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Unravelling the formation histories of placer gold and platinum-group mineral particles from Corrego Bom Successo, Brazil: A window into noble metal cycling

  • Gold and platinum-group-metals (PGM) are cycled through Earth's environments by interwoven geological, physical, chemical and biological processes leading to the trans/neoformation of metallic particles in placers. The placer deposit at Corrego Bom Successo (CBS, Brazil) is one of the few localities worldwide containing secondary gold- and PGM-particles. Placer gold consists of detrital particles from nearby hydrothermal deposits that were transformed in the surface environment. Processes that have affected these particles include shortdistance transport, chemical de-alloying of the primary Gold silver, and (bio)geochemical dissolution/reprecipitation of Gold leading to the formation of pure, secondary gold and the Dispersion of gold nanoparticles. The latter processes are likely mediated by non-living organic matter (OM) and bacterial biofilms residing on the particles. The biofilms are largely composed of metallophillic β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Abundant mobile gold and platinumGold and platinum-group-metals (PGM) are cycled through Earth's environments by interwoven geological, physical, chemical and biological processes leading to the trans/neoformation of metallic particles in placers. The placer deposit at Corrego Bom Successo (CBS, Brazil) is one of the few localities worldwide containing secondary gold- and PGM-particles. Placer gold consists of detrital particles from nearby hydrothermal deposits that were transformed in the surface environment. Processes that have affected these particles include shortdistance transport, chemical de-alloying of the primary Gold silver, and (bio)geochemical dissolution/reprecipitation of Gold leading to the formation of pure, secondary gold and the Dispersion of gold nanoparticles. The latter processes are likely mediated by non-living organic matter (OM) and bacterial biofilms residing on the particles. The biofilms are largely composed of metallophillic β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Abundant mobile gold and platinum nanoparticles were detected in surface waters, suggesting similar mobilities of these metals. Earlier hydrothermal processes have led to the formation of coarsely-crystalline, arborescent dendritic potarite (PdHg). On potarite surfaces, biogeochemical processes have then led to the formation of platinum- and palladium-rich micro-crystalline layers, which make up the botryoidal platinum palladium aggregates. Subsequently potarite was dissolved from the core of many aggregates leaving voids now often filled by secondary anatase (TiO2) containing biophilic elements. The presence of fungal structures associated with the anatase suggests that fungi may have contributed to ist formation. For the first time a primary magmatic PGM-particle comprising a mono-crystalline platinum palladium-alloy with platinum iridium osmium inclusions was described from this locality, finally defining a possible primary source for the PGM mineralisation. In conclusion, the formation of modern-day placer gold- and PGM-particles at CBS began 100s ofmillions of years ago bymagmatic and hydrothermal processes. These provided the metal sources for more recent biogeochemical cycling of PGEs and gold that led to the trans/neoformation of gold- and PGM-particles.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Gert Nolze, Romeo Saliwan Neumann, F. Reith, B. Etschmann, M. R. Kilburn, J. Brugger
Dokumenttyp:Zeitschriftenartikel
Veröffentlichungsform:Graue Literatur
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2019
Organisationseinheit der BAM:5 Werkstofftechnik
5 Werkstofftechnik / 5.1 Materialographie, Fraktographie und Alterung technischer Werkstoffe
Verlagsort:Gondwana Research
Jahrgang/Band:76
Erste Seite:246
Letzte Seite:259
DDC-Klassifikation:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften und zugeordnete Tätigkeiten
Freie Schlagwörter:Biogeochemical cycling; Biomineralisation; Gold; Magmatic and hydrothermal processes; Platinum-group-metals
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Material
Material / Life Cycle von Komponenten
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2019.07.003
ISSN:1342-937X
Verfügbarkeit des Volltexts:Volltext-PDF im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:09.08.2019
Referierte Publikation:Nein