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Hydrogen diffusion in creep-resistant 9%-Cr P91 steel weld metal

  • 9 %-Cr steel P91 is widely used in power plants due to the excellent creep-resistance. Components of this steel are typically welded and demand for careful welding fabrication, whereas a so-called post weld heat treatment (PWHT), must be conducted to increase the toughness and decrease the hardness of the martensitic as-welded (AW) microstructure. Before the PWHT, a hydrogen removal (or dehydrogenation) heat treatment is necessary as hardened AW martensitic microstructure is generally prone to delayed hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC). The microstructure and temperature dependent hydrogen diffusion is an important issue as it determines how long a potential crack-critical hydrogen concentration could remain in the microstructure. In this context, reliable hydrogen diffusion coefficients of P91 weld metal are rare. Hence, the diffusion behavior of P91 multi-layer weld metal was investigated in two different microstructure conditions: AW and further PWHT (760 °C for 4 h). Two different9 %-Cr steel P91 is widely used in power plants due to the excellent creep-resistance. Components of this steel are typically welded and demand for careful welding fabrication, whereas a so-called post weld heat treatment (PWHT), must be conducted to increase the toughness and decrease the hardness of the martensitic as-welded (AW) microstructure. Before the PWHT, a hydrogen removal (or dehydrogenation) heat treatment is necessary as hardened AW martensitic microstructure is generally prone to delayed hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC). The microstructure and temperature dependent hydrogen diffusion is an important issue as it determines how long a potential crack-critical hydrogen concentration could remain in the microstructure. In this context, reliable hydrogen diffusion coefficients of P91 weld metal are rare. Hence, the diffusion behavior of P91 multi-layer weld metal was investigated in two different microstructure conditions: AW and further PWHT (760 °C for 4 h). Two different experimental techniques were used to cover a wide range of hydrogen diffusion temperatures: the electrochemical permeation technique (PT) at room temperature and the carrier gas hot extraction (CGHE) for a temperature range from 100 to 400 °C. From both techniques typical hydrogen diffusion coefficients were calculated and the corresponding hydrogen concentration was measured. It was ascertained that both heat treatment conditions show significant differences in hydrogen diffusivity. The biggest deviations were identified for room temperature. In this case, the AW condition shows significant hydrogen trapping and up to seven times lower diffusion coefficients. Additionally, PT investigations showed a preferred diffusion direction of hydrogen in the weld metal expressed by the diffusion coefficients and the permeability for both heat treatment conditions. The CGHE generally revealed lower diffusion coefficients for the AW microstructure up to 200 °C. In addition, the AW condition showed hydrogen concentrations up to 50 ml/100 g (considering electrochemical charging). Nonetheless, this hydrogen was not permanently (reversibly) trapped. Nonetheless, this temperature is approximately 100 °C below recommended dehydrogenation heat treatment (DHT). This has two main consequences: (I) in case of welding is interrupted or no DHT is conducted, a HAC susceptibility of hardened martensitic P91 weld metal cannot be excluded and (II) DHT can be conducted at temperatures around 200 °C below the recommended temperatures.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Michael Rhode
Koautoren/innen:T. Richter, P. Mayr, A. Nitsche, Tobias Mente, Thomas Böllinghaus
Dokumenttyp:Vortrag
Veröffentlichungsform:Präsentation
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2019
Organisationseinheit der BAM:9 Komponentensicherheit
9 Komponentensicherheit / 9.0 Abteilungsleitung und andere
DDC-Klassifikation:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften und zugeordnete Tätigkeiten
Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Angewandte Physik
Freie Schlagwörter:Diffusion; Hydrogen; Microstructure; Post weld heat treatment; Weld metal
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Energie
Material
Material / Degradation von Werkstoffen und Materialien
Energie / Thermische Kraftwerke
Veranstaltung:IIW Annual Assembly, Meeting of Commission IX-C "Creep and heat resistant welds"
Veranstaltungsort:Bratislava, Slovakia
Beginndatum der Veranstaltung:07.07.2019
Enddatum der Veranstaltung:10.07.2019
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:15.07.2019
Referierte Publikation:Nein