth of the weld pool. Additionally, a 3D transient thermal-fluid numerical simulation was performed to obtain the weld pool shape and to understand the formation mechanism of the observed bulging effect. The model takes into account the local temperature field, the effects of phase transition, thermo-capillary convection, natural convection and temperature-dependent material properties up to evaporation temperature. The numerical results showed good accordance and were furthermore used to improve the understanding of the experimentally observed bulging effect.

A simplified model for numerical simulation of laser metal deposition process with beam oscillation
(2018)

A simplified model for the numerical simulation of the laser metal deposition process with beam oscillation is proposed. The model studies circular and lateral oscillations in order to reduce the porosity of the deposited part, to increase the process efficiency and the gap bridging ability as well. The deposition rate is increased by modifying the shape and the width of the molten pool through an optimized laser beam power distribution and oscillation amplitude. The relationship between the process conditions and the shape of the fabricated part are determined. It is found that an increase of the amplitude by a lateral oscillation of the beam reduces the heat flux and hence the shape of the deposited wall. A good correlation between the numerically calculated results and the experimental measurements is obtained.

This work aims to find the thermal cycles during and after fusion welding through simulation by first calculating the resulting local temperature field in the quasi-stationary part of the process. Here complete-penetration keyhole laser beam welding with a laser power of 18 kW on a 15 mm thick slab of a low-alloyed steel at a welding speed of 2 m/min is considered. In order to physically depict the laser material interaction a multi-physics numerical model including the effects of phase transformation, thermo-capillary convection, natural convection and temperature-dependent material properties up to evaporation temperature is developed.
It uses a fixed keyhole geometry with a right truncated circular cone shape to introduce the laser beam energy to the workpiece. In a subsequent study, the resulting local temperature field is then used as an equivalent heat source in order to predict the unsteady thermal cycle during and after fusion welding. The translational movement of the laser beam through the workpiece is represented by a moving mesh approach. For the simulation, stationary heat transfer and fluid dynamics are described by a system of strongly coupled partial
differential equations. These are solved with the commercial finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0. The results of the numerical simulation are validated by experiments, where the weld bead shapes and the thermal cycles show good correlation.