Non-invasive spectroscopic investigation of cultural artefacts: shedding light on modern reverse glass paintings

  • This thesis addresses the development of a methodological approach for the non-invasive identification of colourants and for the classification of binding media in reverse glass paintings from the early 20th century. For this purpose, mobile and miniaturized devices were used to measure the paintings in situ. The methodology includes X-ray fluorescence (XRF), VIS spectroscopy (VIS), Raman spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). In a first step the capabilities of DRIFTS for binding media classification and pigment identification were tested. DRIFTS enables, besides Raman spectroscopy, the collection of molecular information of a substance that can be used as characteristic fingerprint spectrum. However, the simultaneous collection of both specular (surface) and diffuse (volume) reflection leads to complicated mixed DRIFT spectra, that can vary strongly for one substance depending on the dominant fraction of reflected light. SpecularThis thesis addresses the development of a methodological approach for the non-invasive identification of colourants and for the classification of binding media in reverse glass paintings from the early 20th century. For this purpose, mobile and miniaturized devices were used to measure the paintings in situ. The methodology includes X-ray fluorescence (XRF), VIS spectroscopy (VIS), Raman spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). In a first step the capabilities of DRIFTS for binding media classification and pigment identification were tested. DRIFTS enables, besides Raman spectroscopy, the collection of molecular information of a substance that can be used as characteristic fingerprint spectrum. However, the simultaneous collection of both specular (surface) and diffuse (volume) reflection leads to complicated mixed DRIFT spectra, that can vary strongly for one substance depending on the dominant fraction of reflected light. Specular reflection causes several spectral distortions like inverted bands, band shifts and derivative-like features whereas pure diffuse reflections leads to an intensity enhancement of combination bands and overtones. Both specular and diffuse reflection cannot be optically separated, and their proportion depends on material properties like the absorption coefficient and the refractive index as well as on Parameters like surface roughness, porosity, grain size and angle of incidence and detection. A direct comparison of DRIFT spectra with IR spectra of other methods (e.g. transmission, ATR) is not possible, hence the creation of DRIFTS databases was needed. The next step was the complimentary utilization of Raman spectroscopy and DRIFTS for the dentification of synthetic organic colourants. Such colourants are in the further chapters called synthetic organic pigments (SOP) even when it’s not always entirely clear if they are soluble dyes or pigments that are practically insoluble in the medium in which they are incorporated. Raman spectroscopy is generally the method of choice when dealing with SOP, but fluorescence can hamper the Raman spectrum severely, inhibiting the proper identification of the pigment. DRIFTS was successfully applied and several SOP like synthetic alizarin (PR83), the yellow azo pigments (e.g. PY1) or the red and orange β-naphthol pigments (e.g. PR3) could be identified in the paintings solely by means of DRIFTS. The holistic methodological sequence was defined after the successful establishment of DRIFTS as serious analytical alternative. As the time is always the most limiting factor for in situ measurement campaigns in museums, the 9 sequence needs to be time saving but also efficient. The methodology starts with quick measurements by XRF and VIS to get a first idea of the pigment composition, followed by the validation of the results with the vibrational spectroscopies for selected points. Measurements of reverse glass paintings by Carlo Mense and Wassily Kandinsky were conducted to test the entire procedure. A high number of pigments could be identified, including several rare ones like strontium white (SrSO4), PR60 and PB52. The binding media were classified using the previously recorded references. The results were set in the art historian context and were discussed in a multidisciplinary way. The influence of Asian art, especially of Chinese reverse glass paintings as source of inspiration for artists of the “Blauer Reiter” collective (e.g. Wassily Kandinsky, Gabriele Münter, Franz Marc und Heinrich Campendonk) is shown. Non-invasive measurements of two Chinese reverse glass paintings from the late 19th and early 20th century were conducted, enabling a comparison of the palettes of Chinese and European painters. The Chinese palette includes heavy use of red lead and orpiment, pigments that were hardly sed in Europe anymore. More modern pigments like zinc white, cadmium yellow, viridian, chromates, cobalt blues or SOP were not found at all in the Chinese paintings.zeige mehrzeige weniger

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Metadaten
Autoren/innen:Simon Steger
Dokumenttyp:Dissertation
Veröffentlichungsform:Graue Literatur
Sprache:Englisch
Jahr der Erstveröffentlichung:2020
Organisationseinheit der BAM:4 Material und Umwelt
4 Material und Umwelt / 4.5 Kunst- und Kulturgutanalyse
Herausgeber (Institution):Universität Hamburg
Titel verleihende Institution:Universität Hamburg, Fakultät für Mathematik, Informatik und Naturwissenschaften
Gutachter/innen:Oliver Hahn, M. Steiger
Datum der Abschlussprüfung:27.04.2020
Verlagsort:Hamburg
Erste Seite:12
Letzte Seite:104
DDC-Klassifikation:Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / Chemie / Analytische Chemie
Freie Schlagwörter:DRIFTS; Non invasive analysis; Raman spectroscopy; Reverse glass painting
Themenfelder/Aktivitätsfelder der BAM:Analytical Sciences
Analytical Sciences / Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung und Spektroskopie
Verfügbarkeit des Dokuments:Datei im Netzwerk der BAM verfügbar ("Closed Access")
Datum der Freischaltung:09.09.2020
Referierte Publikation:Nein