Investigation of scandium in bauxite residues of different origin

  • This paper focuses on the scandium speciation in bauxite residues of different origin. Insights into mineralchemical similarities and differences of these materials will be presented and links to their natural geological background discussed. The presented research should provide fundamental knowledge for the future development of efficient and viable technologies for Sc-recovery from bauxite residues derived from different bauxites and accumulating at different localities. In total, five bauxite residues were investigated which originated from Greece, Germany, Hungary and Russia (North Ural & North Timan) using a combination of different analytical tools. Those included: laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, X-ray absorption near Edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, μ-Raman spectroscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analyses. X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to determine the overallThis paper focuses on the scandium speciation in bauxite residues of different origin. Insights into mineralchemical similarities and differences of these materials will be presented and links to their natural geological background discussed. The presented research should provide fundamental knowledge for the future development of efficient and viable technologies for Sc-recovery from bauxite residues derived from different bauxites and accumulating at different localities. In total, five bauxite residues were investigated which originated from Greece, Germany, Hungary and Russia (North Ural & North Timan) using a combination of different analytical tools. Those included: laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, X-ray absorption near Edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, μ-Raman spectroscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analyses. X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to determine the overall chemical composition. The investigated samples were found to exhibit a relatively homogenous distribution of Sc between the larger mineral particles and the fine-grained matrix except for Al-phases like diaspore, boehmite and gibbsite. These phases were found to be particularly low in Sc. The only sample where Sc mass fractions in Al-phases exceeded 50 mg/kg was the Russian sample from North Ural. Fe-phases such as goethite, hematite and chamosite (for Russian samples) were more enriched in Sc than the Al-phases. In fact, in Greek samples goethite showed a higher capacity to incorporate or adsorb Sc than hematite. Accessory minerals like zircon, rutile/anatase and ilmenite were found to incorporate higher mass fractions of Sc (>150 mg/kg), however, those minerals are only present in small amounts and do not represent major host phases for Sc. In Russian samples from North Ural an additional Ca–Mg rich phase was found to contain significant mass fractions of Sc (>500 mg/kg). μ-XANES spectroscopy was able to show that Sc in bauxite residue occurs adsorbed onto mineral surfaces as well as incorporated into the crystal lattice of certain Fe-phases. According to our observations the bauxite type, i.e. karstic or lateritic, the atmospheric conditions during bauxitization, i.e. oxidizing or reducing, and consequently the dominant Sc-bearing species in the primary Bauxite influence the occurrence of Sc in bauxite residues. In karstic bauxites, underlying carbonate rocks can work as a pH-barrier and stabilize Sc. This prevents the Sc from being mobilized and removed during bauxitization. Hence, karstic bauxites are more prone to show a Sc enrichment than lateritic bauxites. Reducing conditions during bauxitization support the incorporation of Sc into clay minerals such as chamosite, which can dissolve and reprecipitate during Bayer processing causing Sc to be redistributed and primarily adsorb onto mineral surfaces in the bauxite residue. Oxidizing conditions support the incorporation of Sc into the crystal lattice of Fe-oxides and hydroxides, which are not affected in the Bayer process. The genetic history of the bauxite is therefore the major influential factor for the Sc occurrence in bauxite residues.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Marie Gentzmann, Katharina Schraut, Christian Vogel, H.-E. Gäbler, T. Huthwelker, Christian Adam
Dokumenttyp:Zeitschriftenartikel
Veröffentlichungsform:Verlagsliteratur
Sprache:Englisch
Titel des übergeordneten Werkes (Englisch):Applied Geochemistry
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2021
Organisationseinheit der BAM:4 Material und Umwelt
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.3 Schadstofftransfer und Umwelttechnologien
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.4 Thermochemische Reststoffbehandlung und Wertstoffrückgewinnung
Verlag:Elsevier Ltd.
Jahrgang/Band:126
Erste Seite:104898
Freie Schlagwörter:Bauxite Residue; Red Mud; Sc recovery; Scandium; XANES
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Umwelt
Umwelt / Recycling
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2021.104898
ISSN:0883-2927
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:17.02.2021
Referierte Publikation:Nein