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Potential use of incineration bottom ash in construction – Evaluation of environmental impact

  • Around 5 million tonnes of MSWI bottom ash (BA) are generated per year in Germany. The incineration itself serves for metals as a concentrating and cleaning process. However, due to the almost exclusive wet extraction out of the furnace chamber the various metals are integrated in a heterogeneous and instable matrix. The metal recovery is therefore still a challenge relating the recovery rate and the purity, respectively. With state of the art treatment trains in Germany around 7.7% of ferrous metals and 1.3% of non-ferrous metals can be recovered out of MSWI BA. Large quantities of the mineral fraction are reused for sub-base material in road construction. A three month ageing period has been established as the common practice of further treatment of bottom ash before reuse applications. In the course of this aging the pH value of bottom ash decreases and contaminants are immobilized by processes like carbonation, hydration and oxidation. In particular leaching of heavy metals may beAround 5 million tonnes of MSWI bottom ash (BA) are generated per year in Germany. The incineration itself serves for metals as a concentrating and cleaning process. However, due to the almost exclusive wet extraction out of the furnace chamber the various metals are integrated in a heterogeneous and instable matrix. The metal recovery is therefore still a challenge relating the recovery rate and the purity, respectively. With state of the art treatment trains in Germany around 7.7% of ferrous metals and 1.3% of non-ferrous metals can be recovered out of MSWI BA. Large quantities of the mineral fraction are reused for sub-base material in road construction. A three month ageing period has been established as the common practice of further treatment of bottom ash before reuse applications. In the course of this aging the pH value of bottom ash decreases and contaminants are immobilized by processes like carbonation, hydration and oxidation. In particular leaching of heavy metals may be reduced to environmentally acceptable levels. However, the aging results in fixing of other valuable resources such as metals. Two laboratory scale lysimeters (30 cm in diameter) are being operated for more than three years aiming at the investigation of the long-term leaching behavior of a 0.25/45 mm mineral material obtained by treatment of MSWI bottom ash directly after incineration by a wet processing technology. Artificial rainwater is used as leachant (pH ≈ 6, ingredients NO32-, Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). The lysimeters are irrigated related to an average annual precipitation rate of 600 mm/a leading to a liquid to solid ratio (L/S) of about 0.7 per year of operation. Lysimeter tests are more adequate to simulate field scenarios and long-term leaching behavior in contrast to laboratory column tests particularly due to the unsaturated conditions and realistic contact time with the leachant. In comparison to the leaching of bottom ash (aged for 3 month and non-treated) in column tests the chloride and sulfate leaching in the lysimeters was reduced as a consequence of the previous wet processing. The sulfate release kept almost constant limited by CaSO4 solubility up to an L/S of about 0.7 l/kg. The chloride concentrations dropped quickly, starting from 7300 mg/l, and are now at an almost constant level of 50 mg/l which is significantly above the chloride concentration in the leachant. After an initial decrease of the pH from about 10.4 to 8 at L/S of 0.2 l/kg, the pH increased again and leveled out around 9.8 up to L/S 2.2 l/kg. At an L/S of about 2.5 l/kg now, Cr, Cu are still released. The Cu and Cr concentrations in the leachates were about 760 µg/l and 90 µg/l respectively at the beginning. For both metals the concentration decreased to about 35 µg/l now. The Mo concentrations dropped steadily from 1300 to 250 µg/l, whereas V and Sb concentrations increased in the course of the tests. Fe and Mn are not detectable anymore. More results of this experimental study will be presented and discussed with a special focus on elements forming oxyanions.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Autoren/innen:Ute Kalbe
Koautoren/innen:Franz-Georg Simon, Nicole Bandow
Dokumenttyp:Vortrag
Veröffentlichungsform:Präsentation
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2018
Organisationseinheit der BAM:4 Material und Umwelt
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.3 Schadstofftransfer und Umwelttechnologien
DDC-Klassifikation:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Sanitär- und Kommunaltechnik; Umwelttechnik
Freie Schlagwörter:Leaching; Lysimeter, Antimony; MSWI bottom ash
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Umwelt
Umwelt / Ressourcenrückgewinnung und Materialverwertung
Veranstaltung:10th International Conference on the Environmental and Technical Implications of Construction with Alternative Materials, WASCON 2018
Veranstaltungsort:Tampere, Finland
Beginndatum der Veranstaltung:06.06.2018
Enddatum der Veranstaltung:08.06.2018
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:25.06.2018
Referierte Publikation:Nein