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Life on the rocks - Black fungi from biofilms on material-atmosphere interface

  • Interface between the atmosphere and mineral substrates is the oldest terrestrial habitat. Morphologically simple microbial biofilms were the first settlers on these inhospitable surfaces at times when the Earth was inhabited only by microorganisms and the solid substrates represented only by natural rock surfaces i.e. lithosphere. Miniature, self-sufficient microbial ecosystems continue to develop on subaerial (i.e. air-exposed) solid surfaces at all altitudes and latitudes where direct contact with the atmosphere and solar radiation occurs – on rocks, mountains, buildings, monuments, solar panels. All these sub-aerial biofilms develop under fluctuating and hostile conditions – and thus frequently harbour stress-tolerant black fungi inherently able to cope with the stresses of bright sunlight and constantly changing atmospheric conditions. Black fungi – a polyphyletic group of Ascomycetes– accumulate the dark pigment DHN melanin, diverse carotenoids and mycosporines in their cells andInterface between the atmosphere and mineral substrates is the oldest terrestrial habitat. Morphologically simple microbial biofilms were the first settlers on these inhospitable surfaces at times when the Earth was inhabited only by microorganisms and the solid substrates represented only by natural rock surfaces i.e. lithosphere. Miniature, self-sufficient microbial ecosystems continue to develop on subaerial (i.e. air-exposed) solid surfaces at all altitudes and latitudes where direct contact with the atmosphere and solar radiation occurs – on rocks, mountains, buildings, monuments, solar panels. All these sub-aerial biofilms develop under fluctuating and hostile conditions – and thus frequently harbour stress-tolerant black fungi inherently able to cope with the stresses of bright sunlight and constantly changing atmospheric conditions. Black fungi – a polyphyletic group of Ascomycetes– accumulate the dark pigment DHN melanin, diverse carotenoids and mycosporines in their cells and thus successfully colonise sunlight-flooded habitats from phyllosphere to rock surfaces. Various chemical and physical extremes and fluctuating environments belong to the challenges effectively mastered by black fungi. In our laboratory we isolate novel black fungi from man-made habitats like building materials and solar panels. Using Knufia petricola A95 as a model we conduct experiments to clarify interactions of black fungi with inorganic substrates. We use available mutants to determine the functional consequences of changes in the outer cell wall envelopes – from excreted EPS to layers of protective pigments. A genetic toolbox to manipulate this Chaetothyriales representative is in further development. Our long-term goal is to understand the fundamental mechanisms how black fungi are able (i) to adhere to dry atmosphere-exposed surfaces, (ii) to survive multiple stresses and (iii) to change the underlying substrates including rocks.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Anna Gorbushina
Dokumenttyp:Vortrag
Veröffentlichungsform:Präsentation
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2019
Organisationseinheit der BAM:4 Material und Umwelt
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.0 Abteilungsleitung und andere
DDC-Klassifikation:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Sanitär- und Kommunaltechnik; Umwelttechnik
Freie Schlagwörter:Carotenoids; Knufia; Melanins; Mineral weathering; Subaerial biofilm
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Umwelt
Umwelt / Umweltverhalten von Materialien und Produkten
Veranstaltung:International Symposium on Fungal Stress (ISFUS)
Veranstaltungsort:São José dos Campos, Brazil
Beginndatum der Veranstaltung:19.05.2019
Enddatum der Veranstaltung:23.05.2019
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:13.01.2020
Referierte Publikation:Nein