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Evaluating the explosion severity of nanopowders: International standards versus reality

  • The maximum explosion overpressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise, which characterize thedust explosion severity, are commonly measured in apparatuses and under specific conditions defined byinternational standards. However, those standards conditions, designed for micropowders, may not befully adapted to nanoparticles. Investigations were conducted on different nanopowders (nanocellulose,carbon black, aluminum) to illustrate their specific behaviors and highlight the potential inadequacyof the standards. The influence of the sample preparation was explored. Various testing procedureswere compared, focusing on the dust cloud turbulence and homogeneity. Dust dispersion experimentsevidenced the importance of the characterization of the dust cloud after dispersion, due to the frag-mentation of agglomerates, using metrics relevant with nanoparticles reactivity (e.g. surface diameterinstead of volume diameter). Moreover, the overdriving phenomenon (when the experimental resultsbecomeThe maximum explosion overpressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise, which characterize thedust explosion severity, are commonly measured in apparatuses and under specific conditions defined byinternational standards. However, those standards conditions, designed for micropowders, may not befully adapted to nanoparticles. Investigations were conducted on different nanopowders (nanocellulose,carbon black, aluminum) to illustrate their specific behaviors and highlight the potential inadequacyof the standards. The influence of the sample preparation was explored. Various testing procedureswere compared, focusing on the dust cloud turbulence and homogeneity. Dust dispersion experimentsevidenced the importance of the characterization of the dust cloud after dispersion, due to the frag-mentation of agglomerates, using metrics relevant with nanoparticles reactivity (e.g. surface diameterinstead of volume diameter). Moreover, the overdriving phenomenon (when the experimental resultsbecome dependent of the ignition energy), already identified for micropowders, can be exacerbated fornanoparticles due to their low minimum ignition energy and to the high energy used under standardconditions. It was evidenced that for highly sensitive nanopowders, pre-ignition phenomenon can occur.Finally, during severe explosions and due to a too long opening delay of the ‘fast acting valve’, the flamecan go back to the dust container.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:A. Santandrea, A. Vignes, Arne Krietsch, D. Brunello, L. Perrin, A. Laurent, O. Dufaud
Dokumenttyp:Zeitschriftenartikel
Veröffentlichungsform:Verlagsliteratur
Sprache:Englisch
Titel des übergeordneten Werkes (Englisch):Process Safety and Environmental Protection
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2020
Organisationseinheit der BAM:2 Chemische Sicherheitstechnik
2 Chemische Sicherheitstechnik / 2.1 Explosionsschutz Gase, Stäube
Verlag:Elsevier B.V.
Jahrgang/Band:138
Erste Seite:279
Letzte Seite:291
DDC-Klassifikation:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Ingenieurbau
Freie Schlagwörter:Dust explosions; Gas explosions; Hybrid mixtures; Minimum ignition temperature
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Infrastruktur
Infrastruktur / Fire Science
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2020.04.011
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:29.06.2020
Referierte Publikation:Ja
Datum der Eintragung als referierte Publikation:29.06.2020