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Formation of Zearalenone Metabolites in Tempeh Fermentation

  • Tempeh is a common food in Indonesia, produced by fungal fermentation of soybeans using Rhizopus sp., as well as Aspergillus oryzae, for inoculation. Analogously, for economic reasons, mixtures of maize and soybeans are used for the production of so-called tempeh-like products. For maize, a contamination with the mycoestrogen zearalenone (ZEN) has been frequently reported. ZEN is a mycotoxin which is known to be metabolized by Rhizopus and Aspergillus species. Consequently, this study focused on the ZEN transformation during tempeh fermentation. Five fungal strains of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus, isolated from fresh Indonesian tempeh and authentic Indonesian inocula, were utilized for tempeh manufacturing from a maize/soybean mixture (30:70) at laboratory-scale. Furthermore, comparable tempeh-like products obtained from Indonesian markets were analyzed. Results from the HPLC-MS/MS analyses show that ZEN is intensely transformed into its metabolites alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZEL),Tempeh is a common food in Indonesia, produced by fungal fermentation of soybeans using Rhizopus sp., as well as Aspergillus oryzae, for inoculation. Analogously, for economic reasons, mixtures of maize and soybeans are used for the production of so-called tempeh-like products. For maize, a contamination with the mycoestrogen zearalenone (ZEN) has been frequently reported. ZEN is a mycotoxin which is known to be metabolized by Rhizopus and Aspergillus species. Consequently, this study focused on the ZEN transformation during tempeh fermentation. Five fungal strains of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus, isolated from fresh Indonesian tempeh and authentic Indonesian inocula, were utilized for tempeh manufacturing from a maize/soybean mixture (30:70) at laboratory-scale. Furthermore, comparable tempeh-like products obtained from Indonesian markets were analyzed. Results from the HPLC-MS/MS analyses show that ZEN is intensely transformed into its metabolites alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZEL), ZEN-14-sulfate, alpha-ZEL-sulfate, ZEN-14-glucoside, and ZEN-16-glucoside in tempeh production. alpha-ZEL, being significantly more toxic than ZEN, was the main metabolite in most of the Rhizopus incubations, while in Aspergillus oryzae fermentations ZEN-14-sulfate was predominantly formed. Additionally, two of the 14 authentic samples were contaminated with ZEN, alpha-ZEL and ZEN-14-sulfate, and in two further samples, ZEN and alpha-ZEL, were determined. Consequently, tempeh fermentation of ZEN-contaminated maize/soybean mixture may lead to toxification of the food item by formation of the reductive ZEN metabolite, alpha-ZEL, under model as well as authentic conditions.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Antje Borzekowski, R. Anggriawan, M. Auliyati, Hans-Jörg Kunte, Matthias Koch, S. Rohn, P. Karlovsky, Ronald Maul
Dokumenttyp:Zeitschriftenartikel
Veröffentlichungsform:Verlagsliteratur
Sprache:Englisch
Titel des übergeordneten Werkes (Englisch):Molecules
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2019
Organisationseinheit der BAM:1 Analytische Chemie; Referenzmaterialien
1 Analytische Chemie; Referenzmaterialien / 1.7 Organische Spuren- und Lebensmittelanalytik
4 Material und Umwelt
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.1 Biologische Materialschädigung und Referenzorganismen
Veröffentlichende Institution:Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM)
Verlag:MDPI
Jahrgang/Band:24
Ausgabe/Heft:15
Erste Seite:2697
DDC-Klassifikation:Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / Chemie / Analytische Chemie
Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Sanitär- und Kommunaltechnik; Umwelttechnik
Freie Schlagwörter:Food fermentation; Modified mycotoxins; Rhizopus and Aspergillus oryzae; Zearalenone sulfate; a-zearalenol
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Umwelt
Umwelt / Umweltschadstoffe
Analytical Sciences
Analytical Sciences / Spurenanalytik und chemische Zusammensetzung
DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152697
URN:urn:nbn:de:kobv:b43-491126
URL:http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=WOS_CPL&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=WOS:000482441100020
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei für die Öffentlichkeit verfügbar ("Open Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:26.09.2019
Referierte Publikation:Ja
Datum der Eintragung als referierte Publikation:26.09.2019
Schriftenreihen ohne Nummerierung:Wissenschaftliche Artikel der BAM