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Weathering scenarios – Changes in polymer surface morphologies and leaching of brominated flame retardants

  • In addition to previously reported results on the simulated aging of polystyrene samples (PS) containing 1 wt. % hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), we present the first results of our investigations of polypropylene (PP)-samples containing 0.1 wt. % BDE-209. All studied polymer samples were exposed to a defined weathering schedule in a climate chamber in accordance to regulation EN ISO 4892-3:2006.For the determination of BDE-209 in the collected rain water samples derived from the used climate chamber, the samples were prepared in accordance with a validated protocol. Before the analyses, each sample was spiked with 2 µL of isotopically labeled BDE-209 (13C10-BDE-209) to serve as internal standard (ISTD) in the performed stable isotope dilution analysis. Subsequently the samples were extracted with isooctane, the obtained aliquots of the extracts were concentrated to 200 µL and 2 µL of the resulting solution were injected to the GC/MS for quantification. Additionally, the total bromineIn addition to previously reported results on the simulated aging of polystyrene samples (PS) containing 1 wt. % hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), we present the first results of our investigations of polypropylene (PP)-samples containing 0.1 wt. % BDE-209. All studied polymer samples were exposed to a defined weathering schedule in a climate chamber in accordance to regulation EN ISO 4892-3:2006.For the determination of BDE-209 in the collected rain water samples derived from the used climate chamber, the samples were prepared in accordance with a validated protocol. Before the analyses, each sample was spiked with 2 µL of isotopically labeled BDE-209 (13C10-BDE-209) to serve as internal standard (ISTD) in the performed stable isotope dilution analysis. Subsequently the samples were extracted with isooctane, the obtained aliquots of the extracts were concentrated to 200 µL and 2 µL of the resulting solution were injected to the GC/MS for quantification. Additionally, the total bromine contents are monitored for the aged and untreated samples using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) as well as X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) as non-destructive and rapid method. Furthermore, results from surface analysis using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) for morphological characterization of the aged and untreated samples were presented and discussed. In general, the resulting data from the accelerated aging will be compared to those from the natural weathering experiments (“atmospheric exposure”, in soil). The atmospheric exposure was performed by placing the samples on a weathering rack, which is aligned in SW direction (in a 45° angle to the horizon). The weathering data were regularly recorded by Deutscher Wetterdienst at this site. The surfaces of the test specimens (aged and stored references) were analyzed by ESEM as well as by LA-ICP-MS and by XRF. The surface of PS and PP specimens aged outdoors present the aging under real conditions and allow the comparison to the accelerated aged specimens by means of the weathering chamber. This way, we explore the efficiency of the accelerated aging procedure, which provides the advantage of well-defined and reproducible conditions compared to natural weathering, as a tool for testing different plastic materials. Additionally “in soil” experiments were conducted in-door in a well characterized testing soil. The soil (boulder-clay, sand with 12 % loam, particle size in total 0.2-4 mm) is filled in a free-draining concrete basin inside of an air-conditioned room. In this manner, TOC, water capacity and humidity are recorded parameters. To assure a washing out process from the samples by the raining water, the target water content is calculated to 8%. The actual humidity is measured by a tensiometer, assuring the duration of the raining period. The water content is additionally monitored by weight of the basin, capturing water from raining periods. The correct humidity is a fundamental parameter for biological activity. Samples of PS resp. PP were of dimension 10x1cm and 5 specimens were placed up to the half in the soil per basin. Microbial activity of the soil, monitored by the reference polyurethane, sets HBCD resp. BDE-209 of the samples free and will be leached from the samples by raining water. Thereafter these will be captured by passive samplers placed in a distinct distance to the samples in the soil. The “in soil” experiments are complementary to the weathering experiments due to the biological activity in the soil. These experiments simulate the fate of the brominated flame retardants in the biosphere.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Christian Piechotta
Koautoren/innen:Robert Köppen, Roland Becker, Michael Bücker, Markus Ostermann, Heike Traub
Dokumenttyp:Posterpräsentation
Veröffentlichungsform:Präsentation
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2018
Organisationseinheit der BAM:1 Analytische Chemie; Referenzmaterialien
1 Analytische Chemie; Referenzmaterialien / 1.1 Anorganische Spurenanalytik
1 Analytische Chemie; Referenzmaterialien / 1.7 Organische Spuren- und Lebensmittelanalytik
1 Analytische Chemie; Referenzmaterialien / 1.8 Umweltanalytik
4 Material und Umwelt
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.2 Materialien und Luftschadstoffe
DDC-Klassifikation:Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / Chemie / Analytische Chemie
Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Sanitär- und Kommunaltechnik; Umwelttechnik
Freie Schlagwörter:BFR; PP; PS; Weathering
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Umwelt
Umwelt / Umweltverhalten von Materialien und Produkten
Analytical Sciences
Analytical Sciences / Spurenanalytik und chemische Zusammensetzung
Veranstaltung:Umwelt 2018
Veranstaltungsort:Münster, Germany
Beginndatum der Veranstaltung:09.09.2018
Enddatum der Veranstaltung:13.09.2018
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:17.12.2018
Referierte Publikation:Nein