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Identification of the state of stress in iron and steel truss structures by vibration-based experimental investigations

  • Safety evaluation of truss structures depends upon the determination of the axial forces and corresponding stresses in axially loaded members. Due to presence of damages, change in intended use, increase in service loads or accidental actions, structural assessment of existing truss structures is necessary. This applies particularly to iron and steel trusses that are still in use, including historic and heritage monuments. Precise identification of the stresses plays a crucial role for the preservation of historic trusses. The assessment measures require non–destructiveness, minimum intervention and practical applicability. The axial forces in truss structures can be estimated by static calculations using the method of joints, method of sections or finite element method, if accurate information about parameters such as external loads, geometrical characteristics, mechanical properties, boundary conditions and joint connections are known. However, precise information about theseSafety evaluation of truss structures depends upon the determination of the axial forces and corresponding stresses in axially loaded members. Due to presence of damages, change in intended use, increase in service loads or accidental actions, structural assessment of existing truss structures is necessary. This applies particularly to iron and steel trusses that are still in use, including historic and heritage monuments. Precise identification of the stresses plays a crucial role for the preservation of historic trusses. The assessment measures require non–destructiveness, minimum intervention and practical applicability. The axial forces in truss structures can be estimated by static calculations using the method of joints, method of sections or finite element method, if accurate information about parameters such as external loads, geometrical characteristics, mechanical properties, boundary conditions and joint connections are known. However, precise information about these parameters is difficult to be obtained in practice. Especially in the cases of historic constructions, reasonable assumptions about the uncertain parameters may not be acquired. Motivated by the preservation of existing truss−type constructions composed of axially loaded slender members, the present work aims to develop a non–destructive methodology to identify the axial forces or corresponding stress states in iron and steel truss structures. The approach is based on vibration measurements and the finite element method combined with optimization techniques. After a state of the art review, numerical and experimental studies were carried out on three partial systems of truss–type structures. The investigated systems included single bars, a two–bar truss−like system and a five–bar truss. They were developed step–by–step as built–up truss−type constructions that are constituted of individual members connecting at joints. The examined aspects included the effects of structural loading on the dynamic performance of truss structures, modelling of joint connections, mode pairing criteria, selection of updating parameters and definition of an objective function, as well as the use of different optimization techniques. Concerning the axial force effects on the structural dynamic responses, the effects of the stress stiffening become more complicated for multiple–member truss systems with increasing complexity. The coexistence of both compressive and tensile forces in trusses has counteracting effects on the modal parameters. These effects cause variation of natural frequencies and interchange of modes when the loads or corresponding member forces are changed. To examine the axial force effects on the structures at different stress states, in the numerical study and laboratory experiments, loads were applied progressively to the investigated truss−like systems. Regarding the modelling of joints for truss–type structures, the joint flexibility affects the structural dynamic responses. Therefore, the numerical models of truss−type structures include joint models with variable rotational springs to represent semi–rigid connections. Considering the mode pairing criterion, the mode pairing is performed by adapting an enhanced modal assurance criterion with the calculation of the modal strain energy. The criterion allows the selection of desired clusters of degrees of freedom related to specific modes. With respect to the model updating strategies, the selection of updating parameters and the choice of an appropriate objective function are identified to be significantly important. In addition, three different optimization techniques were applied to compare their suitability for the inverse axial force identification and estimation of joint flexibility of truss structures. The results of the numerical study and laboratory tests show that nature–inspired optimization methods are considered as promising techniques. A methodology consisted of a two–stage model updating procedure using optimization techniques was proposed for the determination of multiple member axial forces and estimation of the joint flexibility of truss–type structures. In the first stage optimization, the validation criterion is based on the experimentally identified global natural frequencies and mode shapes of the truss. Additionally, the axial forces in selected individual members of the truss are used. They are estimated from the natural frequencies and five amplitudes of the corresponding local mode shapes of the members using an analytically−based algorithm. Based on the results of the identified axial forces in the first stage, a second optimization procedure for the joint stiffnesses is performed. In this stage, the modal parameters of the global natural frequencies and mode shapes are used as validation criterion. From the results of the laboratory experiments, the identified axial forces by the proposed methodology agree well with the experimentally measured axial forces of the investigated systems at different stress states. Moreover, based on the numerical verification, the identified joint stiffnesses indicate reasonably the joint flexibility in relation to the pinned or rigid conditions. To assess the relevance of the proposed methodology on existing structures in real−life conditions, an in–situ experiment was carried out on a historic Wiegmann–Polonceau truss in the city of Potsdam. The in–situ experiment shows that uncertainties relating the mechanical and geometrical properties of historic trusses as well as the experimental sensor setup can influence the accuracy of the axial force identification. In the present work, recommendations are given for the development of a guideline of measuring concepts and assessment strategies applied to existing truss structures. The intention is to integrate the proposed methodology as part of the Structural Health Monitoring for historic truss–type constructions.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Thi Mai Hoa Luong
Dokumenttyp:Dissertation
Veröffentlichungsform:Eigenverlag BAM
Schriftenreihe (Bandnummer):BAM Dissertationsreihe (159)
Sprache:Englisch
Titel des übergeordneten Werkes (Englisch):BAM-Dissertationsreihe
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2018
Organisationseinheit der BAM:7 Bauwerkssicherheit
7 Bauwerkssicherheit / 7.2 Ingenieurbau
7 Bauwerkssicherheit / 7.3 Brandingenieurwesen
Veröffentlichende Institution:Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM)
Titel verleihende Institution:Brandenburgische Technische Universität (BTU) Cottbus-Senftenberg, Fakultät 6 Architektur, Bauingenieurwesen und Stadtplanung
Gutachter/innen:Achim Bleicher, Werner Lorenz, Guido De Roeck, Volkmar Zabel, Yvonne Ciupack
Datum der Abschlussprüfung:22.06.2017
Verlag:BAM Eigenverlag
Verlagsort:Berlin
Jahrgang/Band:159
Erste Seite:1
Letzte Seite:195
DDC-Klassifikation:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Ingenieurbau
Freie Schlagwörter:Beanspruchungszustand; Finite-Elemente-Modellkalibrierung; Optimierungsmethoden; Schwingungsmessungen; fachwerkartige Stahltragwerken
Finite element model updating; Optimization techniques; State of stress; Truss structures; Vibration measurements
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Infrastruktur
Infrastruktur / Sicherheit und Lebensdauer von Bauwerken
URN:urn:nbn:de:kobv:b43-449615
ISSN:1613-4249
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei für die Öffentlichkeit verfügbar ("Open Access")
Lizenz (Deutsch):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY-NC-ND - Namensnennung - Nicht kommerziell - Keine Bearbeitungen 4.0 International
Datum der Freischaltung:22.05.2018
Referierte Publikation:Nein