Influence of welding stresses on relaxation cracking during heat treatment of a creep-resistant 13CrMoV steel, Part III

  • Efficiency and flexibility are currently a major concern in the design of modern power plants and chemical processing facilities. The high requirements for economic profitability and in particular climate change neutrality are driving this development. Consequently, plant equipment and chemical reactor components are designed for higher operating pressure and temperature. Creep-resistant CrMo steels had been used as constructional materials for decades but came to operational limitations, for example the resistance against so-called high-temperature hydrogen attack in petrochemical reactors. For that purpose, 20 years ago V-modified CrMo steels had been developed for use in the petrochemical industry due to their very good creep-strength and hydrogen pressure resistance at elevated temperatures enabling long service life of the respective components. For example, the 13CrMoV9-10 steel is applicable for process temperatures of up to 482 °C and hydrogen pressures of up to 34.5 MPa. DueEfficiency and flexibility are currently a major concern in the design of modern power plants and chemical processing facilities. The high requirements for economic profitability and in particular climate change neutrality are driving this development. Consequently, plant equipment and chemical reactor components are designed for higher operating pressure and temperature. Creep-resistant CrMo steels had been used as constructional materials for decades but came to operational limitations, for example the resistance against so-called high-temperature hydrogen attack in petrochemical reactors. For that purpose, 20 years ago V-modified CrMo steels had been developed for use in the petrochemical industry due to their very good creep-strength and hydrogen pressure resistance at elevated temperatures enabling long service life of the respective components. For example, the 13CrMoV9-10 steel is applicable for process temperatures of up to 482 °C and hydrogen pressures of up to 34.5 MPa. Due to the large dimensions and wall thickness of the reactors (wall thickness up to 475 mm) and the special alloy concept, reliable weld manufacturing of the components is extremely challenging. First, low toughness and high strength of the weld joint in the as-welded condition are critical regarding weld cracking. High welding residual stresses are the result of the highly restrained shrinkage of the component welds. For this purpose, the entire component must be subjected to Post-Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) after completion of the welding operation. The aim is to increase the toughness of the weld joints as well as to reduce the welding induced residual stresses. Before and during PWHT, extreme caution is required to prevent cracking. Unfortunately, V-modified CrMo steels possess an increased susceptibility to cracking during stress relaxation the so-called stress relief cracking (SRC). Available literature studies have largely focused on thermal and metallurgical factors. However, little attention has been paid on the influence of the welding procedure on crack formation during PWHT considering actual manufacturing conditions. For that reason, we investigated in our previous studies (part I and II), the influence of heat control on the mechanical properties by simulating actual manufacturing conditions prevailing during the construction of petrochemical reactors using a special 3D- acting testing facility. The focus of part I was put on the influence of the welding heat control on mechanical stresses and the effect on cracking during PWHT. Part II was mainly dedicated to the metallurgical causes of SRC during PWHT and the interaction with the occurring mechanical stresses. It could be shown that not only high welding-induced stresses due to increased weld heat input cause higher susceptibility for SRC formation. It was further intensified by an altered precipitation behaviour in presence of mechanical stresses that are caused by the component related restraint. The present part III shows how residual stresses, which are present in such welded components and significantly influence the crack formation, can be transferred to the laboratory scale. As a result, the effect on the residual stresses on the SRC behaviour can be evaluated on simplified small-scale specimens instead of expensive mock-ups. For this purpose, experiments with test set-ups at different scales and under different rigidity conditions were designed and carried out.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Dirk Schröpfer
Koautoren/innen:Arne Kromm, Thomas Lausch, Michael Rhode, Thomas Kannengiesser
Dokumenttyp:Vortrag
Veröffentlichungsform:Präsentation
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2020
Organisationseinheit der BAM:9 Komponentensicherheit
9 Komponentensicherheit / 9.2 Versuchsanlagen und Prüftechnik
9 Komponentensicherheit / 9.4 Integrität von Schweißverbindungen
9 Komponentensicherheit / 9.0 Abteilungsleitung und andere
DDC-Klassifikation:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften / Ingenieurwissenschaften und zugeordnete Tätigkeiten
Freie Schlagwörter:Creep-resistant steel; Post weld heat treatment; Residual stresses; Stress relief cracking; Welding
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Material
Material / Life Cycle von Komponenten
Veranstaltung:IIW Annual Assembly, Meeting of Commission II-A
Veranstaltungsort:Online meeting
Beginndatum der Veranstaltung:20.07.2020
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:18.11.2020
Referierte Publikation:Nein