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Microbial hotspots in lithic microhabitats inferred from DNA fractionation and metagenomics in the Atacama Desert

  • The existence of microbial activity hotspots in temperate regions of Earth is driven by soil heterogeneities, especially the temporal and spatial availability of nutrients. Here we investigate whether microbial activity hotspots also exist in lithic microhabitats in one of the most arid regions of the world, the Atacama Desert in Chile. While previous studies evaluated the total DNA fraction to elucidate the microbial communities, we here for the first time use a DNA separation approach on lithic microhabitats, together with metagenomics and other analysis methods (i.e., ATP, PLFA, and metabolite analysis) to specifically gain insights on the living and potentially active microbial community. Our results show that hypolith colonized rocks are microbial hotspots in the desert environment. In contrast, our data do not support such a conclusion for gypsum crust and salt rock environments, because only limited microbial activity could be observed. The hypolith community is dominated byThe existence of microbial activity hotspots in temperate regions of Earth is driven by soil heterogeneities, especially the temporal and spatial availability of nutrients. Here we investigate whether microbial activity hotspots also exist in lithic microhabitats in one of the most arid regions of the world, the Atacama Desert in Chile. While previous studies evaluated the total DNA fraction to elucidate the microbial communities, we here for the first time use a DNA separation approach on lithic microhabitats, together with metagenomics and other analysis methods (i.e., ATP, PLFA, and metabolite analysis) to specifically gain insights on the living and potentially active microbial community. Our results show that hypolith colonized rocks are microbial hotspots in the desert environment. In contrast, our data do not support such a conclusion for gypsum crust and salt rock environments, because only limited microbial activity could be observed. The hypolith community is dominated by phototrophs, mostly Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi, at both study sites. The gypsum crusts are dominated by methylotrophs and heterotrophic phototrophs, mostly Chloroflexi, and the salt rocks (halite nodules) by phototrophic and halotolerant endoliths, mostly Cyanobacteria and Archaea. The major environmental constraints in the organic-poor arid and hyperarid Atacama Desert are water availability and UV irradiation, allowing phototrophs and other extremophiles to play a key role in desert ecology.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:D. Schulze-Makuch, Beate Schneider
Dokumenttyp:Zeitschriftenartikel
Veröffentlichungsform:Verlagsliteratur
Sprache:Englisch
Titel des übergeordneten Werkes (Englisch):Microorganisms
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2021
Organisationseinheit der BAM:4 Material und Umwelt
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.1 Biologische Materialschädigung und Referenzorganismen
Veröffentlichende Institution:Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM)
Verlag:MDPI
Verlagsort:Basel
Jahrgang/Band:9
Ausgabe/Heft:5
Erste Seite:1038
DDC-Klassifikation:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Sanitär- und Kommunaltechnik; Umwelttechnik
Freie Schlagwörter:Desert ecology; Extremophile; Hyperarid
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Umwelt
Umwelt / Umweltverhalten von Materialien und Produkten
DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051038
URN:urn:nbn:de:kobv:b43-527959
ISSN:2076-2607
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei für die Öffentlichkeit verfügbar ("Open Access")
Lizenz (Deutsch):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International
Datum der Freischaltung:10.06.2021
Referierte Publikation:Ja
Datum der Eintragung als referierte Publikation:10.06.2021
Schriftenreihen ohne Nummerierung:Wissenschaftliche Artikel der BAM