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Effect of weld penetration on hydrogen-assisted cracking in welding of high-strength structural steels

  • The need for steels with highest mechanical properties is a result of the increasing demands for energy and resource efficiency. In this context, high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) structural steels are used in machine, steel and crane construction with yield strength up to 960 MPa. HSLA steels enable lightweight construction by thinner necessary plate thickness. However, welding of HSLA steels requires profound knowledge of three factors in terms of avoidance of hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC): the interaction of (1) microstructure, (2) local stress/strain and (3) local hydrogen concentration. In addition to the three main factors, the used weld-arc process is also important for the performance of the welded joint, especially when using modern arc variants. In the past, the conventional transitional arc process (Conv. A) was mainly used for welding of HSLA grades. In the past decade, the so-called modified spray arc process (Mod. SA) was increasingly used for welding production. ThisThe need for steels with highest mechanical properties is a result of the increasing demands for energy and resource efficiency. In this context, high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) structural steels are used in machine, steel and crane construction with yield strength up to 960 MPa. HSLA steels enable lightweight construction by thinner necessary plate thickness. However, welding of HSLA steels requires profound knowledge of three factors in terms of avoidance of hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC): the interaction of (1) microstructure, (2) local stress/strain and (3) local hydrogen concentration. In addition to the three main factors, the used weld-arc process is also important for the performance of the welded joint, especially when using modern arc variants. In the past, the conventional transitional arc process (Conv. A) was mainly used for welding of HSLA grades. In the past decade, the so-called modified spray arc process (Mod. SA) was increasingly used for welding production. This modified arc enables reduced seam opening angles with increased deposition rates compared to the conventional process. Economic benefits of using this arc type are: a reduced number of necessary weld beads and a lower weld seam volume, which result in decreased total welding time and costs. Nonetheless, investigations on a high-strength S960QL showed significantly higher hydrogen concentrations in the weld metal at a reduced seam opening angle with Mod. SA. This indicates an increased risk for the susceptibility of the welded component to HAC. Hence, existing recommendations on HAC-avoidance cannot be transferred directly to the Mod. SA-process. In the present study, the susceptibility to HAC of the HSLA steel S960QL with same type of filler material was investigated. For that purpose, both Conv. A and Mod. SA were used with same weld heat input at different deposition rates. For assessment of the HAC susceptibility, the externally loaded Implant-test was used. Both conducted test series with Conv. A and Mod. SA showed similar crack critical stress of about 280 MPa. Below this value, no delayed fracture appeared. The welds with Mod. SA showed higher hydrogen concentrations. The fracture occurred in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) or in the weld metal (WM). But in all specimens, cracks initiated at the notch root of the spiral notch of the implants within the coarse-grained HAZ. However, the test series with Mod. SA showed a significant extension of the time-to-failure of several hours compared to tests carried out with Conv. A. The reason is the deeper weld penetration in case of Mod. SA, which causes longer diffusion path for hydrogen. The fracture topography of the ruptured implant specimens with Conv. A was typical ductile in specimen center and quasi-cleavage like at the edge of the specimens. When using Mod. SA, the topography changed to primarily quasi-cleavage fracture topography with shares of intergranular fracture and secondary crack appearance.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Thomas Schaupp
Koautoren/innen:Michael Rhode, Thomas Kannengiesser
Dokumenttyp:Vortrag
Veröffentlichungsform:Präsentation
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2019
Organisationseinheit der BAM:9 Komponentensicherheit
9 Komponentensicherheit / 9.4 Integrität von Schweißverbindungen
DDC-Klassifikation:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften und zugeordnete Tätigkeiten
Freie Schlagwörter:High-strength steel; Hydrogen-assisted cracking; Implant-test; Welding
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Material
Material / Degradation von Werkstoffen und Materialien
Veranstaltung:IIW Intermediate Meeting: Commission II-A
Veranstaltungsort:Miami, FL, USA
Beginndatum der Veranstaltung:12.03.2019
Enddatum der Veranstaltung:14.03.2019
Verfügbarkeit des Volltexts:Volltext-PDF im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:22.03.2019
Referierte Publikation:Nein