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On the determination of the chemical reduction factor for PET geogrids

  • Data from four samples of commercially available PET geogrids (made either of yarns or bars), which were measured by BAM or other institute, are analyzed to discuss the procedure and problems of determining the chemical reduction factor RFCH associated with a certain service life. Estimates from Arrhenius extrapolation usually have very large statistical errors. The level of confidence must therefore be specified. A reliable estimate requires data from immersion tests below the glass transition temperature of PET. To extrapolate the time of reductions for each reduction factor at such low temperatures, one has to know the functional form of the mechanical degradation curve. It is shown how the degradation curve of the tensile strength may be obtained by determining the relation between increase in concentration of carboxyl end group (CEG) and decrease in tensile strength. Therefore, experimental studies to determine the chemical reduction factor should be accompanied by theData from four samples of commercially available PET geogrids (made either of yarns or bars), which were measured by BAM or other institute, are analyzed to discuss the procedure and problems of determining the chemical reduction factor RFCH associated with a certain service life. Estimates from Arrhenius extrapolation usually have very large statistical errors. The level of confidence must therefore be specified. A reliable estimate requires data from immersion tests below the glass transition temperature of PET. To extrapolate the time of reductions for each reduction factor at such low temperatures, one has to know the functional form of the mechanical degradation curve. It is shown how the degradation curve of the tensile strength may be obtained by determining the relation between increase in concentration of carboxyl end group (CEG) and decrease in tensile strength. Therefore, experimental studies to determine the chemical reduction factor should be accompanied by the measurements of the CEG concentration and the intrinsic viscosity. Furthermore, such measurements allow a non-ambiguous determination of the molecular mass. Hydrolytic molecular degradation will proceed continuously even at 20 °C with half-life of the inverse of the CEG concentration of 40–100 y. Nevertheless, small chemical reduction factors at a lifetime of 100 y are obtained with high level of confidence for materials with low initial CEG concentration and high molecular mass. This is shown by pooling data from samples with comparable CEG concentration, molecular mass and above all comparable intrinsic relation between increase in CEG concentration and decrease in strength. Therefore, the recommendation of ISO TR 20432, Table 2, for chemical reduction factors seems to be applicable to PET geogrids with index properties well below the one specified by the technical report. Whether these index properties are actually a sufficient condition to have small chemical reduction factors even at a very long service life is still an open question. The determination of chemical reduction factor should be based on aging experiments, at least for products with index properties close to the limiting values for the following reasons. (1) Even so standards are available, results of different laboratories on absolute values of CEG concentration and number averaged molecular mass differ to a certain extent. (2) Other factors, like crystallization, affect the mechanical degradation significantly. (3) There is no universally applicable form of the mechanical degradation curve.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Werner Müller
Dokumenttyp:Zeitschriftenartikel
Veröffentlichungsform:Verlagsliteratur
Sprache:Englisch
Titel des übergeordneten Werkes (Englisch):Geotextiles and Geomembranes
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2014
Organisationseinheit der BAM:4 Material und Umwelt
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.3 Schadstofftransfer und Umwelttechnologien
Verlag:Elsevier
Verlagsort:Amsterdam
Jahrgang/Band:42
Ausgabe/Heft:2
Erste Seite:98
Letzte Seite:110
Freie Schlagwörter:Aging; Chemical reduction factor; Geogrid; Hydrolytic degradation; Polyester
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2013.12.009
ISSN:0266-1144
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:20.02.2016
Referierte Publikation:Ja
Datum der Eintragung als referierte Publikation:20.02.2014