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A thermochemical process for fertilizer production from sewage sludge ashes investigated from lab to industrial scale

  • Sewage sludge ashes (SSA) contain up to 13% P and are thus promising raw materials for fertilizer production. However, SSAs also contain heavy metals and the main P-bearing mineral phases whitlockite and aluminium phosphate are poorly bioavailable. We developed and patented a process that produces fertilizers from SSA addressing the above mentioned challenges. SSA is thermo-chemically treated at ~950°C under reducing conditions (reductive: dry sewage sludge) in a rotary kiln together with an alkali compound such as sodium or potassium sulfate, hydroxide or carbonate. Some undesired trace elements such as As, Hg, Pb and Cd are evaporated and separated via off gas treatment system. The poorly soluble phosphates are transformed into calcium alkali phosphates (CaNaPO4 or CaKPO4) that are not water soluble but completely soluble in neutral ammonium citrate solution (NAC). Pot experiments showed that the fertilizer performance of the treated SSA containing calcium alkali phosphates as theSewage sludge ashes (SSA) contain up to 13% P and are thus promising raw materials for fertilizer production. However, SSAs also contain heavy metals and the main P-bearing mineral phases whitlockite and aluminium phosphate are poorly bioavailable. We developed and patented a process that produces fertilizers from SSA addressing the above mentioned challenges. SSA is thermo-chemically treated at ~950°C under reducing conditions (reductive: dry sewage sludge) in a rotary kiln together with an alkali compound such as sodium or potassium sulfate, hydroxide or carbonate. Some undesired trace elements such as As, Hg, Pb and Cd are evaporated and separated via off gas treatment system. The poorly soluble phosphates are transformed into calcium alkali phosphates (CaNaPO4 or CaKPO4) that are not water soluble but completely soluble in neutral ammonium citrate solution (NAC). Pot experiments showed that the fertilizer performance of the treated SSA containing calcium alkali phosphates as the single P-bearing mineral phase was comparable to the performance of triple superphosphate. The PNAC-solubility of fertilizer products correlated very well with the resulting contents of calcium alkali phosphates and the P-uptake of plants in pot experiments. The effect of the ratio alkali/P on the PNAC-solubility was investigated by crucible experiments and trial series with a medium scale rotary kiln using different SSAs and alkali phosphates. The effects of operational parameters such as the temperature and the retention time were investigated as well as concurring side reactions of the alkali compounds e.g. with SiO2 present in SSA. The alkali/P ratio must be roughly adjusted at 2 to achieve 100% PNAC-solubility for a common type of SSA. A demonstration trial with an output of 2 t recycling fertilizer was carried out in an industrial rotary kiln (product output 30 kg/h). The PNAC-solubility of the product varied between 60% and 80% during the 4 days campaign showing that the transformation of the mineral P-phases to calcium alkali phosphates was not complete. This was observed although the amount of Na2SO4 additive was dosed according to the results of the pre-investigations. Structure analysis by XRD showed that besides the target compound CaNaSO4 also some Ca3(PO4)2 remained in the SSA as well as some unreacted Na2SO4 additive. Obviously, the conditions in the industrial rotary kiln were not optimal for the process showing that some process aspects have to be reconsidered for the scale-up.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Christian Adam
Koautoren/innen:Hannes Herzel, Jan Stemann, Ludwig Hermann, Oliver Krüger
Dokumenttyp:Vortrag
Veröffentlichungsform:Präsentation
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2016
Organisationseinheit der BAM:4 Material und Umwelt
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.4 Thermochemische Reststoffbehandlung und Wertstoffrückgewinnung
DDC-Klassifikation:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Sanitär- und Kommunaltechnik; Umwelttechnik
Freie Schlagwörter:Phosphorus recovery; Sewage sludge ash; Thermochemical treatment
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Umwelt
Umwelt / Ressourcenrückgewinnung und Materialverwertung
Veranstaltung:IPW8 - 8th International Phosphorus Workshop
Veranstaltungsort:Rostock, Germany
Beginndatum der Veranstaltung:12.09.2016
Enddatum der Veranstaltung:15.09.2016
Verfügbarkeit des Volltexts:Volltext-PDF im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:16.09.2016
Referierte Publikation:Nein